necessary apart from sin. Thus, incarnation for the
sake of redemption, instead of being an afterthought
of God, an accidental expedient in behalf of man,
was involved in the essential ethical relation of
God to the creation (B. F. Weatcott, " Gospel of the
Creation," in Commentary on the Epistles of St.
John, London, 1885). (3) The proof of the divin
ity of Christ is becoming less external and dogmatic
than internal and ethical. If in the earlier argu
ments the greater stress was on the application to
Christ of Old Testament terms referring to God, the
ascription to him of names, attributes, and works
of God, the New Testament designation of him as
Son of God in a metaphysical sense, and the fact
that he was an object of religious worship, in more
recent thought the principal emphasis is laid on
the uniqueness of his moral character, the might of
his mural appeal to the conscience and the will, the
transformation in experience which follows obedience to his leadership; in a word, in him is a revelation of that which is most real in God and moat ideal in man love. This ethical impulse to the interpretation of Christ, which among many recent attempts of the same kind was disclosed in Bushnell's incomparable tenth chapter of Nature and the Supernatural " The Character of Jesus Forbids His Possible Classification with Men " has by no means lost its force, and every modern treatment of the person of Jesus pays tribute to this demand. (4) The incarnation is increasingly regarded in an essential relation to the redemptive work of Christ. Not, then, the atonement irrespective of the life of Jesus, but a truth which was deeply voiced by Athanasius in The Incarnation of the Word God comes to man both to reveal and to realize the ideal oneness of God and man. Thus the incarnation is the atonement (cf. J. M. Wilson, The Gospel of the Atonement, London, 1899). (5) Further, the cosmic relations of the incarnation are receiving renewed attention. Here several currents meet and mingle: the Pauline conception of the universal significance of Christ (Col. i. 15 17), the federal, based on the natural, headship of Christ, the pantheistic trend which discerns in the particular the essence of the universal, and evolution which finds the goal and crown of the creation in the ethical and religious consciousness. Christ is, accordingly, the supreme expression and consummation of the Logos of God in which the whole creation finds its interpretative principle and end. C. A. B.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. For O. T. Chriatology consult the works cited under Mssarwa. For N. T. Chriatology consult the works on N. T. Theology, especially: w. Beyechlag, N. T. Theology, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1898; E. Reuss, La Th6ologia chrgtie»na au siMa apoatolique, 2 vole., 8traeburg, 1884; J. J. Van Ooaterzee, Theology of N. T., London, 1879; B. Weiss, Bibliaeha Theologie den N. T., Stuttgart, 1903, Eng. tranal., 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1882 83; H. H. Wendt, Lehre Jeau, 2 vols., GSttingen, 1888 90, Eng. tranal., London, 1892; G. B. Stevens, Theology of N. T., New York, 1899; E. P. Gould, Biblical Theology of N. T., ib. 1900. Consult further: b. F. Mogen, Chraetua der Menachen ured Gotteeaohn, Goths, 1889; W. F. Gees, Christi Person uad Werk, 3 vole., Basel, 1870 78; H. Bushnell, God in Christ, New York, 1877; I. A. Darner, Chrfatliche Glaubenalehra, ii. 267 eqq., Berlin, 1880; P. Schaff, Person of Christ, New York, 1882; A. B. Bruce, Kingdom of God, Edinburgh, 1889; J. A. Beet, Through Christ to God, pp. 215 301, London, 1892; J. Stalker, Chriatolopy of Jesus, ib. 1899; A. M. Fairbairn, Philosophy of the Christian Religion, pp. 358 379, ib. 1902; N. Schmidt, ProPhet.of Nazareth, New York, 1905.
IL III. The beet detailed account of the development of doctrine with its environment is still Neander, Christian Church, i. 575 808, 830 840, ii. 405 488, 478 504. Especially valuable are the histories of doctrine, particularly: Harnaek, Dogma, vola i iii.; I• A Darner, History of the Development aj the Doctrine of the Person a/ Christ, Edinburgh, 1859; F. Nietzsche, Dopmenpeechichte, Berlin, 1870; A. Reville, Histoire du dogma de la diroiniM de JAua Christ, 3d. ed., Paris, 1904, Eng. Eranel., Hiet. o/ the Doctrine of (ha Deity of Jesus Christ, London, 1870; K. R. Hagenbaeh, Hiet, of Doctrine, vol. i., Edinburgh, 1880; F. Loofa, Dogmanpeechfichte, Halls, 1893; R. $eeberg, Lehrburh der Dogmeageaeh%rhte, 2 vole., Erlangen, 1895 98; G. P. Fisher, Hiat. of Christian Doctrine, New York, 1898; Hefele, Concalienpeachichfe, vol. i., Eng. tranal., vole. i. ii. Consult also: D. Petavius, De tleeolopicia dopmatibua, 5 vole., Paris, 1844 b0 (collects sate Nicene and Nicene testimonies); G. Bull, De/enaio ficiei Nicmno;, Oxford, 1886 (s standard); E. Burton, Testimonies of data Niasne Fathers to tha Diaisity o/
86 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ohristolosy
Christ, Oxford, 1829 (also s classic); F. C. Baur, Die chriaUiche Zehre room der Dreieinigkeit and Menachwerdunp Gottea, 3 vola. Tiibingen, 1841 43; H. Voigt, Die Lehre des AUwnaaiua, Bremen, 1881; W. Mackintosh, Study of the Doctrine of Jesus as Developed from Judaism and Converted into Dogma, Glasgow, 1894; O. PHeiderer, Early Christian Conception of Christ, London, 1905; B. B. Warfield, in Princeton Theological Review, 1905, pp. b29 b57, 1908, pp. 1 37, 14b 188; Schaff, Christian Church. ii. 544 580, iii. 70b 740.
IV. VII. Consult, besides the works on the history of doctrine cited above (especially Harnack, Dogma, vole. iii. iv.): Schaff, Christian Church, vol. iv.; W. A. Arendt, Leo der Grosse, Mainz, 1835; J. Fulton, The Chaludonian Decree, New York, 1892; L. L. Pains, Critical History of the Evolution of Trinitar6aniam, Boston, 1900; J. O. Dykes, in Expository Times, Oct., 190b Jan., 1908; Hefele, Conciliengeachichte, vole. iii. iv., Eng. trawl., vole. iii. v.
VIII. Original documents are, Lutheran: Formula Concordias (convenient in Jacob's edition, vol. i., Philadelphia, 1893); J. Brenz, De personals unions duarum mar turarum in Chriata,1580; idem, De majeatate domini nostri, 1582; M. Chemnitz, De duabua raturia in Christo, Frankfort, 1578. Reformed: Admonitio Neoatadieneie,1577; L. Dansaus, De duabua naturia a Chemnitio, Geneva, 1581; H. Zsnchi, De incarnations fUii Dei, Heidelberg, 1593; the ehristological writings of T. Beza and Z. Ursinue. For specific discussions consult, Lutheran: F. H. R. Frank, Thsolopie der Concordienjormef, iii. 185 ?98, Erlangen, 1886; C. P. Krauth. Conservative Reformation and its Theology, pp. 458 eqq., Philadelphia, 1872; H. E. Jacobs, Book of Concord, vol. ii., ib. 1893. Reformed: H. L. J. Heppe, Reformirte Dogmatik, pp. 351 eqq., Elberfeld, 1881; Schaff, Creeds, i. 285 eqq., 317 eqq. Critical: M. $chneckenburger, Zur kirchlichen Christolopie, Pforzheim, 1881; idem, Vergleichende Daratellunp des luthsriachen and reformirten Lehrbspri/ja, Stuttgart, 1855. General works are those already cited of Dormer, Rvmill.; Nietzsche, $eeberg, and Baur; R. A. Lipeius, Dopmatik, pp. 441183, Brunswick, 1893. Consult also H. Schultz, Die LcAre room der Gotdheit Christi, Communimtio idiomatum, Goths, 1881; A. Ritschl, Christian Doctrine of JuatifuaCion and Reconciliation, pp. 418 sqq., Edinburgh, 1872.
IX. On the Giessen Bide, the Saxon Solids decitio, Leipaie, 1824; J. Feuerborn, Seiagraphia de divino Jssu Chriafo . , 1621; idem, Kwwcnypa#ia XporoAoyait? Marburg, 1827; B. Mentzer, Neuesaria et juste de%rbio, Glasses, 1824. On the TBbingen side: L.Oeiander, De omniprcasentia Christi hominie, TObingem,1820; T. Thumm, Majeatatia Jeau Christi BeavBpWrov, ib. 1821: idem, TarsvaovcypaOia sass, ib.1823; ActaMentseriara, ib.1825. On the ^nman Catholic aide: Bellum ubiquisticum vetus et norntsm,1)illindan,1627; Alter urul newer lutheriacherKatrenkrieo son der Ubiquitdt, Ingolatadt, 1829. Historical and critical: J. F. Cotta, Historic; doctrines de duplice atatu Christi, in his ed. of Gerhard's Loci theolopici, iv. 80 eqq., TObingen, 1762 88; J. E. I. Waloh, Einleiturp in die Teliyionstreitapkeiten, i. 208, Jena, 1733; F. C. Bsur, ut sup., ii. 450; G. Thomaeius, Christi Person and Work, ii. 391 450, Erlangen, 1857; I. A. Dormer, ut sup., ii. 788 809; R. Rocholl, Realprtiaenz, pp. 198 eqq., Gfitereloh, 1875.
X. 1. For the Racausan Catechism (Eng. travel. by T. Rees, London, 1818) see Socrxus; J. Priestley, Early Opinions concerning Jesus Christ, Birmingham, 1788; I. Kent, Religion innerhalb der Grsnzen der bkaasn Vernunft, Kbnigaberg, 1793, Eng. travel., Religion within the Boundary a/ pure Reason, Edinburgh, 1838; W. E. Chaining, Works, 8 vole., Boston. 1874; T. Parker, Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion, ib. 1847; A. Coqueret, Chr%atolopie, 2 vole., Paris, 1868; J. Msrtinesu, Studies of Christianity, London, 1858; idem, Essays Philosophical and Theological, 2 vole., New York, 1879; idem, Religion as Affected by Modern Materialism, London, 1874 idem, Seat ot Authority in Religion, ib. 1890; F. H. Hedge, Reason in Religion, Boston, 1875; bf. J. Savage, Out of Nazareth, ib. 1904._
2. D. F. Strauss, Die chriatliehe Glaubenalehre in ihrer geachichUichsn Entwicklung and im Kampfe nit der nodermas Winaenachaft, ii. 193 eqq., Tiibingen, 1841 (a work as destructive of Christian dogmatics as his Leben Jeeu is of the evangelical history); A. E. Biedermann, Christi lie7u Dogmat%k, Zurich, 1889 (more serious, but almost equally revolutionary in its results); E. Marine, Die III. 5
Pera6alichkeit Jeau Christi. Mit beeonderer RilekaieAt out die MyUwlopien and Mysteries der altsn YIiUcer, Leipeie, 1881 (s strange compound of the mythical views of Strauss and the mystical interpretation of Swedenborg).
4. On the Kenotia theory: J. L. K6nig, Die Mensehwerduny Gottea, Mainz, 1844; G. Thomaeius, Beiblfpe sw kirchlichen Chriatolopie, Erlangen, 1845; idem, Christi Person and Werk, ib. 1856; T. A. Liebner, Die chrieUieka Dopmatik, G6ttingen, 1849; J. H. A. Ebrard, ChrsaUiche Dopmatik, Kiinigaberg, 1851 52; J. P. Lange, Positive Dopmatik, pp. b95 782, Heidelberg, 1851; W. F. Gees, ut sup.; H. L. Martenaen, ChrisUiche Dopmatik, Berlin, 1853, Eng. trawl., Edinburgh, 1888; F. Delitzsoh, System der bdbliechen Paycholopaa, pp. 325 eqq., Leipeio, 1881, Eng. trawl., Edinburgh, 1865; J. Bodemeyer, Die Lshre room der Kerwaia, GSttingen, 1880; K. F. A. Kahnis, Die lutherq$che Dopmatik, iii. 343, Leipaie, 1888; L. 8eh5berlein, Die Geheimniaea des Glaubena, Heidelberg, 1872; R. Kiibel, ChrisUiches Lshrsyatem, Stuttgart, 1878; J. J. roan Ooetersee, Christian Dogmatics, London, 1878 (moderately and cautiously Kenotic); F. Godet, in Studies on the New Testament, Edinburgh, 1878; idem, Commentary on . . . John, ib. 1881; E. de Preeeene8, JEaua Christ, Paris, 1888, Eng, travel., London, 1866; idem, La Divinitk de J&ua Christ, in Revue chrEtisnna, iii. 841 eqq.; H. M. Goodwin, Christ and Humanity, New York, 1875; H. Crosby, The True Humanity of Christ, ib. 1881; F. J. Hall, The Kenotie Theory, London, 1898; J. Know, Die snipe Gott7uid Jeeu Christi, Leipaie, 1904; W. LBtgert, Gottea Sohn and Goan Geist, ib. 1904.
For adverse criticism of the Kenoeis theory consult: I. A. Dormer, ut sup., Eng. travel., II, iii., pp. 100 eqq.; idem, in Jahrbticher filr deutachs Theolopit, 1858, 1868; idem, ChrisUicha GlaulxnalsAre, ii. 387 eqq., Berlin, 1880, Eng. trawl., Edinburgh, 1880 $2. The fullest , account in Eng. is in A. B. Bruce, Humiliation of Christ, Leot. iv., Edinburgh, 1881. Dr. Hodge, Systematic Theology, ii. 439, New York, 1871, notices the Kenotic theories of Thomsaiue, Ebrard, and Gese, and condense them.
In general, I. A. Dormer, ut sup. The following English works deserve notice, though mostly oonfinad to an exposition and defense of the Chalcedonian dogma: R. J. Wilberforce, The Doctrine of the Incarnation or ow Load, London, 1852; H. P. Liddon, The Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, ib. 1888. The ablest discussion of Christ's person and work is A. M. Fairbairn, Plan of Christ in Modern Theology, London, 1893. Consult further: C. Gore, Incarnation o/ the Son of God, ib. 1891; J. Denney, Studies in Theology, chaps. ii. iii., New York, 1895; "Christologie" in Hauck Herzog, RE, iv. 4 58; M. Brtickner, Die Etttetshung der pauliniaclren Christoloyie, Strasburg, 1903; G. KrOger, Das Dogma room der Draieinipkeit and Gott Msnsahhetl, TObingen, 1906 (dedicated to Harnack, written from the Unitarian standpoint); $. Faut, Die ChrdaWlopie salt Schletermacher, i)are Geachichts and ihre BepHindunp, Ttibingen. 1907.
CHRISTOPHER, SAINT:A saint highly honored from very early times both in the Greek and Latin churches. According to the mai;tyrologies of Ado, Usuard, Notker, and others, as well as the Martyrologium Romanum, he lived at Samoa in Lycia, averted many to Christianity, and died a martyr under the emperor Decius, or, according to some accounts, under an emperor (or king) called Dagnus. No Samoa in Lycia, however, is known, and Dagnue is otherwise unheard of; the name may be a corruption of Daza, the original name of the emperor Maximin II. (305 314). The later forma of the Christopher legend are in the highest degree fantastic. For example, a manuscript of Fulda describes him as of gigantic stature, with the head of a dog, and decks out his life and death with most silly wonders. Somewhat more attractive and credible is another version, containing apparently elements of old Germanic mythology, according to which the giant Christopher at first served the devil, then in order to know Christ, one said
Christopher, Saint THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 88
Chromatins to be stronger than the devil, undertook the duties
of a ferryman. Finally a child, whom he was
carrying across the river on his shoulders, disclosed
himself as the Savior, forced the giant beneath
the waves by his ever increasing weight and so
baptized him, giving him the name of Christopher
(" Christ bearer "). The veneration of Christo
pher was general in the East, in Italy, Spain, France,
Germany, and other lands. Mention of his wonder
working relics is frequent, as of his head, said to
have been carried from Constantinople to France
after the capture of the city in 1204, and of his
leg, said to have been kept in Constantinople till
1453. He was au attractive figure to medieval
art and poetry, and is represented as a huge fellow
wading through waters, carrying a child on his
shoulders, and with a green staff in his hand. His
picture is frequent in the vestibules of churches as a
sort of guard. Brotherhoods of St. Caristopher, es
pecially for the care of travelers, are mentioned up
to the Reformation. His day in the Greek Church is
May 9, and in the Latin July 25. (O. Z sc>3s.Ent. )
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The older Vita are to be found in ASB,
ished the Interim, removed the images, altars, field
chapels, and all remains of the former religious service, turned the male monasteries into schools with Evangelical abbots, but allowed the nuns to die in their monasteries; those, however, who left were provided for. He gave a new discipline to the Evangelical Church of Wurttemberg, introduced poor boxes in 1552, and appointed four The Refor district physicians for the care of the
mation in sick. The marriage law was regulated
Wurttem by act of Jan. 1, 1553; the activity of berg. the higher church authorities by the visitation act. The religious service, in the simplicity given to it by Blaurer and Schnepff (qq.v.), and the catechetical instruction of the youth were regulated by the Kleine Kirchenordnung of 1553, which was superseded by the Grosse Kirchenordnung of May 15, 1559, including also school, sanitary, and poor regulations. The duke treated the church property of the Evangelical Church with perfect disinterestedness, divided the large parishes for the better care of the congregation, established new parishes in the Black Forest, cared for the repair of the churches, and enacted in 1559 that church registers should be kept. He insisted that the teaching of the Confessio Wirtembergica should be maintained, and issued harsh injunctions against Schwenckfeld and all " sectaries." His harahnem = was felt especially by the Baptists and by Bartholomaus Hagen, preacher at Dettigen, who was suspected of Calvinism but was convinced of his error at the Stuttgart Synod in Dec., 1559. The university received new regulations in 1557. The scholarship founded by his father was applied to the education of theologians who had received a humanistic preparation in the monastic schools. Students of other faculties, who were prepared in the pedagogical schools at Stuttgart and Tubingen, were assisted from the funds of the church property. By the school regulation of 1559 popular education was promoted; the sacristan now acted also as teacher.
Christopher yeas anxious for the reunion of the different religious parties, proposed in 1552 a national council, and avoided all malicious faultfinding. Calvinism he disliked much, especially as it made its inroad into the Palatinate, but he respected the religious courage of the elector Frederick of the Palatinate and did not favor his exclusion from the religious peace. He promoted Protestantism iii Austria by supporting the Slavic press at Urach under the former imperial captain Hans Ungnad. He offered a refuge at Tiibingen to the former papal nuncio Petrus Paulus Vergerius. In 1557 he solicited the king of France for the oppressed Waldensians, in 1559 for the Protestants; in 1561 he sent Beurlin (q.v.) and Andrea to Paris, and even went in 1562 with Brenz to Zabern to attend a colloquy with the Guises to win France over to Protestantism, but saw himself at last shamefully deceived, though Catherine
Christo de Medici offered him the office of pher's In a supreme viceroy. In the interest
fluence of Protestantism his active mind was
Abroad. long busy with matrimonial plane
for the daughters of Renata of Ferrara
and for Queen Elizabeth of England. He aided the
Reformation by his advice and by sending theo
87 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Christopher, Saint
logians to the Palatinate, in the raargravate Baden
the remote duchies of Julich Clever and Brunswick
Wolfenbiittel, whose Duke Julius, his cousin, fol
lowed him implicitly. The ecclesiastical reservation
carried through by Ferdinand at the Religious Peace
of Augsburg (q.v.) Christopher opposed as an
impediment to Protestantism and a denial of the
principle of religious liberty. His hopes, however,
in Maximilian IL, the son and successor of Fer
dinand, his friend, who had been influenced by the
spirit of the Reformation, were not realized. He
helped exiled Englishmen in 1554 55, the Walden
sians in 1557, and in a quiet manner, not to excite
the wrath of the emperor, in 1568 William of Orange
in the war of liberation in the Netherlands. For
his people and the Evangelical Church of Germany
Christopher's death came too soon. His efforts
for his people's welfare, his zeal for the Church and
Protestantism, bas pure intentions mark him as one
of the ablest princes of Germany. His reign and
that of his son Louis (1569 93) foam the golden
age of Wiirttemberg. G. BO$$ERT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. C. Pfister, Herzog Christoph von Wilrtlemberp, 2 vole., Tiibingen, 1819 20; B. Kugler, Chriatoph, Herzog von Wdirttemberp, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1868 70; C. F. $tfilin, Wilr#e»tberpfaehe Geachachte, vol. iv., Stuttgart, 1873; E. Schneider, Wiirttemberpiache Reformationepeach%chie, Stuttgart, 1887: Wiirttemberpiaehe Rsrcherepeechichtc, Stuttgart, 1893; E. Schneider, W!'artkmberpiarhe Geachichte, Stuttgart, 1896; V. Ernst, Brae/wecAaei des Herzopa Chriatoph, 3 vole., Stuttgart, 1899 1902.