Ch., Bishopric o! Lion of mortality. Thus sin spread from our first parents to the whole race. He expressly controverta the view, however, that sin is as integral part of our nature. Then death followed as a consequence of sin. From this position man attains the good by means of his free will, which can turn away from evil; but this is only possible by means of divine grace. Yet the operation of grace does not impair our free will; our own decision must come first, and then God begins to do his part. That the East took so little interest in the controversy about grace is due largely to the position assumed by the school of Antioch and especially by Chrysostom. His ascetic inclination is shown not only in his early writings, but in many, passages of his sermons. His Eucharistic doctrine is specially noteworthy; he asserts emphatically the identity of the bread and wine with the body and blood of Christ, going so far as to say that Christ drank of his own blood at the Institution. The change is caused by the words of institution repeated by the priest; their operation is analogous to that of the words of creation spoken by God. The consequence of this view for his conception of his office is obvious, and in this point his influence on succeeding ages is important. It should be added that he never had au opportunity to develop his thoughts carefully; they were uttered in sermons of which only a small part probably was prepared beforehand, and perhaps received no very thorough revision after they had been taken down in shorthand. What made his preaching so powerful was not only the native rhetorical force which he undoubtedly possessed, but his skill in illuminating the questions of daily life from the Scriptures, in guiding men in their path through the world. He could venture to preach in his own way, " and not as the scribes." He boldly rebuked the rich, to ouch an extent that he was sometimes blamed for it, and no fear of the displeasure of the powerful ever restrained him from declaring the truth of
God. (ERWIN PREUBCHEN.)
Brntxoonwrxiy: The Opera were published in 13 vole., Paris, 1718 38, and Venice, 1734 41. Selections are translated in NPNF, 1. ser., vole. ix. xiv. The best account of the life and activities is in L. S. THlemont, Minwirea . . , ecc7kaiaatiquea, xi. 1 405, b47 828, Paris, 1708. In English the beat single work is W. R. W. Stephens, St. Chrysoatom, his Life and Times, London, 1883. On the life consult further: A. Neander, Der heilige Chryeoatomua, 2 vole., Berlin, 1848, Eng. tranel., London, 1845; E. Martin, S. Jean Chryaoatome, 3 vole., Montpellier, 1880; R. W. Bush, Life and Times of Chryaoatom, London, 1886; F. H. Chase, Chrysoatom, a Study in the Hiat. of Interpretation, Cambridge, 1887; A. Puech, S. Jan Chryeoatome, Paris, 1891; Schaff, Christian Church, iii. 933 941 et passim; idem, St. Chryeoatom and St. Augustine, New York. 1891; DCB, i. b18 635; J. H. Willey, Chryeoatom the Orator Cincinnati, 1908. On special subjects connected with Chryeoatom consult: F. Ludwig, Johannes Chryeoatomus in aeinem YerhdZtnia zum byiantiniaelun Hot, Braunsberg, 1883; C. Molinea, Chryeoatome arateur, Montauban 1888; L, Ackermann Die Beredaamkeit 'deg . . . Johannea Chrysoatomua Wiirsburg, 1889; 8. Haidacher, Die Lehre des . Johannes Chryaoetomua fiber die ,Schriftinapimtion, Salzburg, 1897; G. Marshal, St. Joan Chrysoatome, Paris, 1898.
CHUBB, THOMAS: English Deist; b. at East Harnham, near Salisbury, Sept. 29, 1679; d. in Salisbury Feb. 8, 1747. He was a tallow chan
dler's assistant all his life, and had only a most elementary education. After Whiston published his Primitive Christianity Revived (1710) Chubb wrote for his own amusement a defense of the idea of the supremacy of the One God and Father expressed in the preface; the manuscript was shown to Whiaton, who corrected it and had it published under the title The Supremacy of the Father Asserted (London, 1715). This brought Chubb into notice, he obtained patrons, and wrote many tracts which were much read and talked about, and Jonathan Edwards noticed and criticized his doctrine of free will; lack of knowledge and training, however, impair the value of his work. His principal writings were A Discourse concerning Reason (London, 1731), in which he undertook to show that reason is a sufficient guide in matters of religion; The True Gorged of Jesus Christ Vindicated (1739), in which he advocates the pregnant idea that Christianity is not doctrine, but life; and The Author's Faretvell to his Readers, published in Posthumous Works (2 vole., 1748), which is the most complete summary of his opinions. He denied special providence, miracles, literal inspiration, and apparently the resurrection of Jesus. He was a man of exemplary life, attended church faithfully, and considered himself a Christian. See DElsnf, L, § 6.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Bteplxen, Hiat. of English Thought in as 18th Century, i. 183, London, 1880; J. Cairns, Unbelief in the 18th Century, ib. 1881; DNB, x. 297 298.
CHUIt, BISHOPRIC OF: A bishopric named from the capital of the Swiss canton of Griaons. The valley of the upper Rhine was incorporated with the Roman Empire in 15 B.C., after the subjection of the Rhsetii. Communication with Italy was provided by two great roads, one over the Septimer, the other over the Spliigen. Where the Rhine bends to the north, a casteltttm was erected for their defense, and this was the origin of the town of Chur. When Christianity penetrated this region is uncertain. The oldest information shows a Christian community already fully organized. In 452 Bishop Abundaatiua of Como signs the decrees of a Milanese synod for himself and for the bishop of Chur, who is absent. The only notice going further back is the fantastic legend of the British king Lucius (see ELEUTHERU6), who is said to have labored as a missionary under Marcus Aurelius, at first in Germany and finally in the vicinity of Chur; but this is mere legend, though relics of a certain Lucius are mentioned in a petition of Victor II. of Chur to Louis the Pious in 822. The Roman bishopric of Chur seems never to halve gone out of existence; its continuance in the sixth century is attested by an inscription (of later dates
it is true) in the monastery of St. Lucius, commemorating Bishop Valentinian, who died in 548; and in the seventh by the signature of Bishop Victor at the Council of Paris, 614. This is explicable by the fact that the Roman population was never exterminated. The Alamaani settled in eastern Switzerland, but Theodoric maintained peaceful relations with them, and the old institutions were not disturbed. The connection with Milan still continued in 842, but was dissolved not long afterward, and Chur was incorporated with the ecclo
Church, The Christian THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 78
siastical province of Mainz. In the Frankish pe
riod the diocese was practically coterminous with
the present canton of Grisona. Under Louis the
Pious the diocese had more than 230 churches.
The principal monasteries were I)isentis, first men
tioned in .73u, and Pfeffera, founded about 731.
The diocese was maintained through, the Refor
mation changes, though moat of its inhabitants
became Protestants. At present its jurisdiction
embraces the Roman Catholics in the cantons of
Grisona, Zurich, Glarus, Schwyz, Uri, and the prin
cipality of Liechtenstein. (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. von Mohr, Codex Diplomatieus, Sammtunp der Urkunden rur Geachichte Cur RBtiene, 3 vole., Char, 1848 81; Rettberg, KD, i. 218, ii. 132; P. C. Plants, Dae alts Rntien, Berlin, 1872.
CHURCH ARMY: An organization of laity inside the Church of England for aggressive mission efforts, founded by Rev. Wilson Carlile (q.v.) in 1882. It is tile resultant of four similar movements started simultaneously and independently at Kensington, London, by Mr. Carlile (" The Church Militant Mission "), at Richmond, London, by Rev. Evan Hopkins (" The Church Gospel Army "), at Oxford by Rev. Francis Scott Webster (" The Church Salvation Army "), and at Bristol by Rev. Charles Isaac Atherton, canon of Exeter (" The church Mission Army "). The present headquarters are at 55 Bryanaton Street, Marble Arch, London, W. In 1883 the first army organ, The BattleGxe, was begun, and the first army training home was opened at Oxford, which in 1885 was moved to London. In 1885 the first conference of officers and workers was held, at which the report was made that whereas in Jan., 1884, the Army had only fifteen lay officers, then it had forty five, and that its income was £2,500 in regular subscriptions and £4,000 in working people's pence. The Church Army Blue Book for 1906 shows that at the end of 1905 the Army had 318 evangelistic officers, eighty four men's labor home managers and assistants, forty six associate evangelists, 285 mission nurses, and twenty three associate mission nurses.
The great object of the Army is to reach the unchurched and submerged masses with all agencies which tend to uplift soul and body. It differs from some similar movements in that it works inside the Anglican Church. It never begins operations in a pariah without being invited by the vicar, works under his direction, and stays as long as he thinks it desirable. Its converts, therefore, help to increase the number and efficiency of the church agencies. At first there was prejudice against its name and its utterly unconventional methods for gathering a crowd, its out of door preaching and testifying, and to its employment of laity, both men and women, generally of very little or no culture and often of past lives of vice and crime, to speak on Christian themes and win new hearers and professed Christians to a deeper religious experience. There was also considerable disorderly conduct on the part of its audiences. But now the Army is accepted both by the Church, whose errant children it recalls, and by the classes benefited as an accredited helper and friend. It has
now much to do with the body, having "labor homes, work test shelters, labor relief depots for men, women, and youths who are unemployed, criminal, inebriate, unfortunate, outcast; coffee taverns, lodging homes, boarding homes, employment agencies, fresh air homes, old clothes department; test, farms for emigrants and others "; and undertakes to send emigrants to Canada. But spiritual work, after all, commands the first place, and " the Church Army works in town and country parishes by trained evangelists and misaionnursea working under the clergy; in country places by vans continually itinerating; in crowded slums by pioneer tent evangelists; in workhouses and reformatories by special missions; in convict establishments and local prisons by special services, personal interviews, and aid to discharged prisoners." Its lay workers are largely recruited from the working class, but they are carefully trained and under strict discipline. The Church Army is a limited liability company; each member of the executive is responsible up to £100, and each patron or president up to ten shillings, in the event of the winding up of the Society.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Rowan, Wilson Carlile and the Church Army, London, 190b; The Church Army Blue Book (annual).
CHURCH BUILDING, TAXATION FOR:Originally (see TAXATION, ECCLESIASTICAL) all the property of each diocese was vested in the bishop, who had, accordingly, to provide for all necessities, including church building. The Roman decrees of Simplicius (47b) and Gelasius (494) prescribe a division of this property into four parts, one to serve for the Fabrics ecclesi~e (q.v.), i.e., both building and the maintenance of public worship. Similarly, in Spain one third was set apart for this purpose (Synod of Tarragona, 516). A different principle came up in the Teutonic law, by which, since the church in a sense belonged to the landowner, he was required to provide for keeping itunlesa, indeed, he chose to let it fall into decay. The church authorities strove against this conception; e.g., the Synod of Frankfort (794) conceded this kind of ownership only on condition that the church should not be allowed to fall into decay. Nevertheless, the later ecclesiastical principles are really founded on Frankish law. After the development of the system of benefices (see BENEFICE), the holders of benefices were required to contribute for this purpose from what they had over their necessary living (coyegrua). And in case of necessity the parishioners were obliged, as had been the case in the Frankish law, to bear their part of the burden. There is evidence that this provision was sometimes enforced in the Middle Ages, though the wealth of the Church and the generosity of benefactors made it seldom necessary. There was great local diversity in the laws on this whole subject; and the Council of Trent, which settled the standard of modern Roman Catholic practise, failed to unify them, leaving plenty of room for local traditional customs and laws. According to its decree (Sera. xxi. 7, de reformw bone), a distinction is made between patronal and other churches. In the case of the latter, the bur
den falls primarily on the building fund, though usually the capital is not to be touched, nor even the income entirely exhausted. Appeal is rather to be made to the classes who are bound to contribute by local law or custom; to all who receive income from the church, the holders of the benefice and tithes in particular, in a proportion to be judicially determined; if there are not enough of these, to the parishioners, including non resident landowners, in cams the tax is real and not personal and only in this last case is the exaction independent of the taxpayer's personal belief. In patronal churches the patron is included among those who share this obligation; but only (by the present interpretation) when he receives a portion of the " fruits " of the benefice. In cathedrals the burden rests first on the building fund, if there is one; if not, upon the bishop and chapter, then upon the cathedral clergy, and finally upon the diocesan clergy. In some places, as in Prussia, a certain
I. Meaning and Use of the Word.
II. The Church in the New Testament. The Intentions of Jeans (¢ 1). The Rock Apostle (¢ 2). Relations of the Twelve (§ 3). The Kingdom and the Church (¢ 4). Membership of the Church (§ bj. Church Offices Determined by Church Needs (¢ 8). IlI. The Church in Traditional Christianity.
1. In Primitive Catholicism.
Church, The Chrlstisa percentage of the fees in each church is levied for the support of the cathedral. In the Protestant churches of Germany, the obligation comes primarily upon the building fund and next upon the congregation, and is frequently a land tax.
CHURCH CHEST (Ger. Kirchenkasten, Lat. Arcs ecctesi&,): Properly a receptacle for church funds, but applied also to the funds themselves. Then it signifies the portion of the revenues appropriated for the expenses of divine service and for the maintenance of the church building (see FABRICA ECCLEBIAv'). In a narrower sense it is a box (Lat. trunczla, Fr, franc) put in a church to receive offerings of money, which seems to have originated in connection with the Crusades. Innocent III. (1198 1216) ordered that one should be put in every church, and, in spite of opposition and i mocking jibes, the custom persisted.
CHURCH, THE CHRISTIAN.
Tendency toward Legalism (¢ I).
Significance of "Catholic Church" (¢ 2).
The l:gnatian Episcopate (§ 3).
The Cyprianio Episcopate (§ 4).
Views of Augustine (15).
2. Later (or Roman) Catholicism in East sad West.
Eastern Church Mystical (¢ I).
Western Church Goveramental($ 2).
" Papal " and " Episcopal " Systems (¢ 3).
I. Meaning sad Use of the Word: The word " church " (from Greek kyriakon, " the Lord's," i.e., " house" or "body ") meant in original Christian usage either the universal body of Christian believers or a local congregation of believers. In the Romance languages the idea is expressed by a word from another root (Fr. Egliae, Ital. chiesa, from Greek ekkldsia " the [body] called together " or " called out "). The Old Testament had two words to express the idea, `edhah and kahal (Lev. iv. 13, 14), both meaning " assembly," the latter implying a distinctly religious object. In modern usage the term is employed to denote also the building in which a body of Christians meets for worship. An extension has taken place in recognized usage in accordance with which men speak of the Buddhist or the Jewish Church, meaning the whole body of believers in Buddhist or Jewish teaching.
II. The Church in the New Testament: It has been disputed whether Jesus intended to found a church, i.e., a particular, organized association of his disciples, differing specifically from the existing national unity of Israel. He proclaimed the nearness of the kingdom of God, and then announced that it was already present. His discourses dealt with this kingdom, with the con
1. The ditions for membership in it, and with Intentions the blessing to be enjoyed within it.
of deans. The ,question is whether there is a
connection between the foundation of such an organized body of believers as has been mentioned and the heavenly kingdom which is to be set up in the world by divine power. The state
IV. Protestant Doctrine of the Church.
Wyclif'e Teaching (¢ I).
Luther's Teaching (¢ 2).
Questions Left Unsettled by the Reformers U 3).
Calvinistic Doctrine of the Church (¢ 4)•
Poet Reformation Doctrines of the Church (4 5).
Pietistic and Rationalistic Doctrines (4 8).
ments and parables in the Gospels do not, with the exception of Matt. xvi. 18, 19, bear on this question. In the parables, for example, of the sower, of the wheat and the tares, of the net, there is no word of any binding connection among those who enter the kingdom. In that of the leaven there is indeed the idea of the spread of the kingdom as a body with an objective unity; but we are not told how or to what extent an organic form is destined for it, nor how far it is to be distinguished from the organic association of Israel.
But in truth the disciples were actually, by the very fact of their adherence to Jesus, connected with each other. They formed the flock of the Good Shepherd (Luke xii. 32; John x. 1 15). They were associated by the fact that they and they alone were the children of the kingdom which. had already made its appearance in the world. The opposition and hatred which they, as well as their Master, were to find on the part of the Jewish people and the world plainly made it necessary that they should exhibit an external unity, and herein dissociate themselves from their former fellows in nationality and religion.
There is thus nothing surprising in the fact that Jesus speaks in two places of a community of his own which he is to found; it is surprising only that there are no more definite or detailed statements on the subject. It is significant that the first time that he spoke of this was when he had just received the first clear, divinely inspired confession of faith in him, and when he was beginning to prepare his disciples for his death. In that place (Matt. avi.
Church, The Christian THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG ?8
18) he spoke of that community in a general way;
but is the other (Matt. xviii. 17 aqq.) he referred
more definitely to the association of his followers
as met together to deal with events and needs
affecting their inner life. According to the former
passage, he intended to build his 8. The church upon the rock Peter, who just
8'°°k before had taken the lead among the Apostle. disciples with his confession. The word and its historical fulfilment must be construed by the context. It will not do to interpret the rock as faith in Christ. Peter is not the foundation in the sense in which Christ applies the term to himself (Matt. xxi. 42). But the church was originally built, as the Acts testify, upon the preaching sad work of this " rock man," though other apostles were joined with him (Eph. ii. 20; Rev. xxi. 14; Gal. ii. 9). Whether the promise in regard to the foundation had anything to do with a continuous government of the church, or with a line of successors to Peter, is one of the funds, mental points of controversy between Protestants and Roman Catholics.
The twelve apostles were indeed designated for a position of prominence in the future organization by the status which they acquired in relation to Jeans during his earthly ministry, as witnesses of his deeds and the hearers of his words (John xv. 27; Acts i. 21, 22). But no definite difference in
authority was provided between them 3 Bela and other disciples; and their work
tions of seems to insist not in the internal the
Twelve. erection of the churches, but rather,
as soon as these were once established, in further dissemination of the message. Christ spoke of sending " prophets and wise men and scribes " to give this message (Matt. xxiii. 34); but nowhere did he sum up such activities as are thus indicated into the terms of a fixed and limited office, or prescribe the meaner in which any persona were to be appointed to discharge them. The names here used recall the pre Christian dispensation, when such limits and external ordinances did not exist. To the preaching of the gospel of the kingdom and the cultivation of a religious and moral life in the power of that gospel, baptism (q.v.) was added by Christ's own ordinance, as would be known even without the gospel record by the way in which the rite at once took its place and in which it is spoken of by Paul as an essential element of Christianity. The act of baptism in itself had, as the baptism of John shows, no necessary connection with entrance into au organized society; but as soon as there was a society of Christians, it undoubtedly belonged to that. Finally, the Lord's Supper (q.v.), as he had instituted it for his disciples, was celebrated by them as a main element in their corporate edification. Evidently, therefore, the foundations already discussed were laid not only for a wider extension of the kingdom of God and for the development of the new life in its individual members, but for a cor¢orate connection between them. Yet so far no reason has appeared for the negation of a theory upon which the new Christian community, spreading throughout Palestine and thence among the
heathen, might still live under the external institutions of the old covenant, until the great revelation of the kingdom which was expected at the return of its Lord. The working out of the truth expressed in the saying about putting new wine into old bottles was left to the increasing knowledge of the disciples, as conditioned by their wider experience.
The existence and development of the church is inextricably interwoven with the realization of the kingdom of God in the world. It would be wrong to press such differences as appear between the two conceptions as though the kingdom were the inner or ideal, and the church the