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Christian socialism THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 44


merous societies under the leadership of Baron Yon Ketteler (q.v.), archbishop of Mainz, who ex­erted a great influence. The object of these so­cieties was partly ecclesiastical, partly political­the people were to be guarded from the infidelity of the socialists, and were to be used because of their possession of the ballot. The Roman Catho­lic Church has in Germany succeeded so well in this that it has been able through the votes of ar­tisans, laborers, and peasants to secure a large number of seats in the Reichstag. There has been no hesitation at times to form an alliance with the socialists, when the Church's purposes were served, and the State has been several times compelled to capitulate before the union thus effected. But along with this political and ecclesiastical activity an immense amount of valuable practical Christian work has been done  a description of which would be foreign to this article.

The Protestant Church in Germany began prac­tical Christian work in the early part of the nine­teenth century, which made rapid headway after 1850. Hardly any Church in Christendom does so much valuable work as the Lutheran, but  it is all done under the auspices or in alliance with the

8. 8e  State, and is, therefore, discredited

cults. among the socialists who showed their

opposition by withdrawal en masse

from the Church. Men of influence like Drs.

StScker and KSgel failed after earnest endeavors

to organize an independent political or Christian

party, while they have been eminently successful

in uniting various charitable and philanthropic

movements in the loners Mission (q.v.). In France,

Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, and

elsewhere no distinctively Christian Socialist move­

ments have developed. The Christians of emi­

nence in these countries, such as the Comte de Mun

in France, Laveleye in Belgium, and Prince von

Lichtenstein in Austria, who ought have led in

this direction, were either dependent on the Roman

Catholic Church for the expression of their views,

or did not imitate a distinctive independent Chris­

tian Socialism. They simply contributed to litera­

ture or founded charitable and philanthropic in­


S. The united states: The seed which was sent out from England found a much more favorable soil in the United States. This country had been the camping ground of numerous communistic and other societies (see COMMUNIaM), and the experi­mental station for such idealistic organizations as Brook Farm near Boston. No hostility was mani­fested by either State or Church to independent movements along Christian Socialist lines, nor was the attitude of the people unfavorable. Neverthe­less, no movement of any national importance has been inaugurated. A number of men prominent in the Church and in business became interested in the work of Maurice and Kingsley. A paper, the Equity, was published irt 1874 75 in Boston. An organization was formed in that city April 15, 1889, largely under the leadership of W . D. P. Bliss, called the Society of Christian Socialists. The constitution emphasized the stewardship of all gifts and of property, the fatherhood of God, and

the brotherhood of man, it deprecated the present industrial and commercial systems as individual­istic, unjust, and contrary to the law of God; rec­ommended socialism (without defining it) as the necessary outcome of Christian teachings; and in­vited all Christians and Churches to join the new movement. But the ideas did not take root, and the movement today is a mere sentiment which finds a channel for its activities in charity and phi­lanthropy. Some journals, such as the Outlook, the Kingdom, the Christian Statesman, advocate Christian Socialism to a limited extent, but as a whole the movement has taken the shape of prac­tical reform. See SOCIALISM.


Brstsoos&ray: Besides the publications mentioned in the teat, the sources are contained in Tracts on Christian Socialism, London, 18b0' eqq.; the Christian Socialist, a journal issued from Nov. 2, 1850, to June 28, 1851; Charles Kingsley's two novels, Yeast, London, 1848, and Alton Locks, ib. 1850; F. D. Maurice, Moral and Meta­physical Philosophy. 2 vole., ib. 1871 72; and other wri­tings of these two leaders. Further light is to be gained from the biographies of these two men. For different phases of the subject consult: A. V. Woodworth, Chris­dian Socialism in England, London, 1903 (contains a full bibliography); E. R. A. Seligman , Omen and the Christian Socialists, in Political Science Quarterly. June, 1888; B. F. Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity, London, 1887; idem, The Incarnation and Common Life, ib. 1898; M. Kaufmann, Christian Socialism, ib. 1888; W. D. P. Bliss, What Christian Socialism Is, and The Social Faith of the Catholic Church (tracts). New York, 1894; G. D. Herron, The New Redemption and the New Society. Boston, 1894; F. 8. Nitti, Catholic Socialism, London, 1895; W. D. P. Bliss, et slis, Encyclopedia Social Reform, New York, 1908.
CHRISTIAN UNION, THE: A religious organ­ization of the United States, founded by James F. Given in the first year of the Civil War. Mr. Given (d. 1889) was a graduate of Marietta Col­lege and an ordained minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1880, when political ex­citement and prejudice were high and bitter, he found himself out of sympathy with his Church. He began the publication of a religious paper, the Christian Witness (Columbus, O.), and called a meeting of others who shared his views to or­ganize an antipolitical and antisectarian brother­hood. Ministers and laymen of several denom­inations, chiefly from Ohio, met in Columbus in 1861, where they chose the name " The Christian Union," declared the Bible the only rule of faith and practise, and adopted strict congregational government for each local church. The first gen­eral council, held in Terre Haute, Ind., in 1883, adopted the following principles: (1) Christ the only head of the Church; (2) the Holy Bible the only rule of faith and practise; (3) good fruits the only test of fellowship; (4) each local church to be self governed; (5) the union of all Christians to be worked for; (8) political preaching discoun­tenanced. The Christian Witness was made the organ of the society.

The membership of the Union is found chiefly in the country and small villages, there being no city churches. It stands for Evangelical Chris­tianity and pleads for the union of all Christians on the basis of the Bible. At first its numbers increased rapidly, but in recent years looses and gains have been about equal. There are now

4!f RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Christian Socialism


about 250 ministers, 300 churches, and 20,000 members, of whom more than two thirds are in Ohio and Missouri, with churches also in Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Two or three schools have been estab­lished, but have failed to receive adequate sup­port, and at present there are no denominational schools or colleges. The Christian Union Messen­ger (Greencastle, Ind.) and the Witness Herald (Excelsior Springs, Mo.) are papers published by clergymen of the Union. H. J. DUCgVPORTH.

CHRISTIANI, ARNOLD: German theologian;

b. at Johannenhof Dec. 14, 1807; d. at Riga Mar.

16, 1886. In 1838 he became pastor of Ringen;

in 1849 dean of the district of Werro; in 1852 pro­

fessor of practical theology at Dorpat and preacher

to the university. From 1865 to 1882, when he

retired, he was general superintendent of Livonia.

Besides a volume of sermons (Dorpat, 1852), he

published three books on the Apocalypse (Riga,

1861 75), in which he followed the Erlangen school.

(A. Heucs.)

CHRISTIANS: As a denominational designa­tion, a name given to two religious bodies of America.

1. A Church dating from the early part of the nineteenth century, also known as the Disciples of Christ (q.v.).

2. A denomination sometimes called the Chris­tian Connection for purposes of identification­s phrase which they admit usually refers to them. The name which they use themselves was formerly sometimes incorrectly pronounced Christ fans. The denomination resulted from three independent movements, two of which partook of the nature of secession. In 1793, in North Carolina. and Vir ginta, twenty or thirty ministers, influenced chiefly by Rev. James O'Kelly (q.v.), withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church on account of objec­tions to the government of bishops and the use of creeds and disciplines. They were followed by

about 1,000 members. At first they Origin. were called Republican Methodists; but in 1794 on motion of Rev. Rice Haggard the name Christian was unanimously adopted, and since that time they have ac­cepted no other name. The second movement was in Vermont, in 1800, among the Baptists, Abner Jones, a physician, and Rev. Elias Smith being prominent in it. The third movement, in 1800 and 1801, was in Kentucky chiefly, among the Presbyterians; prominent here were David Pur viance, John Thomson, Robert Marshall, John Dunlavy, William Kinkade, Richard MeNemar, Nathan Worley, and Barton W. Stone (q.v.). The three movements were severally unknown to each other until a number of years had passed, when they came together without negotiation or formal organic action.

They all accepted the Bible as the only creed, Christian as the only name, and Christian charac­ter as the only teat of fellowship. Generally they baptize by immersion, but some ministers sprin­kle. They are universally open communioniete, as their teat of fellowship compels. Sometimes

they are called trinitarian, and sometimes anti­trinitarian; but almost universally they hold to the divinity of Christ. They themselves refuse to pronounce on these dogmas, which are disputed among Christian people. They are congregational in government; but there seems to have been no pressure on this point organically since the O'Kelly movement in the South. They have annual dis­trict conferences and quadrennial general conven­tions.

In 1854, at the general convention at Cincinnati, resolutions were passed condemning human sla­very. The Southern brethren of the denomination withdrew, and perfected a separate organization.

The division lasted till long after the

History. Civil War; but at the convention at

Haverhill, Mass., in 1894, under un­contested ruling of a brother temporarily called to the chair by the president, that the Southern brethren " only called themselves Christians, took the Bible for their only creed, and granted full fellowship to all Christians, and therefore were entitled to membership in the convention on the same basis of representation as others," they took then seats in the convention and have been work­ing with the general body ever since, greatly in­creasing its organic effectiveness.

The question of the " union " of denominations has several times proved injurious to the Chris­tians. A third of a century after their rise, Bar ton W. Stone, one of their prominent ministers, made a " union " with Alexander Campbell, the founder of the Disciples of Christ (q.v.), which really proved a surrender by Stone. Somewhat more than fifty churches were in this way lost to the Christians. This element in the Disciple denomination clung to the name " Christian "; so that there has been some confusion, marry supposing that the Disciples are the original body. But the Disciples differ from the Chris­tians in giving fellowship exclusively to the im­mersed; while the Christians make Christian character their only test of fellowship or member­ship. In 1885 and 1886 there was agitation for union with the Free Baptists, whose genius is more like that of the Christians; and in some sections it was actually voted and supposed to be effected. But the churches did not follow the leaders, and the movement was abandoned. From 1893 to 1898 organic union with the Congregationalists was talked of, making some denominational fric­tion, which led to the cessation of the agitation.

The membership of the Christians is almost wholly in the United States and Canada, number­ing about 120,000. Former estimates were too large. They have few churches west of Kansas, or south of North Carolina. The following insti­tutions of learning belong to them or are affiliated

with them: Union Christian College,

Numbers at Merom, Ind.; Christian Biblical
and Educe  Institute (a theological seminary), at tional In  Stanfordville, N. Y.; Elon College, at

stitutions. Elon College, N. C.; Starkey Semi 

nary, at Lakemont, N. Y.; Defiance College, at Defiance, O.; Palmer College, at Le Grand, Ia.; Kansas Christian College, at Lincoln,

_ .. , .



Kan.; and Franklinton Christian College (for ne­

groes), at Franklinton, N. C. Their quadrennial

convention of Oct., 1850, held at Marion, N. Y.,

directed the founding of a college giving equal

privileges to the sexes; and they established An­

tioch College at Yellow Springs, O., and made

Hon. Horace Mann its first president; but they

later lost the institution to the Unitarians. It

was the first college to give fully equal honors to

both sexes in " coeducation." Union Christian

College, their next college, may be considered the

effect of the abortive attempt at Antioch. [In

Canada the Christians pay the salary of one of

their members as professor in McMaster Univer­

sity, a Baptist institution, and encourage their

young people to study there. A. H. N.]

The Christians were also the first in modern

times as a denomination to authorize the ordina­

tion of a woman to the Gospel ministry; but they

were not the first to ordain; this being done irreg­

ularly before their action. The foreign mission

work of the Christians is only twenty years old;

it is carried on now in Japan and Porto Rico, and ~,

there is agitation to begin work in India.

In 1808 the Rev. Elias Smith established the first

religious newspaper, the Herald of Gospel Liberty,

at Portsmouth, N. H. After various vicissitudes,

it is now the property of the general body and is

published by the Christian Publishing Association,

a denominational corporation at Dayton, O. Other

periodicals to be mentioned are: the Christian Sun,

weekly, property of the Southern Christian Con­

vention, Elon College, N. C.; the Christian Van­

guard, semimonthly, property of the Ontario Chris­

tian Conference, Toronto and Newmarket, Ontario;

the Young People's Worker, monthly, Raleigh, N. C.;

various Sunday school periodicals, issued by the

Christian Publishing Association, Dayton, O., quar­

terlies and weeklies, and the Christian Missionary,

monthly, property of the American Christian Con­

vention, Dayton, O.; the Afro Christian Messenger,

monthly, Franklinton, N. C.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Smith's Works, by Elise Smith, Exeter,

N. H., 1805; John Dunlavy, Manifesto, Pleasant Hill,

Ky., 1818; John Rogers, Biography of Barton Warren

Stone, Cincinnati, 1847; D. Purviance, Biography of D.

Puruiance, Dayton, O., 1848; J. R. Freese, Christian

Church History, Philadelphia, 1852; N. Summerbell,

History of the Christians, Cincinnati, 1871; E. W. Hum­

phreys, Memoirs of Deceased Christian Ministers, Day­

ton, 1880; J. F. Burnett, Origin and Principles of flee

Christians, Dayton, 1903; J. J. Summerbell, Scripture

Doctrine, Dayton, 1904; idem, The Christians and the

Disciples, Dayton, 1908.





at Lowell, Mass., Dec. 3, 1858. He was educated

at Amherst College (B.A., 1881), and studied phi­

lology at Johns Hopkins ('1884 86) and theology at

the universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, and Mar­

burg (1889 93). He taught in the Roxbury Latin

School, Roxbury, Mass., in 1881 84 and wag clas­

sical master at Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville,

N. J., in 1887 89. He was subsequently an in 

structor in the Harvard Divinity School (1891 92), and since 1893 has been professor of church his­tory in Meadville Theological School, Meadville, Pa.

CHRISTLIEB, THEODOR: A voluminous theo­logical author; b. at Birkenfeld (27 m. w.n.w. of Stuttgart), Wiirttemberg, Mar. 7, 1833; d. at Bonn Aug. 15, 1889. His education was received mainly at Tubingen, where he studied theology under Tobias Beck and F. C. Baur. He was ordained in 1856 as assistant to his father, and soon took charge of a church at Ruith near Stuttgart. A Lutheran by education and conviction, he laid more stress on honest faith and real conversion than on dog­matic subtleties; the narrow exclusiveness of many Lutherans repelled him, and he had close asso­ciations with numbers of the Reformed, coming later to be among the supporters of definite union. His pastoral duties left him time for literary work, out of which grew his Leben and Lehre des Johann Scotus Erigena (Goths, 1860). From 1858 to 1865 he was in London as pastor of the Lutheran German church of Islington. He was recalled by the king of Wiirttemberg to be pastor at Fried­richahafen. While there he delivered lectures at St. Gall and Winterthur, afterward enlarged into his second important work, Moderns Zweifel am christliehen Glauben (Bonn, 1868; Eng. transl., Edinburgh, 1874). In a moderate and conciliatory tone, yet not paying sufficient attention to the results of Biblical science, he attempted to meet some of the principal modern objections to Chris­tianity, dealing especially with materialism, pan­theism, and deism, and going on to develop a Chris­tian theism, paying particular attention to the doctrine of the Trinity and the possibility of mir­acles, and vigorously opposing the rationalistic con­ceptions of Strauss, Renan, and Baur. In 1868 he was called to Bonn as professor of practical theology and preacher to the university, and here he remained anti! his death. The purpose of his lectures was rather the formation of earnest and devout pastors than the display of scientific learning. Similarly, his preaching, which had a wide influence, was characterized rather by warm, earnest pressing home of the great truths of Chris­tianity than by a seeking after oratorical effect. His work extended far beyond the bounds of the university. In England he had learned to know and to esteem members of other churches than his own, and he worked constantly for unity of spirit between them, without wasting time in fruitless efforts for external unity. He took part in the work of the Evangelical Alliance, and attended its conferences in Basel, Copenhagen, and New York, where he read a paper on The Best Methods of Counteracting Modern Infidelity (New York, 1873), dealing with unbelief as it shows itself in the indi­vidual, in scientific investigations, and in the prac­tise of social life. In order to stir up the German churches to more zealous activity, he delivered a lecture at Copenhagen in 1884 on the best means of counteracting religious indifference, in which, while deprecating sensational methods such as those of the Salvation Army, he suggested the appointment, especially in large places, of evangelists who should



Ctuirtisaa Christmas

carry the Gospel to the people outside the church

building, working in harmony with the pastor.

To carry this idea into effect, he founded the

German Evangelistic Union, in conjunction with

Bernstorff and Piickler. He purchased in Bonn a

disused Presbyterian chapel with a large house at­

tached, and turned it into a training school for

evangelists. After his death the institution was

transferred to Barmen, where there was thought to

be a wider field for its work. He was also an en­

thusiastic advocate of foreign missions, and in

1874, with Warneck, founded the Allgemeine Mis­

sionszeitschr%ft, in which moat of his writings on

missionary topics first appeared. The best known

of these is Der gegenxnartige Stayed der evartgel%schen

Fleidenmission (Giitersloh, 1879; Eng. transl.,

London, 1880). Another of his numerous works

which was translated into English was his sharp

arraignment of England for permitting and even

encouraging the opium traffic, Der %ndobritische

Opiumhandel and seine W%rkungen (1878; Eng.

transl., London, 1879). (E. Sacsssu.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zum (JcdBchCniae Theodor ChriatLieba, Bonn, 1889; Mrs. T. C6riatlieb, Theodor CAriatlieb of Bonn, London, 1892 (by his widow).

CHRISTMAS: The supposed anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ, occurring on Dec. 25.' No sufficient data, however, exist, for the determina­tion of the month or the day of the event. Efforts to reach a fixed date for Zacharias's ministration

and to combine thin with the " sixth The Dap of month " mentioned in connection Christ's with the annunciation to Mary (Luke Birth not i. 26) have given no assured result.

Known. Hippolytus seems to have been the

first to fix upon Dec. 25. He had reached the conviction that Jesus's life from con­ception to crucifixion was precisely thirty three years and that both events occurred on Mar. 25. By calculating nine months from the annunciation or conception he arrived at Dec. 25 as the dap of Christ's birth. The uncertainty of all the data discredits the computation. There is no historical evidence that our Lord's birthday was. celebrated during the apostolic or early postapostolic times The uncertainty that existed at the beginning of the third century in the minds of Hippolytus and others Hippolytus earlier favored Jan. 2, Clement of Alexandria (Strom., i. 21) " the 25th day of Pachon " ( =May 20), while others, according to Clement, fixed upon Apr. 18 or 19 and Mar. 28 ­proves that no Christmas festival had been estab­lished much before the middle of the century Jan. 6 was earlier fixed upon as the date of the baptism or spiritual birth of Christ, and the feast of Epiphany (q.v.) was celebrated by the Basi­lidian Gnostics in the second century (cf. Clement of Alexandria, ut sup.) and by catholic Christians by about the beginning of the fourth century.

The earliest record of the recognition of Dec. 25 as a church festival is in the Philocalian Calendar (copied 354 but representing Roman practise in 336; cf. Ruinart, Acts Martyrum, p. 617; MPL, xiii.; Lightfoot, The Liberian Calendar, in his Clement of Rome, vol. i., p. 246). In the East the celebration of Jan. 6 as the physical as well

as the spiritual birthday of the Lord prevailed gen­erally as early as the first half of the fourth cen­tury. Chrysoatom (in 386) states that Earliest the celebration of the birth of Christ

Traces of " according to the flesh " was not in­

the Church augurated at Antioch until ten years

Festival. before that date. He intimates that

this festival, approved by himself, was

opposed by many. An Armenian writer of the

eleventh century states that the Christmas festival,

invented in Rome by a heretic, Artemon, was first

celebrated in Constantinople in 373. In Egypt

the Western birthday festival was opposed during

the early years, of the fifth century, but was cele­

brated in Alexandria as early as 432. The Jeru­

salem church was celebrating birth and baptism

on the same day (Jan. 6) about the middle of the

fourth century, the former at Bethlehem, the latter

at the Jordan, although the twenty mile journey

between involved great inconveniences (supposed

letter of Bishop Cyril of Jerusalem to Bishop Julius

of Rome, preserved in Combefia, Historic hceresis

morwthelitarum). The Jerusalem bishop asks the

Roman bishop to ascertain the real date of Christ's

birth in order that, if possible, the practical diffi­

culty may be overcome. Julius is represented as

sending to Cyril a calculation in favor of Dec. 25,

based upon the supposition (derived from Josephus)

that Zachariass vision took place at the Feast of

Tabernacles. The Jerusalem church, however,

persisted till 549 or later in celebrating birth and

baptism on Jan. 6 (Cosmas Indicopleustes). The

Christmas festival has never been adopted by the

Armenians, the physical and spiritual birthdays

being still celebrated conjointly on Jan. 8.

The wide spread conviction during the early

centuries that the baptism of Jesus was the occa­sion of his spiritual birth, or his

Relation adoption as Son of God and his exal­

to the talon to divine rank and power,

Epiphany. tended to magnify the anniversary of

his baptism and to cause compara 

tive indifference as regards the precise date of his birth according to the flesh. In two Latin homi­lies, ascribed by some to Ambrose of Milan (4th cent.) and by others to Maximus of Turin (5th cent.), Jan. 6 is declared to be the birthday of the Lord Jesus, " whether he was born of the Virgin on that day or was born again in baptism." It is his " natal feast," his " nativity both of flesh and of Bpi *." As thirty years before he " was given for through the Virgin," so on the same day he was " regenerated " and " sanctified " " through the mystery." The writer; or an interpolator, virtually contradicts the statement about Christ's regeneration by explaining that " Christ is bap­tized, not in order that he may be sanctified by the waters, but that he may himself sanctify the waters."

The naive adoptioniam that was so widely prev­alent till the end of the second century in Syria, Asia Minor, Italy, northern Africa, and elsewhere, and for centuries later in Armenia, Spain, etc. , was gradually displaced by the formulation and gen 

eral acceptance of a christology (based upon the prologue of John's Gospel and the Epistles of Paul)

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