Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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which laid strew upon the preexistence of Christ as the eternal divine Logos and of the absolute deity of Jesus Christ from the time of his conception. The physical birth assumed more and more im­portance in the Christian consciousness. The celebration of Christmas as a special Christian festival spread rapidly from the middle of the fourth century onward in sympathy with the triumph of the orthodox christology.

How much the calculation of Hippolytus had to do with the fixing of the festival on Dec. 25, and how much the date of the festival depended upon the pagan Brumalia (Dec. 25), follow 

Relation ing the Saturnalia (Dec. 17 24) and

to the celebrating the shortest day in the Roman year and the " new sun " or the begin 

Saturnalia. ring of the lengthening of days, can not be accurately determined. The pagan Saturnalia and Brumalia were too deeply entrenched in popular custom to be set aside by Christian influence. The recognition of Sunday (the day of Phaabus and Mithras as well as the Lord's Day) by the emperor Constantine as a legal holiday, along with the influence of 1Kanicheism, which identified the Son of God with the physical sun, may have led Christians of the fourth century to feel the appropriateness of making the birthday of the Son of God coincide with that of the physical sun. The pagan festival with its riot and merry­making was so popular that Christians were glad of an excuse to continue its celebration with little change in spirit or in manner. Christian preachers of the West and the Nearer East protested against the unseemly frivolity with which Christ's birthday was celebrated, while Christians of Mesopotamia accused their Western brethren of idolatry and sun worship for adopting as Christian this pagan festival. Yet the festival rapidly gained accept­ance and became at last so firmly established that even the Protestant revolution of the sixteenth century was not able to dislodge it and Evangelical Christians even of the more radical types, who reject or ignore nearly all of the ecclesiastical festivals, have never been able wholly to ignore it.

The religious significance of Christmas has been too commonly minimized among Christians, the day among adults being degraded into one merely for the exchange of presents, often neither given nor received in any affection, but out of a sense of ob­ligation or as barter. In too many homes the chil­dren, whose day it more particularly is, ar%not taught to link their merrymaking on Chnsa with the gift of God to the world in the person of his Son Jesus Christ. Although some of our denom­inations hold service on that day, the vast majority of Protestants do not attend, and moat of our denominations keep their churches closed. But as it is unquestioned that the Christian Church was founded by Jesus Christ, it will be well to celebrate the event of his birth, if not on Christmas day, then on some other day. The old gospel story of the Nativity was formerly taken literally and has in­spired many beautiful hymns and been the sugges­tion of many legends and elaborate festivities. By design, on Christmas many important events have

taken place, as the crowning of Charlemagne as

Holy Roman Emperor (800), and William as King

of England (1066). A. H. N>swMArt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Marti•ne, De antiquis eakaior rilibue, iii. 31 eqq., Venice, 1783; A. J. Bintenau, Deakwardipkeiten, v. 1, pp. 528 eqq.. Mains, 1829; J. C. W. Augueti, Hand­bwh der chriatZichen ArchBoiopie, 3 vole., Leipeia. 1838­1837; J. P. Thompson, Christmas and the Saturnalia, is Bibliotheca Saga, mi (186b), 144 eq9.  P. Cassel, Wsih­swrhfen; Urapranpe, Brducha and Aberpiauben, Berlin. 1882; J. Marbeah, Die Wigs Weihnachtafaier. Frank­fort, 1886: A. H. Grant, The Church 3eneone, New York, 1881; J. H. Hobart, Festivals and Feasts, London, 1887; T. K.. Harvey, The Book o/ Christmas; descriptive o/ the Customs, Cereswnrou, Traditions, Superstitions, Fun, Peeling, Festivities o/ the Chriadnas Season, London. 1841, New York, 1888; H. ileener, Relspwnepeachicht­lichs Untersuchunpen, vol. i., Bonn, 1889; P. de Legsrda, Mitlheiiunpen, iv. 241 323, Gottingen, 1891; F. C. Cony­beare, Hiat, of Christmas, in AJT, iii (1899), I 21; edam, The Key o/ Truth, Introduction, Oxford, 1898; H. Thure­ton, is American Ecckaawtieai Review, Dec., 1898• A. Tille, Yule and Christmas, London, 1899; H. Ana, Die lateiniechea Mapisrspiel. Untarsuchunpen and Tezfe Sur Voryeschichte den . . . Weihnaehtsspiele, LaiPeia. 1907; R. H. 9ehauf8er. Christmas, its Origin, Celebration and Significance, New York, 1907: Bingham, Oripinte. XX. iv. (investigation of sources): DCA, i. 357  384: DCG, i. 281 282.

CHRISTO SACRUM ("Sacred to Christ"): The

name of a religious society organized in 1792, at

Delft in Holland, by certain well educated young

men belonging to the Walloon deacons' confrater­

nity. Its purpose was the defense of the Christian

faith against deistic and Voltairean, tendencies,

and the promotion of universal Christian love, inde­

pendent of ecclesiastical affiliations. Though it

disregarded separate creeds, it had a creed of its

own, expressing its own minimum of belief; it

recognized as brothers " all who honestly believe

that all men are sinful and corrupt; that God

requires the punishment of sin; that Jesus Christ

came as a mediator to take this punishment upon

himself, which he alone, being both God and man,

could do; that those who believe in him and in his

satisfaction, and penitently invoke his intercession,

are immediately saved; and that through his as­

cension the Holy Spirit operates faith and con­

version in them." The society grew by the acces­

sion of members of various churches, until a special

meeting place was needed, which was dedicated by

Canziue, one of the principal founders, in 1802.

The services were more like Lutheran or Anglican

worship than Reformed, and everything was done

to enhance the solemnity of the Lord's Supper.

The original intention was to have the members

retain their former church connections; but when

the society was condemned by the Walloon and

Reformed authorities, it gradually took shape as a

separate sect. It numbered as many as 117 mem­

bers under Canzius, but when in 1810 he removed

to Leyden it gradually fell off, maintaining a pre­

carious existence until 1836, when the building

was closed. (J. A. GERTH vArt Wlrlc.)
131BLIOGRAPHY: Hatender voor de Proteetanten in Nederland, vii (1882), 19b 258; A. Grdgoire, Histoire den rates rs­lipisusu, v. 331, 8 vole., Paris. 1828 4b: B. Glaeiue, Go­aeAiedenie der chriatdijke kerk en podsdieast in Nederland, iii. 378 380, Amsterdam, 1844; J. Reitema, Gasehiedenis der Henrorming an harvormde kark in Nederland, p. 347, Groningen, 1893.



I. The Biblical Christology.

1. The Old Testament Christology.

2. The New Testament Christology. Christ the Ideal Man (§ I). Yet also God (§ 2). II. The Ante Nicene Christology.

1. The Early Simple Faith. Heresies (§ 1). The Church Doctrine U 2). The Divinity of Christ Consistently Held (§ 3).

2. Theological Speculation. Justin Martyr (§ 1). Clement of Alexandria (§ 2). Origen (§ 3). Ireneeus (§ 4). Tertullian (§ 5). Dionyeius of Rome (§ 8). III. The Nicene Christology. IV. The Chalcedonian Christology. An Answer to Heresies (§ I). The Cbalcedonian Statement (§ 2).

V. The Poet Chalcedonian Chriatology. Monophysitiam (§ 1). Monothelitism (§ 2). Adoptioniem (§ 3).

Christology is a word derived from the Greek

after the analogy of "theology" (q.v.). It em­

braces the doctrine of Christ's person; while so­

teriology is the doctrine of Christ's work (the doc­

trine of salvation). The word was used by the

English theologians in the seventeenth century,*

and during the nineteenth was reintroduced

from Germany, Christology is based upon the

life said testimony of Christ, as represented

historically in the Gospels, and as reflected

doctrinally and experimentally in the Acts and

Epistles. It treats of the mystery of the in­

carnation as a problem of personality, vjz,,

(1) the humanity, (2) the divinity of our Lord,

and (3) their relation to each other in his one per­

son. This divine human personality forms the

basis of his work, which is the redemption, 'recon.

ciliation, and reunion of man with God. It is

the central doctrine of Christianity, was the one

article of St. Peter's creed (Matt. xvi, lg), and forma

the heart of the Apostles' Creed. The leading

evangelical theologians of Europe and America

have come to agree more sad m°m in this estimate

of its importance; and the ever increasing number

of lives of Christ and works on his incarnation and

work strengthens the christocentric character of

modern theology, yet care mgt 1e taken not to

emphasize the incarnation at the expense of the

equally Important doctrines of atonement by

Christ's death, and regeneration by the Holy

Spirit (gee ATONEMENT; REaENEaToN).

* Dr. Thomas

.. that Part ~ Jackson (1695 164p) de y as

godliness  God en ~'f a which in displays the great mystery of

of the (ice ~p~ 'n his xpw.,oAsyuma~ >

~~ (London, 1879 ), and junR a ~ h l

( 1716). wrote

($ ) Some French "ter. also (3 vols., London 170

me it. Lich ten)~er

~~ ~' iii. 1 defines it correctly. ..Oa ~mp~ad chant la " [Chn °lsiel •1'easemble des doctrines tou 


personne de J

et sues I huma~Ie at ~nsea rapport

Nouveau Testa'


The Medieval Church (§ 4).

VI. The Ecumenical Christology.

1. Its Leading Ideas.

2. Criticism Favorable Opinion (§ I). Objection and Criticisms U 2). Real Value (§ 3).

VII. The Orthodox Protestant Chris 



VIII. The Scholastic Lutheran Chrie­tology.

I. The Communicatio Idiomatum.

2. The Doctrine of the Twofold State of Christ.

3. The Threefold Office of Christ.

IX. The Kenoeie Controversy Be­tween Giessen and Tiibingen.

X. Modern Christologiee.

I. The Humanitarian or Unitarian Christology.

2. The Pantheistic Christology.

3. The Chrietology of Schleiermaoher and His School.

fichleiennacher (§ I).


Ullmann (12). Rothe (13). Horace Bushnell (14).

4. The Modern Iienotio Theory. General Outline (§ 1). Gene (¢ 2). Marteneen (§ 3). Kahnis and Lange (14). Julian Mailer U 5). Goodwin and Crosby (§ 8). Criticism (§ 7).

5. The Ritschlian Theory. The Theory Stated (§ 1). Its Merit and Limitation (§ 2).

8. The Theory of a Gradual or Pro. gressive Incarnation.

The Theory (§ I).

Its Merits (§ 2).

7. Conclusion.

Elements of Truth in All Theories (§ I).

The Mystery of Christ (§ 2). Limits of This Article (§ 3).

7. Additional Note. Preexistence (§ 1). Incarnation (§ 2).

I. The Biblical Christology: This embraces (1) the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament; and (2) the christology of the New Testament, which includes (a) the testimony of Christ in the

Gospels; and (b) the christology of the apostles­James, Peter, Paul (including the chriatology of the Epistle to the Hebrews), and John (including the Apocalypse). Christ is the heart of the Scriptures and the key to their spiritual understanding,

1. The Old Testament Christology.: The Old Testament is the preparation for the New. The soul of the Old Testament is the promise of the Messiah, which began in paradise with the prot­evangelium of the serpent bruiser, and culminated in the testimony of John the Baptist, pointing to Jesus of Nazareth as the Lamb of God, which ta­keth away the sin of the world. See IKEBBIAH, M=_


2. The New Testament Chrietology: It is the unanimous teaching of the New Testament writings that Christ combines in a most real though mys­terious way the double character of a unique dime sonship and a unique sinless manhood in one har_ monious personality; and that by this very con­stitution of his person he is qualified to be the Lord and Savior of the human race, and the only 1Kedia­for between God and man. He represents at once the nearest approach which God can make to i»~ and the nearest approach which man can eke to

God. The orthodox christology, handed down from the early Church

late this "mystery of y, ~at~ d ~~f t state, error, but every is problem of Problems,

fitful for its own intel­_r...„„a, benefit .

Christ strongly asserts his humanity, and calls if about eighty times in the Gospels "the ,fin

fin" (q•v•): not a son of man g other

ndants of mAdam, but the Son ~Man a de.

class Is tours dm ~ et teiles qu•elles oat g~nuea sans le 'cry as the representative of the whole race mg~

IIL .~ ~Iee, as ,*;e de 1 i:;e>;ae chr~ie~°•~ thus in by, the apostles to be

Adam, descended from heaven (d. Rothe.

m  ~ v. and



I Cor. xv.); the, ideal, the perfect, the absolute man,

the head of a new race, the king of Jews and Gen­

tiles, the model man for universal

1. Christ station. While putting himself on a

the par with us as man, he claims at the

Ideal lliaa. same time, as the Son of Man, superi­

ority over all, and freedom from sin,

and thus stands solitary and alone as the one and

only spotless human being in the midst of a fallen

race, as an, oasis of living water and fresh verdure,

surrounded by a barren desert. He nowhere con­

fesses sin, betrays a consciousness o€ sin, or asks

pardon for sin; and this was not because ha did not

feel the evil of sin, for he pardoned sin and con­

demned sins in the severest terms. He alone

needed no repentance, no conversion, no regenera­

tion, no pardon. This sinlesaness of Christ is the

great moral miracle of history which underlies all

his miraculous works, and explains them as natural

manifestations of his miraculous person.

On the other hand, Christ as emphatically as­serts his divinity, and calls himself not simply a son of God among other children of God by adop­tion, but " the Son of God" (q.v.) above all others, in a peculiar sense; the Son by nature; the Son from eternity; the Son who alone knows the Father, who reveals the Father to us, who calls him, not " our" Father (as we are directed to pray), but " my " Father. He is, as his favorite disciple calls him, the " only begotten Son " (according to some of the oldest manuscripts, " the only be­gotten God," Gk. theos); or, as the Nicene theology expresses it, " eternally begotten of the essence (Gk. ousia) of the Father." He is thus represented by himself; and the representation which he makes of himself was affirmed by the apostles. Paul never calls him " the son of man," but frequently " the son of God " (" God's own son," Rom. viii. 3, 32, etc.). To the apostles Christ was a divine­human being, truly God and truly

2. Yet man in one person; and his words also clod. and acts and sufferings have a corre­sponding character and effect. Hence he puts forth claims which in the mouth of every other man, no matter how wise and how good, would sound like blasphemy or lunacy, but which from his figs appear as natural as the rays of light emanating from the sun. He represents himself con­stantly as being sent from God, or as having come directly from God, to teach this world what he had not learned from any school or book. He calls himself the Light of the World, the Way, the Truth, and the Life; he invites all men to come to him, that they may find rest and peace; he claims the power to forgive sins, and to raise the dead; he says, " I am the Resurrection and the Life," sad he promises eternal life to every one that believeth in him. Even in the moment of his deepest humil­iation, he proclaimed himself the King of truth, and the Ruler and Judge of mankind. His king­dom is to be coextensive with the race, and ever­lasting as eternity itself. And with this conscious­ness he sent forth his disciples to proclaim the gospel of salvation to every creature, forewarning them of persecution,and pledging them his presence to the end of the world, and a crown of glory in heaven.


He coordinates himself in the baptismal formula with the Eternal Father and the Eternal Spirit, and allows himself to be worshiped by the skeptical Thomas as his " Lord " and his " God."

This central truth of Christ's divine human person and work is set forth in the New Testa­ment writings, not as a logically formulated dogma, but as a living fact and glorious truth, as an object of faith, a source of comfort, and a stimulus to a holy life, in humble imitation of his perfect example. The simple narrative of the Gospels is far more pow­erful for the general benefit of mankind than all the systems of theology. But the mind of the Church moat meditate, and try to grasp this truth; and the New Testament itself furnishes ever new impulse and food for theological speculation. The formu­lated statement of christology begins as early as Paul and John.

B. The Ante Nicene Cln iatology, from 100 A.D. to the Council of Nicaea, 325. 1. The Early Simple Faith: The ecclesiastical development of the fun­damental dogma started from Peter's confession of the Mesaiahship of Jesus (Matt. xvi. 16), and from John's doctrine of the incarnate Logos (John i. 14). It was stimulated by two opposite here­aies Ebionism and Gnosticism; the one essen­tially Jewish, the other essentially heathen; the one affirming the humanity of Christ to the exclu­sion of his divinity, the other running into the opposite error by resolving his humanity into a

I delusive show (Gk. dokesis, phmntasnaa;

1. Heresies. see DOOETIaM); both agreeing in the

denial of the incarnation, or the real

and abiding union of the divine and human in the

person of our Lord. There also arose in the second

and third centuries two forma of Unitarianism or

Monarchianiem: (1) The Rationalistic or Dynamic

Unitarianism represented by the Alogi, Theodotus,

Artemon, and Paul of Samosatar which either de­

nied the divinity of Christ altogether, or resolved

it into a mere power (Gk. dynarnis), although its

representatives generally admitted his supernatural

generation by the Holy Spirit. (2) The Patripas­

sian and Sabellian Unitarianism, which maintained

the divinity of Christ, but merged it into the es­

sence of the Father, and so denied the independent,

preexistent personality of Christ. So Praxeas,

Noi;tus, Callistus (Pope Calixtus L), Beryllus of

Boatra, and Sabelliue. See the articles on the here­

sies named and their representatives.

In antagonism to these heresies, the Church taught the full divinity of Christ (against Ebion­ism and rationalistic Monarchianism),

2. The his full humanity (against Gnosticism

Church and Manicheiem), and his independent

Doctrine. personality (against Patripassianiam and Sabellianism). The dogma was developed in close connection with the dogma of the Trinity, which resulted, by logical neces9ity, from the deity of Christ and the deity of the Holy Spirit on the basis of the fundamental truth of Monotheism.

The ante Nine christology passed through many obstructions, loose statements, uncertain conjectures and speculations; but the instinct and main current of the Church was steadily toward the Nicene and Chalcedonian creed state 


menta, especially if the worship and devotional

life as well as the theological literature be con­

sidered. Christ was the object of

8. The worship, prayer, and praise from the Divinity of very beginning, as moat be inferred Christ Con  fpm such passages of the New Testa 


gig, ment as John xx. 28; Acts vii. 59, 60,

ix. 14, 21; I Cor. i. 2; Phil. ii. 10;

Heb. i. 6; I John v. 13 15; Rev. v. 6 13; from

the heathen testimony of Pliny the Younger con­

cerning the singing of hymns to Christ as God

(" Carmen Christo quasi, Des dicers," Epist., x. 97);

from the " Gloria in Excelais," which was the

daily morning hymn of the Eastern Church as early

as the second century; from the " Tersanctua ";

from the Hymn of Clement of Alexandria to the

divine Logos (Pcedagogus, iii. 12); from the state­

ments of Origen (Contra Celsuna, viii. 67) and

Eusebius (Hilt. eccl., v. 28); and from many other

testimonies. Christ was believed to be divine, and

adored as divine, before he was clearly taught to

be divine. The ante Nicene rules of faith as they

are found in the writings of Irena:us, Origen,

Tertullian, Cyprian, etc., are in essential agree­

ment among themselves and with the Apostles'

Creed, as it appears, first in the fourth century,

especially at Rome and Aquileia. (Cf. Rufinus, De

symbolo.) They all confess the divine human

character of Christ as the chief object of the Chris­

tian faith, but in the form of facts, and in simple,

popular style, not in the form of doctrinal or logical

statement. The Nicene Creed is much more ex­

plicit and dogmatic in consequence of the preceding

contest with heresy; but the substance of the faith

is the same in the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds.

(For these Ante Nicene Rules of Faith, cf. Schaff,

Creeds, ii. 11 45.)

8. Theological Speculations: In the apostolic Fathers only simple practical, Biblical statements are found, with reminiscences of apostolic preach­ing for the purposes of edification. Ignatius of Antioch calls Christ God without qualification (Ad Ephes., vii. 18; cf. Ad Rom., vi.). Polycarp calls him "the eternal Son of God " (Ad Phil., ii. 8), and associates him in his last prayer with the Father and the Spirit (Martyrium. Polycarpi,, xiv.). The theological speculation on the person of Christ began with Justin Martyr, and was carried on by Clement of Alexandria and Origen, in the East; by Irenssus, Hippolytus, and Tertullian, in the West.

Justin Martyr (d. 166) takes up the Johannean

Logos idea, which proved a very fruitful germ

of theological speculation. It was prepared by the

Old Testament personification of the word and

wisdom of God, assumed an idealistic shape in

Philo of Alexandria, and reached a realistic com­

pletion in St. John, although it is not

1. Justin likely that John's had anything more

Martyr. in common with Philo's idea than the

name "Logos." Following the sugges­

tion of the double meaning of the Greek logos (ratio

and oratio), Justin distinguishes in the Logos two

elements the immanent and the transitive; the

revelation of God ad infra, and the revelation

ad extra. He teaches the procession of the Logos

from the free will (not the essence) of God by gen­

eration, without division or diminution of the divine

substance. This begotten Logos he conceives as a

hypostatical being, a person distinct from the

Father, and subordinate to him. He coordinates

God, the Son, and the prophetic Spirit, as objects

of Christian worship (APoI., i. 6). Peculiar is his

doctrine of the logos spermotikos, the " ° seminal

Logos," or the Word disseminated among men,

i.e., Christ before the incarnation, who scattered

elements of truth and virtue among the heathen

philosophers and poets, although they did not

know it.

Clement of Alexandria (d. 220) sees in the Logos the ultimate principle of all existence (without beginning, and timeless), the revealer 2. Clement of the Father, the sum of all intelli 

ot Ales  gents and wisdom, the personal truth,

the author of the world, the source of

light and life, the educator of the

race, who at last became man to make us par­

takers of his divine nature. Like some other

ante Nicene Fathers (Justin Martyr, Tertullian,

and Origen), he conceived the outward appear­

ance of Christ's humanity in the state of humilia­

tion to have been literally without form or come­

liness (Isa. liii. 2, 3); but he had made a distinction

between two kinds of beauty the outward beauty

of the flesh, which soon fades away; and the moral

beauty of the soul, which is permanent, and shone

even through the servant form of our Lord (Pada­

gogus, iii. 1).

Origen (d. 254) felt the whole weight of the chriatological problem, but obscured it by foreign speculations, and prepared the way both for the Aria,n heresy and the Athanasian orthodoxy, though more fully for the latter. On the one baud he closely approaches the Nicene homo­ousion by bringing the Son into union with the essence of the Father, and ascribing to him the attribute of eternity. He is, properly,

8. Ortsen. the author of the Nicene doctrine of eternal generation of the Son from the essence of the Father (though he usually represents the generation as an act of the will of the Father). But, on the other hand, he teaches subordinationiem by calling the Son simply " God," and " a second God," but not "the God" (ho these or autos theca). In his views on the humanity of Christ, he ap­proached the semi Gnostic Dooetism, snd ascribed to the glorified body of Christ ubiquity (in which he was followed by Gregory of Nyesa). His ene­mies charged him with teaching a double Christ (answering to the lower Jesus, and the higher Sour of the Gnostics), and a merely temporary validity of the body of the Redeemer. As to the relation of the two natures in Christ, he was the first to use the term " God man " and to apply the favorite illustration of fire heating and penetrating the iron, without altering its character.

The Western Church was not so fruitful is speculation, but, upon the whole, sounder and more self consistent. The key note was struck by Irenaeus (d. 202), who, though of Eastern origin, spent his active life in the south of France. He carries special weight as a pupil of Polycarp of

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