1=w D = s n=thort
The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, u, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Arabic and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek Is written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being used.
KEY TO PRONUNCIATION
When the pronunciation is self evident the titles are not respelled; when by mere division and accentuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, and the accented
a as in sofa a as in not in as in duration
a " " arm 8 " " nor c = k " " cat
$ cc cr at U " " f,411 a 011 .c` chnl'ch
.. cc fare Q .c, rc rule ew qu as in queen
e cc cc pen . Q a rc but dh (th) rr u
cc .r the
Elite a bum f it do fancy
i rc cr tin VI " w ping g (hue) cr cr 90
t .r cc machine au " cc put 8 a .r loch (Scotch)
.r a ply ei c. pi hw (wld) `• " why,
a n u no is e. a few j c. J8W
I In accented syllables only; in unaccented syllables it approximates the sound of a in over. The letter n, with a dot beneath it, indicates the sound of n as in ink. Nasal n (as in French words) is rendered n. ' In German and French names a approximates the sound of a in dune.
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE
CHAMIER, sha"my5', DANIEL:French preacher
(Reformed); b. at the castle of Le Mont, near Mocae
(in the district of Saint Marcellin, 23 m. w. of Gre
noble), 1565; killed at Montauban Oct. 17, 1821.
He belonged to an old Roman Catholic family
of Avignon, but his father had embraced the
Protestant faith and gained many converts in the
south of France, especially at Montklimar, where
he became pastor. Daniel studied at the Univer
sity of Orange and at Geneva under Beza and De la
Faye (1583 89). He was ordained minister at
Montpellier, and about 1595 succeeded his father
at Montklimar. His intelligence and the firmness
of his character led the provincial synod to appoint
him deputy to the national synod at Saumur and
the political gathering at Loudun in 1598, and
thenceforth he was a frequent delegate to such
assemblies. He succeeded in preventing the ad
dition of certain limitations to the Edict of Nantes,
and he became professor, returning, however, after
a short time to Montklimar. In 1612 he became
pastor and professor at Montauban. When Louis
XIII. besieged the city in 1621 Chamfer sent his
students to the walls, shared himself in all the
dangers and misfortunes of the citizens, and was
mortally wounded during the defense. in theology
he held fast to Calvin's dogma of predestination,
even to supralapearianiem; in some other respects
he differed from Calvin, e.g., concerning Christ's
descent into hell and the doctrine of angels. His
works were: Dispute de la motion des minietrea
de l1gliae rsformke (La Rochelle, 1589); Epistohe,
jeauiticte (Geneva, 1599); La Confusion des disputes
pcepiates (1600);. Disgutatto acholaatico theologica de
acumenico pond five (1601); Lo Hortte de Brsbylone
(SSdan, 1612); La J6auitomanie (Montauban, 1618);
Journal du voyage de M. D. Chamfer h Paris et h la
tour de Henri IV. en 1607 (ed. C. Read, Paris, 1858).
Bxzr.xoas&PzT: J. Quick, Memoir a/ D. Chamfer. with Notices o/ his Deaeendante, London, 1862, also in Read's edition of the Joursat, us.
CHANCEL: In the narrowest sense the sanctuary of a church, i.e., an enclosure beyond or within the choir containing the altar. As the distinction between clergy and laity developed, it became customary to reserve an ever larger apace for the former, and separate it from the body of the church, as by a screen. Their apace then came to be designated as the chancel, and the word is often employed in modern usage for all beyond the nave and transepts. Bee ALTAR.
CHANCERY, APOSTOLIC (Cancettaria Apostolica). See CuxrA, § 3.
CHARDIEU, shah"dye', ANTOINE DE LA ROCHE French Reformed theologian; b. at the castle of Chabot (near Macon) 1534; d, at Geneva Feb. 23, 1591. His trend toward the Reformed was strengthened during his study of law at Toulouse, and after a theological course at Geneva he became the pastor of the Reformed congregation of Paris, 1b56 62. When in the night of Sept. 4, 1557, a Protestant meeting was attacked and 140 persons were imprisoned, Chandieu published his Remonstrance au Rot and his Aloologie des bona ChrBtiens contra lea enrternis de 1'Egliae catholiqate. In consequence, he was arrested, but was soon released at the intervention of Anthony of Navarre. In 1558 he went to Orleans, but soon returned to Paris. He took an active part in the deliberations of the first national synod of the Reformed Church in France which was held at Paris May 26 28, 1559, and assisted in preparing a confession of faith. He presided at the third national synod at Orleans, Apr. 25, 1562, where Morelli's doctrine regarding the general right of voting at ecclesiastical elections was condemned. The controversy nevertheless continued, and Chandieu wrote a rejoinder, La confirmation de la discipline ecclAaiastultte obaerv6e en tsgliaes rsformeea de France (Geneva, 1568). At the eighth national synod, held at Nimes, May 6, 1572, the matter of Morelli, who was seconded by Pierre Ramus, De Rosier, Bergeron, and others, was again taken up and again condemned. After the massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572), Chandieu fled to Switzerland, and lived first at Geneva and afterward at Lausanne and Aubonne, everywhere advocating and defending the cause of his countrymen, many of whom lived in Switzerland. In the religious war of 1585 he was field chaplain to Henry of Navarre; but in May, 1588, he returned to his family at Geneva, where he died three years later, lamented by the Protestants of Geneva and France
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG and by Beza. Chandieu was a prolific author, writing under the pseudonyms of Zamariel, Theopsaltes, La Croix, and, after 1577, of Sadeel. Among his works special mention may be made of the following: Meditationes in Psalmum xxxii. (Geneva, 1578; Eng. tranal. by W. Watkinaon, London, 1579); De verbo Dei seripto (1580); De vera peccatorum remissions (1580); De unico Christi sacerdotio (Geneva, 15$1); De veritate naturce humance Christi (1585j; De sPirituali mandueatione corporis Christi (1589; Eng. travel., London, 1859); and De sacramentali mareducatione corporis Christi (Geneva, 1589). A collected edition appeared at Geneva in 1592 under the title Antonii Sadcelis viri nolrilissimi opera theologica. Of great importance was his Hiatoire des pers6eutiona et martyrs de l'gglise de Paris depuis l'an 1667 jusqu'au temps de Charles IX. (Lyons, 1563j, in which he described his residence at Paris (15570). He also distinguished himself as a poet, and in 1563 defended his Church in verse against the attacks of the poet Pierre de Ronsard. (THEODORSeaoTrt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Bernus, Le Miaiatre A. de Chandieu, in Bulletin de is aocikth de Z'hiatoire du proteatant%e»ie franraia, aavii 11888), 2 eqq ; J. $enebier. Haatoire Z%tlkraira de Genwe, i. 322 eqq., Geneva, 1788; E. and It. Haag, La France proteatante, ed. H. L. Bordier, iii. 1049 eqq., Paris, 1852, Lichtenberger, EBR, iii. 33 41, Paris, 1878.
CHANDLER, EDWARD: Church of England
Eishop; b. in Dublin about 1670; d. in London
July 20, 1750. He studied at Emmanuel College,
Cambridge (M.A., 1693; D.D., 1701); was con
secrated bishop of Lichfield 1717, and in 1730 was
translated to Durham. He gained his reputation
by his Defence of Christianity from the Prophecies
of the Old Testament (London, 1725), a reply to
A Discourse on the Grounds and Reasons o f the
Christian Religion (1724) by Anthony Collins (q.v.).
Collins replied with The Scheme of Literal Prophecy
Considered (1726), and Chandler then published
A Vindication of the Defence of Christianity from
the Prophecies of the Old Testament (2 vole., 1728).
The chief point of their debate was whether or not
there was general expectation of the coming of a
messiah at the time of the birth of Jesus, Collins
denying this and Chandler affirming it. Chandler
has been charged with having bought his see, and
with dying " shamefully rich."
CHANDLER, SAMUEL: English Presbyterian; b. at Hungerford (26 m. w.s.w. of Reading), Berkshire, 1693; d. in London May 8, 1766. He was educated at Bridgewater and at Gloucester, where he formed lifelong friendships with Bishop Butler and Archbishop Seeker. He finished his studies at Leyden; became pastor of the Presbyterian church at Peckham, Surrey (a suburb of London), 1716; assistant at the Old Jewry, London, 1726, and in 1728 pastor. He was a learned and talented man, and is sand to have refused offers of preferment in the Established Church. In 1760 be preached a sermon on the death of George IL, in which he compared the deceased king to David. This called forth an anonymous pamphlet in which David was described as a bad man, and the comparison objected to as an insult to the late king. Chandler made a brief reply in 1762, and then prepared
A Critical History o f the Life o f David (2 vole.,
London; 1766), which is his beat known and moat
valuable work. His other publications were nu
merous; and are for the moat part controversial,
directed against the Deists or the Roman Cath
olics. Four volumes of sermons were published
posthumously (1768). In theology he was a aemi
Arian, or, as he expressed it, " a moderate Cal
CHANGE OF CONFESSION: The change from one Christian Church to another. The expression is not equivalent to change of religion, and the subject has practical interest mainly as concerns conversions from Roman Catholicism to Protestantism and vice versa in certain European countries where legal complications are involved.
Where only one confession is recognized by law, there can be no change of confession. Thus there was none before the time of the Reformation; not only was it true that every secession from the Church was considered an offense, but no such thing was recognized either by ecclesiastical or secular law. In Germany rules of procedure. in cases of confessional change first began to be formulated after the Evangelical princes and the German Empire ceased to acknowledge the law against'heretics by the Religious Peace of Augsburg in 1555, and after the Empire decreed at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 that under certain conditions Protestants in Roman Catholic territories and Roman Catholics in Protestant territories might be tolerated and possess civil rights. These rules were further developed under the modern principle of toleration, according to which the State recognizes in the Churches only more or less favored associations, and treats them accordingly from the legal point of view.
The Roman Catholic Church, however, still clings to the state of affairs before the Reformation, and still considers itself the only existing Church. According to the Roman view, every one who goes over to Protestantism is a heretic, and every one who changes from Protestantism to the Roman Catholic Church returns from an error of faith, to the knowledge of truth or rather to the churchly authority which possesses this truth. The ban is imposed upon every one who leaves the Church; even every born Protestant is under the ban; and every one who goes over to Catholicism is required not only to make the Catholic confession of faith, but also to confess that as Protestant he was a heretic, and to renounce his heresy and ask for absolution.
The Protestant Churches admit the right of change, although a person who makes use of this right is regarded as unfaithful. The declaration of an intention to make a change, regular attendance at the services of another church, or at its communion table, are considered sufficient to sever old connections. Whoever comes over from another Church is not required to abjure his former faith, but simply to make a confession according to the new doctrine, whereupon he is admitted to the Lord's Supper as the signum communionis.
It is the task of the State to regulate the existence of different confessions aide by side, as well as to protect the liberty of conscience of the in
dividual. Accordingly the legal ordinances con
cerning change of confession proceed from the
State. The law of Prussia forbids the making of
proselytes, but this is interpreted to mean that no
religious party has the right " to seduce members
of another confession by force or cunning to join
its own Church," and that " nobody is allowed
to disturb the peace of a family or impair its rights
under the pretense of religious zeal." In Austria
Protestants were, until 1868, forbidden to con
vert Roman Catholics. The modern State has
generally fixed a certain age before which con
version can not take place, in order to exclude dis
putes as to the capacity of judgment of the con
vert. The State leaves the conditions of admission
to the church organizations, but sometimes regu
lates the form of withdrawal for the sake of keeping
accurate ecclesiastical statistics. The person who
leaves has sometimes been required to announce
his withdrawal to the pastor, and sometimes a cer
tificate of dismissal is required. The Austrian
interconfessional law of May 25, 1868, and the
Prussian law of May 14, 1873, require only a dec
laration before the proper state official, who notifies
the Church. (A. Hnucx.)
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY.
Life (§ I). His Views as Stated by Himself (§ 2). His Doctrines, Influence, and Character (§ 3). Works (¢ 4).
William Ellery Channing, the most celebrated and
influential Unitarian theologian America. has pro
duced, was born at Newport, R. L, Apr. 7,
1780; d. at Bennington, Vt., Oct. 2, 1842.
His father was an honored judge and a moder
ate Calvinist; his mother, a refined and
pious woman. Under such influences he early
manifested a deeply religious nature, and chose
the clerical profession. He traced his conversion
to the influence of the funeral of his father, and
a religious revival which then swept over New
England. After his father's death he passed under
the tuition of his uncle at New London, the Rev.
Henry Charming, and then went to Harvard Col
lege, being graduated in 1798. For
z. Life. two years be acted as private tutor
in Richmond, Va., and while there
had such mental agony from religious doubts that
he was physically enfeebled, and returned to New
port in 1800 " thin and pallid," with a constitution
permanently impaired. At home he associated
much with the Rev. Dr. Samuel Hopkins the
famous Calvinist, and pupil of Jonathan Edwards
for whose character he felt the deepest reverence.
In 1802 he returned to Harvard, where he had
been elected regent. The same year he was licensed
physically exhausted. In the earlier period of his ministry he was as indefatigable in pastoral visitation as in his pulpit.
Not long after this time, it became apparent that many of the Congregational churches of New England, especially in Boston and its neighborhood, had, through various influences, become Antitrinitarian and Anti Calvinistic (see CONGREGATIONALISTS, L, 4, § 8 ; UNITARIANS). In the separation which followed, Charming allied himself with the so called " Liberal " party, and became its acknowledged head. In a famous sermon at the installation of Rev. Jared Sparks as pastor of the Unitarian Society in Baltimore in 1819 he gave a clear statement of the points wherein he diverged from the orthodox churches of the time. He is commonly called a Unitarian; but, in his own language, he wished to regard himself as " belonging not to a sect, but to the community of free minds, of lovers of truth, and followers of Christ, both on earth and in heaven. I desire to escape the narrow walls of a particular church " (Sermon at the installation of Rev. M. J. Motte, 1828). This catholicity of spirit secured him the esteem of men of all schools and parties. In a letter of May 8, 1841, he declared: " I have little or no interest in Unitarianism as a sect. I can endure no sectarian bonds. With Dr. Priestley, a good and great man who had much to do in producing the late Unitarian movement, I have leas sympathy than with many of the ` Orthodox ' " (Memoir, ii. 105). In a letter of Aug. 29, 1841, addressed to an Englishman,
he expressed the noble sentiment: z. His Views " As I grow older . . . I distrust seoas Stated by tarian influence more and more. I
Himself. am more detached from a denomina
tion, and strive to feel more my connection with the Universal Church, with all good and holy men. I am little of a Unitarian, have little sympathy with the system of Priestley and Belsham, and stand aloof from all but those who strive and pray for clearer light, and look for a purer and more effectual manifestation of Christian truth " (Memoir, ii. 106). From this confession some have inferred that toward the close of his life he leaned more to orthodoxy; but this is emphatically denied by his nephew and biographer, and by E. S. Gannett, his colleague and successor. In another letter written three months later (Nov., 1841), he says: " I value Unitarianism, not because I regard it as in itself a perfect system, but as freed from many great and pernicious errors of the older systems, as encouraging freedom of thought, as raising us above the despotism of the Church, and as breathing a mild and tolerant spirit into all the members of the Christian body " (Memoir, ii. 121).
Charming opposed, on the one hand, the still, cold, Puritan orthodoxy of his day, and combated vigorously the traditional views on the Trinity, the atonement, and total depravity; on the other hand, he opposed equally the rationalistic and radical Unitarianism, and sought a middle way. He was averse to creeds and precise doctrinal statements, and laid stress on freedom and individuality in belief and religious experience. He insisted upon
the expression of Christian belief in virtuous action and humanitarian ayfmpathies. He dwelt much upon love as expressing God's purpose in the mission of Christ and as the supreme manifestation of Christian character. He emphasised the human element is Christ and Christianity, which was too much overlooked by Calvinism, and paid one of the
most beautiful and eloquent tributes
3. His Doc to the perfection of the moral character trines, In of Christ. He held up his example as fluence,and the great ideal to be followed. He Character. found in Christ a perfect manifestation of God to men, and at the same time the ideal of humanity, who spoke with divine authority. He firmly believed in his einlessneee, miracles, and resurrection. He was " always inclined," he wrote as late as Mar. 31, 1832, " to the doctrine of the preexistence of Christ" (Memoir, ii. 133). He was, therefore, not a humanitarian, like Priestley, but rather an Arias, as his nephew calls him. His talent and generous cast of mind were averse to controversy, and he paid little attention to metaphysical questions. He preferred to dwell upon " Christ's spirit, his distinguishing moral attributes, the purposes of his mission " (letter of Mar. 31, 1832, Memoir, ii. 133), and the problems of practical Christianity. He remained a supernaturalist to the end; and his last utterances on the Gospels and the character of Jesus are among the strongest and noblest. Of the resurrection he said (letter, Nov. 20, 1839, Memoir, ii. 145): "The resurrection of Christ, related as it is to his character and religion, and recorded as it is in the Gospels, is a fact which comes to me with a certainty which I find in few ancient histories." In a letter, July 8, 1841, regretting omissions in a recent sermon of Theodore Parker, he wrote: " Without miracles the historical Christ is .gone.
. 1n regard to miracles I never had the least difficulty. The grand miracle is the perfect divine character of Christ, and to such a being a miraculous mode of manifestation seems natural. It is by no figure of speech that I call Christ miraculous." Charming, however, was not so much a theologian as a preacher and a philanthropist. He was no dreamer, but a practical reformer. He labored for the purification of life and society, and entered heartily into schemes for the abolition of slavery, of intemperance, of prison abuses, and of war, and for the circulation of the Bible. He had an exalted idea of the nobility of human nature, and an undying faith in freedom and progress.
Channing's works have been published in various forms (complete ed., 8 vole., Boston, 1848; 1 vol., 1875; London, 1880; etc.), and have been widely circulated in English and translations. The best
known are Evidences o f Christianity,
;. Works. addresses delivered at Cambridge,
1821; a treatise on Slavery, 1841;
discourses on the Character of Christ; and critical
essays on Milton, F&Won, Bonaparte, and $elf
culCure. The centenary of his birth was celebrated