CgQRCH YEAR ; The comprehensive term given to the regular succession of seasons, feasts, and fasts in the calendar of the Christian Church, independent of the civil calendar although to some extent making use of it for convenience of reckoning. The simplest basis of division is that denoted by the week of seven days, which was in use among
THE NLW SCHAFF HERZOG
the Jews from early times, and had been introduced into Roman usage shortly before the beginning of the Christian era, replacing the period of eight days (internundinum). Both Jewish and Gentile Christians, accordingly, were prepared to accept this division, although they rejected the pagan, names for the days of the week, and preferred to call Sunday the Lord's Day (dies dominiea, h&mera kuriakket), numbering the others in order as feria seconds, tertia, etc. With this for a basis, and Sunday, the commemoration of the resurrection of Christ, se the earliest approach to a recurrent festival (see SuNney), the entire sequence of festivals and seasons gradually grew up (see FaesTS AND Fgsmwez8, IL, and the articles on the separate days thus distinguished).
In the Western Churches which have adopted such a chronological scheme the ecclesiastical year begins with the first Sunday in Advent, which is always " the nearest Sunday to the feast of St. Andrew" (Nov. 30), whether before or after (i.e., the first Sunday after Nov. 26). There are four Sundays in this season of preparation for Christians. In the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches one or two " Sundays after Christmas " follow as the case may be to the feast of the Epiphany (Jan. 8). In the German Lutheran Church Dec. 28 ip the " second Christmas," a Sunday from Dec. 27 to Dec. 31 is the " Sunday after Christmas," and a Sunday from Jan. 2 to Jan. b is the " Sunday after New Year" (which is also observed as a church day). Sundays after Epiphany are numbered in order, there being from one to six of them according to the date of Easter. Then three Sundays, named Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Qumquagesimafrom the approximate distance to Easter, lead up to the forty days (forty week days,. the Sundays not being included as fasting days) of lent beginning with Ash Wednesday and terminating in the festival of Easter. The next five Lord's days are known as Sundays after Easter, and the whole period of fifty days following Easter, with the feast of the Ascension occurring on the fortieth, is a time of the highest spiritual joyfulnew. The paschal season terminates with the festival of Pentecost (Whitsunday), which falls on the seventh Sunday after Easter (the sixth Sunday after Ea6ter being the "Sunday after Ascension day "). The succeeding Sundays to the end of the church year are designated in the Roman Catholic Church Sundays after Pentecost, in the Anglican and Lutheran after Trinity, the Feast of the Holy Trinity falling in all these bodies on the octave of Pentecost. There may, be from twenty three to twentY6eight Sundays after Trinity, twenty four to twenty nine after Pentecost.
In the Eastern Church the year is divided into three parts without reference to the date on which it begins (Sept. 1); the part preparatory to Easter, called tribidion after the book containing the liturgical forms used during the season, begins with the " Sunday of the Pharisee and the Publican " (so called from the Gospel for the day), which corresponds to the last Sunday after Epiphany in the Western reckoning; the paschal season (peniklwstarion) extends to and includes the first Sun
Churn nC of Women day after Pentecost (the Greek feast of All Saints) and the remaining period (okto8choa) has its Sundays designated, according to the evangelical lections, either as " Matthew Sundays " (second to fourteenth after Pentecost) or as " Luke Sundays " (fifteenth after Pentecost to the Western second in Advent and those after Epiphany). See CALENDAR, THE CHRISTIAN.
The following are the earliest and latest dates on which the various church says named can fall:
First Sunday in Advent, Nov. 27 Des. 8. f3eptusgeaima Sunday, Jan. 18 Feb. 22.
Ash Wednesday, Feb. 4 Mar. 11.
Easter. Mar. 22 Apr. 25.
Ascension Day, Apr. 30 June 3. Whitsunday, May 10 June 13.
Trinity Sunday. May 17 June 20.
13MUZOGRAPEIT: Consult the literature oiled under France AND FEBTIVALB, especially the works of AuRUeti, Hingham, Binterim, and Cruser: J. C. W. Augueti, Die Post# der allm Clatatan, Leipei0.1817 20; F. H. i3,heinwald. Die kirchliehe Arcnaaogic, pp. 154 257, Berlin, lsao: H. Aft, Der cnrial. lieAs Coitus, part 2, das Kirchanjahr, ib~ 1880 W. I. Kip, The Hiat., Objsd and Proper Obearroaahoeaf Lent, New York, 1875; $. Butcher, The Ecclesiastical Calendar, London, 1877; A. H. Grant, Church Seasons, HiaWrical and Poetical, New York, 1881; Handbuch der thaolopisc7un Wiaaem scha/ka, ad. O. Z6okler, iv. 381 eqq., Nbrdlingen, 1885; A. Tail, High Days of as Christian Yew, London, 1890; DCA, ii. 2064 b9 (gives lief of the celebrations and their names in the different calendars); the literature under CALENDAR; COMMON PRAYER. Boon or.
CHURCH, ALFRED JOHN: Church of England classical scholar; b. in London Jan. 29, 1829. He was educated at Lincoln College, Oxford (B.A.,1851), and was curate. of Westport St. Mary's, Gloucester, 1853 56; of St. Peter's Chapel, St. Marylebone, London, 18818; rector of Ashley, Tilbury, Gloucestershire, 1892 97; professor of Latin in University College, London, 1880 87. In theology he is an orthodox liberal Anglican, with a distinct appreciation of the value of higher criticism. His reputation rests upon his many pleasing tales from the Latin and Greek classics and from church history, those from the latter being such as The Story of Jerusalem (London, 1880); " To the Lions " (1889); The Crusaders (1904).
CHURCH, RICHARD WILLIAM:Dean of St. Paul's; b. in Lisbon Apr. 25, 1815; d. in Dover Dec. 9, 1890. He entered Wadham College, Oxford, 1833 (B.A., 1836; M.A., 1839; hon. D.C.L., 1875); was fellow of Oriel 1838 52; tutor 1839 42; junior proctor 18445; rector of Whatley, Somerset, from 1852 to 1871, when he became dean of St. Paul's. He was select preacher at Oxford 1868, 1876 ?8, 1881 82. The religious influences to which he was subjected at Redlands, near Brik•al, where he attended school 18283, were narrowly evangelical; at Oxford, however, he was drawn into the Tractarian movement and he became an intimate friend of Newman. A striking incident of his career was the veto by the proctors in convocation at Oxford, Feb., 1845, of the proposition to condemn Newman's Tract 90, in connection with the degradation of William George Ward (q.v.). The veto was pronounced by the senior proctor, Henry Peter Guillemard, but it was inspired by the junior proctor, Church. As dean he restored St. Paul's Cathedral, readjusted its revenues, and
reorganised its staff; he was faithful and zealous, but unostentatious. He translated The Catechetical Lectures of S't.Cyril of Jerusalem (London, 1838) for Pussy and Newman's Library of the Fathers, wrote The Beginnings of the Middle Ages (1877) for the Epochs of Modern History series, and, with Canon Pager, revised Keble's edition of Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity (Oxford, 1888). He published a critical study of St. Ansel= (London, 1870); an essay on Dance (first printed in the Christian Remembrartcer, 1850; reprinted with a translation of Dente's De nwaarchia by his son, F. J. Church, 1878); Sponsor (1879) and Bacon (1884) in the English Men of Letters series. His last work was The Oxford Move. mad (1891).
Bnuroaserer: Mary C. Church. Life and Lctof Dann Church. London, 1894 (by his daughter); A. B. Donaldeon. Richard William Church, ib. 1906; DNB, supplement, ii. 8 9.
CHURCHES OF GOD IN CHRIST JESUS. See ADVENTISTS, 6.
CHURCHING OF WOMEN: According to the prescriptions of Lev. mi., women were regarded an ceremonially unclean after childbirth (see DzttrztaMICNT AND PURIFICATION, CEREMONIAL, L, 1, 12; IL, 1, 11), and, especially since Mary submitted herself to the ordinance of purification (Luke ii. 22), the idea found entrance into the Church. Dionysius of Alexandria, in his epistle to Baeilides (MPG, a. 1281), treats it as a matter of course that pious mothers will not approach the Lord's table until ceremonially clean, and Zonaras and Balsamon gave it canonical force. According to the ritual laid down for the first visit to the church (Goar, Etechologion, p. 267), the mother was to present herself on the fortieth day after delivery with her child and its sponsor; the priest offered a prayer for her complete purification, and another for the child, accompanied with the sign of the cross; then, carrying the child, he led the mother within the church with au appropriate formula. In an Ethiopian ritual mother and child were anointed on the forehead with holy oil. The Western Church took a different view. Gregory the Great wrote in answer to a question of Augustine of Canterbury that recent mothers might indeed abstain for a time from communion out of reverence, but that they were not to be condemned if they received it soon after childbirth; and this decision passed into the canon law (Decreta Gregori4, iii. 47). The Western custom, however, was to bring the mother formally to church, with the child, usually on the fortieth day, and the conception of purification still maintained itself, symbolised by the aspersion with holy water at the church door. Au office for the " benediction of women after childbirth " is contained in the Rituals Romanum as edited by Paul V, in 1614. The priest, wearing a white stole, meets the woman at the door, and after the recitation of Pa. xxiv. holds out one end of his stole to her and inducts her into the church; she kneels before the altar while certain prayers are said, ending with a blessing. The Reformation in Germany, for the most part, abolished the ceremony as giving rise to misconceptions and abuses, though some churches retained it,
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
giving an evangelical character to the rite, and the ".duty of thanksgiving after safe delivery was frequently insisted on. In the rationalistic period the practise of giving a special blessing to the mother was usually dropped, though to this day it is usual to ask the prayers of the congregation for her and for the child at her first appearance in church: and several of the moat recent Lutheran servicebooks contain an office for her benediction at the altar after the public service.. [Such an office is also contained in the Book of Common Prayer
. of the Church of England. Its title in the
first book of Edward VI. was " The Order of
the Purification of Women," but this was altered
in the second to " The Thanksgiving of Women
after Child birth, commonly called the Churching
of Women."] (GEOx(3 RIETSCHEL.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. J. Stephens, Book of Comnson Prayer with Notes, iii. 1751 63, London, 1853.
CHYTRAEUS, kai tri'vs (li0Ci3HAFE), DAV>D
The last of the " Fathers of the Lutheran Church "; b. at Ingelfingen (43 m. n.n.e. of Stuttgart), Wiirttemberg, Feb. 26, 1531; d. at Rostock June 25, 1600. As a pupil of Melauchthon he belonged to the mediating theologians. He was no original genius, but owing to his disposition and power of work he was a scholar of almost encyclopedic knowledge, but without the gift of preaching. His organizing and academical activity was effective. He was the center of the University of Rostock, a pure personality, filled with love of peace, not willingly harsh, but rather timid, and inclined to avoid conflicts. He studied at Tubingen and at Wittenberg, where he lived in Melanchthon'a house, and attended Luther's lectures on Genesis, those of Paul Eber, and others. After a brief return to Tiibingen (1547), he lectured at Wittenberg on Melanchthon's Loci, on rhetoric, and on astronomy. He accompanied his friend Johannes Aurifaber to Rostock, whither he was called after a visit to Italy, in 1550. His work was to introduce beginners into the doctrine of salvation, expound the classics, and deliver encyclopedic and exegetical lectures on the Old and New Testaments. Rostock was thenceforth his home. He enjoyed in a high degree the favor of the duke, to which he responded by a mixture of frankness and sometimes rather nauseating servility. After the division of the country (1555), Chytraeus entreated the dukes to build up the university, which was slowly effected in spite of personal, political, financial, and physical difficulties. The office of university superintendent he declined, but he was looked upon as the pillar of the institution. He was also busy with ecclesiastical regulations, opposed the Flacian adversaries of the Formula of Concord who had been driven from the duchy, sad looked upon the plan of some princes to call a general synod of all Evangelicals as hopeless. Another field of labor opened for him in Austria. Emperor Maximilian IL, who sympathized with Melanchthon, granted to the Lutheran estates of Lower and Upper Austria in 1568 the free exercise of religion on the basis of the Augsburg Confession, with the condition that they first agree upon a church discipline. The estates elected a com
mission for that purpose, and Chytra;us, known for his moderation, was invited to assist. In the beginning of 1569 he arrived in Austria. Of the fourfold work the preparation of a liturgy, an order for superintendents and consiatories, an exposition of the Augsburg Confession, and an eramen ordinandoru'm the first two were speedily prepared. The third was beset with difficulties on account of the Flacian ministers, not to speak of delays from other causes. Finally the free exercise of religion was obtained, sad Chytraeus, praised by the emperor, returned home, underrating the depth of the antagonistic principles. The publication of the liturgy caused a bitter controversy, which the emperor terminated by force. By his work in Austria the estates of Styria had their attention drawn to Chytreews, and he was invited to rearrange church matters there, after the religious compromise had been confirmed by Archduke Charles. He arrived at Graz Jas. 2, 1574. Despite difficulties, the church discipline was completed in May, 1574. With a vote of thanks he returned home and took up his relations with the Scandinavian kingdoms. Being attacked by Antonio Possevmo for his activity in Austria and his influence in Sweden, he wrote a rejoinder (Wittenberg, 1584), and he replied to a request from Antwerp to give his opinion on a catechism, in 1581.
His works include: (1) Exegetical: glossatory, dogmatizing commentaries of alight importance. (2) Dogmatic: a Catechesis (Wittenberg, 1555, and often) imitating Melaachthon's Loci, a short, comprehensive, and able work, used for almost a century in universities, gymnasia, and public schools, and recommended even m agenda; De studio theoloyi,tv recta incltoando (1562; enlarged, Rostock, 1572), belonging also to the Melauchthonian type, and following closely the Augsburg Confession, the Apology, the Wittenberg Concordia, and the Sehmalkald Articles; De morte et vita teterna (Wittenberg, 1581), the first attempt at a complete eschatology in the Melanchthoniau spirit; it even gave occasion for a charge of crypto Calvinism; the colorless Regulce vitce (1555), following the
deoalogue, were originally composed by Melauchthon. In treating of single doctrinal points a more
Lutheran tendency is perceptible, consistent with his participation in the work of the Concordia; but Chytraeus found the forma of the true doctrines " mediocriter cronstituta " in the Formula of Concord, and deplored the damnation of the excluded (Reformed) churches. (3) Polemical: the re
joinder to Poseevino and a wntrovereial letter against the provost Georg Coeleatinua concerning the " history of the Augsburg Confession." (4) Of his philosophical, or rather methodological,
writings the R.eguka etudiorum (beat ed., Leipaic, 1595.) had a fax reaching influence; the rich contents of the Prceoepta rhetoricce inventionis (Wittenberg, 1558) suffer by its fragmentary character. (5) In his historical works, written with care and freshness, Chytrxus appears to better advantage than in his theological writings; the proper scientific treatment, however, is lacking. The very popular Ont»nasticon theologicurn (1557) was an attempt to combine a theological encyclopedia
1563) shows little criticism, but is important for
the history of historiography. The Historic der
A ugsptergischen Confession (Rostock, 1571; Latin,
Frankfort, 1578) was the first special work on a
part of this period based upon origins[ sources.
The Chronicon Saxonia; (Wittenberg, 1585; Leipaic,
1593), written in the manner of annals from a
religious point of view, was appreciated in all
Europe. In his very carefully prepared genea
logical labors Chytrneus was encouraged by Duke
Ulrich, and in general his historical writings bear,
so to speak, the official stamp of the duchy of
Mecklenburg, as, following the custom of his time,
he preferred to give the result of his researches in
academical lectures. Chytrs;us's publications in
clude also the works of others edited by him and sev
eral volumes of a public character; his " Orations "
were many and interesting a collection of thirty
aix was published posthumously by his son David
(Hanover, 1614). GEORG LoEsciam.
BIBLIOaaAPHT: The early source is O. F. BchUta, De vita Davidia Chytraro . . , 3 vole., Hamburg, 1728. Coneult: T. Preeael. David Chytrmus, Elberfeld, 1862; O. Krabbe, David ChyErama, Rostock, 1870.
CIARAN, kf'ar an (KIERAN), SAINT, OF CLONMACNOISE, "the son of the carpenter": Irish saint of the first half of the sixth century. He studied under Finnian at Clonard, where he had Columba and Brendan among his fellows, and under Ends, at Aran. He founded the monastery at Clbnmacnoiae (in King's County, 8 m. s.w. of Athlone) after 540, and died at the age of thirtythree. The accounts of his life contain much of the miraculous. Clonmacnoise became the moat nations[ of the Irish monasteries and more than half of them, it is said, followed its rule. The site is still a place of pilgrimage on St. Ciaran'a day (Sept. 9).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lanigan, End. Hiat., i. 31, 468, ii, b0 81; A. P. Forbes, Kalendars of Scottish Saints, pp. 435 436, Edinburgh, 1872; C, de $medt and J. de Backer, Acta sanctorum Hitrernica, pp. 155 180, Edinburgh, 1888; A. Stokes, Lives of Saints from the Book of Lianwre, pp. 117 134, 282 280, 355 359, Oxford, 1890; J. Healy, Ineula aanctorum at doctorum, pp. 258 eqq., bb0 b85, Dublin, 1890.
CIARAft (KIERAN), SAINT, OF SAIGIR: Bishop of Oesory, one of the " twelve apostles of Ireland." His " Lives " say that he was born while Ireland was still heathen, that he studied for twenty years at Rome and was ordained bishop there, and that while returning home he met Patrick, who prophesied of a future meeting in Ireland; he is also said to have been a contemporary of Finnian of Clonard and of Ciaran of Clonmacnoiee, and to reconcile these statements his life is lengthened to three hundred or more years. He established himself as a hermit at Saigir (4 m. e. of Birr, or Paraonatown, King's County), where others joined him, and in time the great monastery of Seirkieran arose, a center for the preaching of the Gospel and a large industrial community noted for its wealth. Some identify him with a saint who is said to have
passed over to Cornwall and labored and died there under the name of Piran.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lanigan, ECCt. HiEE., 1. 29 33, ii. 7 9, 98, 101; C, de Smedt and J, de Backer, Acts eanctorum Hitxrnica, pp. 805 818, Edinburgh, 1888: J. O'Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints, iii. 115, Dublin [i875].
CIBORIUM, ai bo'ri am: Originally the canopy which, borne by four columns, surmounted the altar, but afterward specially applied to the vessel in which the host was kept. See BALDACHIN; VESSELS, SACRED, $ 3.
CILICIUM, ai lis'i um (CILICE): A garment of coarse goat's hair, such as was worn in ancient, times by soldiers, sailors, and peasants; made principally in Cilicia, whence the name. It was worn by penitents on Maundy Thursday at their reconciliation in the church. The same name was applied from about the end of the fourth century to the hair shirt worn by monks and other ascetics next to the skin as a measure of self discipline. Cassias knows of the practise, but disapproves it as an innovation, and as tending to vainglory, besides hindering the monk in his daily task. The custom, however, spread widely, and became a normal characteristic of the ascetic. The hair shirt was worn either constantly or at certain times. Sometimes it was replaced by a girdle of the same material, worn about the legs or arms, or (after the sixteenth. century) by one made of wire, sometimes with sharp points turned inward. (A. HAUCK.)
CIRCUMCELLIOftES, aer"cvm sel"i o'nfz: North African fanatics who appear in the Donatiat controversy about 340. That they were of pagan origin (Thilmmel, pp. 85 86) can not be proved, nor did Donatiet schism call them into being they had already sprung up from both ecclesiastical and social conditions. They seem to have called themselves agoniatici (with reference to II Tim. iv. 7) and designated their leaders, Axido and Fasir, as leaders of the saints. The Donatiat Tichonius characterizes them as " superstitious " because of their unnecessary religious observances including things not regularly instituted, and as seekers after martyrdom; he says they overrun whole provinces because they can not live in peace with others anywhere. That they were socialistic appears from attacks upon property, the use of threatening letters and violence to prevent the execution of properly imposed sentences, and their interference between masters and slaves. Donatua of Bagee, a Donatist bishop, endeavored to make use of them against the orthodox party, and this led to an outbreak of persecution in North Africa. See DONA
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Thllmmel, Zur Beurtheilung des Donor tismua, Halls, 1893; and literature under DONATIaM.
CIRCUMCISION: Strictly and properly, the removal of the foreskin (or a portion of it), accomplished by drawing the part forward and cutting transversely whence the name, from circumcidere, " to cut around." The word is loosely used, however, and often does not have this precise signification. Mutilations of the sexual organs of both male and female are common as general