merous societies under the leadership of Baron Yon Ketteler (q.v.), archbishop of Mainz, who exerted a great influence. The object of these societies was partly ecclesiastical, partly politicalthe people were to be guarded from the infidelity of the socialists, and were to be used because of their possession of the ballot. The Roman Catholic Church has in Germany succeeded so well in this that it has been able through the votes of artisans, laborers, and peasants to secure a large number of seats in the Reichstag. There has been no hesitation at times to form an alliance with the socialists, when the Church's purposes were served, and the State has been several times compelled to capitulate before the union thus effected. But along with this political and ecclesiastical activity an immense amount of valuable practical Christian work has been done a description of which would be foreign to this article.
The Protestant Church in Germany began practical Christian work in the early part of the nineteenth century, which made rapid headway after 1850. Hardly any Church in Christendom does so much valuable work as the Lutheran, but it is all done under the auspices or in alliance with the
8. 8e State, and is, therefore, discredited
cults. among the socialists who showed their
opposition by withdrawal en masse
from the Church. Men of influence like Drs.
StScker and KSgel failed after earnest endeavors
to organize an independent political or Christian
party, while they have been eminently successful
in uniting various charitable and philanthropic
movements in the loners Mission (q.v.). In France,
Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, and
elsewhere no distinctively Christian Socialist move
ments have developed. The Christians of emi
nence in these countries, such as the Comte de Mun
in France, Laveleye in Belgium, and Prince von
Lichtenstein in Austria, who ought have led in
this direction, were either dependent on the Roman
Catholic Church for the expression of their views,
or did not imitate a distinctive independent Chris
tian Socialism. They simply contributed to litera
ture or founded charitable and philanthropic in
S. The united states: The seed which was sent out from England found a much more favorable soil in the United States. This country had been the camping ground of numerous communistic and other societies (see COMMUNIaM), and the experimental station for such idealistic organizations as Brook Farm near Boston. No hostility was manifested by either State or Church to independent movements along Christian Socialist lines, nor was the attitude of the people unfavorable. Nevertheless, no movement of any national importance has been inaugurated. A number of men prominent in the Church and in business became interested in the work of Maurice and Kingsley. A paper, the Equity, was published irt 1874 75 in Boston. An organization was formed in that city April 15, 1889, largely under the leadership of W . D. P. Bliss, called the Society of Christian Socialists. The constitution emphasized the stewardship of all gifts and of property, the fatherhood of God, and
the brotherhood of man, it deprecated the present industrial and commercial systems as individualistic, unjust, and contrary to the law of God; recommended socialism (without defining it) as the necessary outcome of Christian teachings; and invited all Christians and Churches to join the new movement. But the ideas did not take root, and the movement today is a mere sentiment which finds a channel for its activities in charity and philanthropy. Some journals, such as the Outlook, the Kingdom, the Christian Statesman, advocate Christian Socialism to a limited extent, but as a whole the movement has taken the shape of practical reform. See SOCIALISM.
RUDOLPH M. BINDER.
Brstsoos&ray: Besides the publications mentioned in the teat, the sources are contained in Tracts on Christian Socialism, London, 18b0' eqq.; the Christian Socialist, a journal issued from Nov. 2, 1850, to June 28, 1851; Charles Kingsley's two novels, Yeast, London, 1848, and Alton Locks, ib. 1850; F. D. Maurice, Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy. 2 vole., ib. 1871 72; and other writings of these two leaders. Further light is to be gained from the biographies of these two men. For different phases of the subject consult: A. V. Woodworth, Chrisdian Socialism in England, London, 1903 (contains a full bibliography); E. R. A. Seligman , Omen and the Christian Socialists, in Political Science Quarterly. June, 1888; B. F. Westcott, Social Aspects of Christianity, London, 1887; idem, The Incarnation and Common Life, ib. 1898; M. Kaufmann, Christian Socialism, ib. 1888; W. D. P. Bliss, What Christian Socialism Is, and The Social Faith of the Catholic Church (tracts). New York, 1894; G. D. Herron, The New Redemption and the New Society. Boston, 1894; F. 8. Nitti, Catholic Socialism, London, 1895; W. D. P. Bliss, et slis, Encyclopedia Social Reform, New York, 1908.
CHRISTIAN UNION, THE:A religious organization of the United States, founded by James F. Given in the first year of the Civil War. Mr. Given (d. 1889) was a graduate of Marietta College and an ordained minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1880, when political excitement and prejudice were high and bitter, he found himself out of sympathy with his Church. He began the publication of a religious paper, the Christian Witness (Columbus, O.), and called a meeting of others who shared his views to organize an antipolitical and antisectarian brotherhood. Ministers and laymen of several denominations, chiefly from Ohio, met in Columbus in 1861, where they chose the name " The Christian Union," declared the Bible the only rule of faith and practise, and adopted strict congregational government for each local church. The first general council, held in Terre Haute, Ind., in 1883, adopted the following principles: (1) Christ the only head of the Church; (2) the Holy Bible the only rule of faith and practise; (3) good fruits the only test of fellowship; (4) each local church to be self governed; (5) the union of all Christians to be worked for; (8) political preaching discountenanced. The Christian Witness was made the organ of the society.
The membership of the Union is found chiefly in the country and small villages, there being no city churches. It stands for Evangelical Christianity and pleads for the union of all Christians on the basis of the Bible. At first its numbers increased rapidly, but in recent years looses and gains have been about equal. There are now
4!f RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Christian Socialism
about 250 ministers, 300 churches, and 20,000 members, of whom more than two thirds are in Ohio and Missouri, with churches also in Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Two or three schools have been established, but have failed to receive adequate support, and at present there are no denominational schools or colleges. The Christian Union Messenger (Greencastle, Ind.) and the Witness Herald (Excelsior Springs, Mo.) are papers published by clergymen of the Union. H. J. DUCgVPORTH.
CHRISTIANI, ARNOLD: German theologian;
b. at Johannenhof Dec. 14, 1807; d. at Riga Mar.
16, 1886. In 1838 he became pastor of Ringen;
in 1849 dean of the district of Werro; in 1852 pro
fessor of practical theology at Dorpat and preacher
to the university. From 1865 to 1882, when he
retired, he was general superintendent of Livonia.
Besides a volume of sermons (Dorpat, 1852), he
published three books on the Apocalypse (Riga,
1861 75), in which he followed the Erlangen school.
CHRISTIANS:As a denominational designation, a name given to two religious bodies of America.
1. A Church dating from the early part of the nineteenth century, also known as the Disciples of Christ (q.v.).
2. A denomination sometimes called the Christian Connection for purposes of identifications phrase which they admit usually refers to them. The name which they use themselves was formerly sometimes incorrectly pronounced Christ fans. The denomination resulted from three independent movements, two of which partook of the nature of secession. In 1793, in North Carolina. and Vir ginta, twenty or thirty ministers, influenced chiefly by Rev. James O'Kelly (q.v.), withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church on account of objections to the government of bishops and the use of creeds and disciplines. They were followed by
about 1,000 members. At first they Origin. were called Republican Methodists; but in 1794 on motion of Rev. Rice Haggard the name Christian was unanimously adopted, and since that time they have accepted no other name. The second movement was in Vermont, in 1800, among the Baptists, Abner Jones, a physician, and Rev. Elias Smith being prominent in it. The third movement, in 1800 and 1801, was in Kentucky chiefly, among the Presbyterians; prominent here were David Pur viance, John Thomson, Robert Marshall, John Dunlavy, William Kinkade, Richard MeNemar, Nathan Worley, and Barton W. Stone (q.v.). The three movements were severally unknown to each other until a number of years had passed, when they came together without negotiation or formal organic action.
They all accepted the Bible as the only creed, Christian as the only name, and Christian character as the only teat of fellowship. Generally they baptize by immersion, but some ministers sprinkle. They are universally open communioniete, as their teat of fellowship compels. Sometimes
they are called trinitarian, and sometimes antitrinitarian; but almost universally they hold to the divinity of Christ. They themselves refuse to pronounce on these dogmas, which are disputed among Christian people. They are congregational in government; but there seems to have been no pressure on this point organically since the O'Kelly movement in the South. They have annual district conferences and quadrennial general conventions.
In 1854, at the general convention at Cincinnati, resolutions were passed condemning human slavery. The Southern brethren of the denomination withdrew, and perfected a separate organization.
The division lasted till long after the
History. Civil War; but at the convention at
Haverhill, Mass., in 1894, under uncontested ruling of a brother temporarily called to the chair by the president, that the Southern brethren " only called themselves Christians, took the Bible for their only creed, and granted full fellowship to all Christians, and therefore were entitled to membership in the convention on the same basis of representation as others," they took then seats in the convention and have been working with the general body ever since, greatly increasing its organic effectiveness.
The question of the " union " of denominations has several times proved injurious to the Christians. A third of a century after their rise, Bar ton W. Stone, one of their prominent ministers, made a " union " with Alexander Campbell, the founder of the Disciples of Christ (q.v.), which really proved a surrender by Stone. Somewhat more than fifty churches were in this way lost to the Christians. This element in the Disciple denomination clung to the name " Christian "; so that there has been some confusion, marry supposing that the Disciples are the original body. But the Disciples differ from the Christians in giving fellowship exclusively to the immersed; while the Christians make Christian character their only test of fellowship or membership. In 1885 and 1886 there was agitation for union with the Free Baptists, whose genius is more like that of the Christians; and in some sections it was actually voted and supposed to be effected. But the churches did not follow the leaders, and the movement was abandoned. From 1893 to 1898 organic union with the Congregationalists was talked of, making some denominational friction, which led to the cessation of the agitation.
The membership of the Christians is almost wholly in the United States and Canada, numbering about 120,000. Former estimates were too large. They have few churches west of Kansas, or south of North Carolina. The following institutions of learning belong to them or are affiliated
sical master at Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville,
N. J., in 1887 89. He was subsequently an in
structor in the Harvard Divinity School (1891 92), and since 1893 has been professor of church history in Meadville Theological School, Meadville, Pa.
CHRISTLIEB, THEODOR:A voluminous theological author; b. at Birkenfeld (27 m. w.n.w. of Stuttgart), Wiirttemberg, Mar. 7, 1833; d. at Bonn Aug. 15, 1889. His education was received mainly at Tubingen, where he studied theology under Tobias Beck and F. C. Baur. He was ordained in 1856 as assistant to his father, and soon took charge of a church at Ruith near Stuttgart. A Lutheran by education and conviction, he laid more stress on honest faith and real conversion than on dogmatic subtleties; the narrow exclusiveness of many Lutherans repelled him, and he had close associations with numbers of the Reformed, coming later to be among the supporters of definite union. His pastoral duties left him time for literary work, out of which grew his Leben and Lehre des Johann Scotus Erigena (Goths, 1860). From 1858 to 1865 he was in London as pastor of the Lutheran German church of Islington. He was recalled by the king of Wiirttemberg to be pastor at Friedrichahafen. While there he delivered lectures at St. Gall and Winterthur, afterward enlarged into his second important work, Moderns Zweifel am christliehen Glauben (Bonn, 1868; Eng. transl., Edinburgh, 1874). In a moderate and conciliatory tone, yet not paying sufficient attention to the results of Biblical science, he attempted to meet some of the principal modern objections to Christianity, dealing especially with materialism, pantheism, and deism, and going on to develop a Christian theism, paying particular attention to the doctrine of the Trinity and the possibility of miracles, and vigorously opposing the rationalistic conceptions of Strauss, Renan, and Baur. In 1868 he was called to Bonn as professor of practical theology and preacher to the university, and here he remained anti! his death. The purpose of his lectures was rather the formation of earnest and devout pastors than the display of scientific learning. Similarly, his preaching, which had a wide influence, was characterized rather by warm, earnest pressing home of the great truths of Christianity than by a seeking after oratorical effect. His work extended far beyond the bounds of the university. In England he had learned to know and to esteem members of other churches than his own, and he worked constantly for unity of spirit between them, without wasting time in fruitless efforts for external unity. He took part in the work of the Evangelical Alliance, and attended its conferences in Basel, Copenhagen, and New York, where he read a paper on The Best Methods of Counteracting Modern Infidelity (New York, 1873), dealing with unbelief as it shows itself in the individual, in scientific investigations, and in the practise of social life. In order to stir up the German churches to more zealous activity, he delivered a lecture at Copenhagen in 1884 on the best means of counteracting religious indifference, in which, while deprecating sensational methods such as those of the Salvation Army, he suggested the appointment, especially in large places, of evangelists who should
Ctuirtisaa Christmas carry the Gospel to the people outside the church
building, working in harmony with the pastor.
To carry this idea into effect, he founded the
German Evangelistic Union, in conjunction with
Bernstorff and Piickler. He purchased in Bonn a
disused Presbyterian chapel with a large house at
tached, and turned it into a training school for
evangelists. After his death the institution was
transferred to Barmen, where there was thought to
be a wider field for its work. He was also an en
thusiastic advocate of foreign missions, and in
1874, with Warneck, founded the Allgemeine Mis
sionszeitschr%ft, in which moat of his writings on
missionary topics first appeared. The best known
of these is Der gegenxnartige Stayed der evartgel%schen
Fleidenmission (Giitersloh, 1879; Eng. transl.,
London, 1880). Another of his numerous works
which was translated into English was his sharp
arraignment of England for permitting and even
encouraging the opium traffic, Der %ndobritische
Opiumhandel and seine W%rkungen (1878; Eng.
transl., London, 1879). (E. Sacsssu.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zum (JcdBchCniae Theodor ChriatLieba, Bonn, 1889; Mrs. T. C6riatlieb, Theodor CAriatlieb of Bonn, London, 1892 (by his widow).
CHRISTMAS: The supposed anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ, occurring on Dec. 25.' No sufficient data, however, exist, for the determination of the month or the day of the event. Efforts to reach a fixed date for Zacharias's ministration
and to combine thin with the " sixth The Dap of month " mentioned in connection Christ's with the annunciation to Mary (Luke Birth not i. 26) have given no assured result.
Known. Hippolytus seems to have been the
first to fix upon Dec. 25. He had reached the conviction that Jesus's life from conception to crucifixion was precisely thirty three years and that both events occurred on Mar. 25. By calculating nine months from the annunciation or conception he arrived at Dec. 25 as the dap of Christ's birth. The uncertainty of all the data discredits the computation. There is no historical evidence that our Lord's birthday was. celebrated during the apostolic or early postapostolic times The uncertainty that existed at the beginning of the third century in the minds of Hippolytus and others Hippolytus earlier favored Jan. 2, Clement of Alexandria (Strom., i. 21) " the 25th day of Pachon " ( =May 20), while others, according to Clement, fixed upon Apr. 18 or 19 and Mar. 28 proves that no Christmas festival had been established much before the middle of the century Jan. 6 was earlier fixed upon as the date of the baptism or spiritual birth of Christ, and the feast of Epiphany (q.v.) was celebrated by the Basilidian Gnostics in the second century (cf. Clement of Alexandria, ut sup.) and by catholic Christians by about the beginning of the fourth century.
The earliest record of the recognition of Dec. 25 as a church festival is in the Philocalian Calendar (copied 354 but representing Roman practise in 336; cf. Ruinart, Acts Martyrum, p. 617; MPL, xiii.; Lightfoot, The Liberian Calendar, in his Clement of Rome, vol. i., p. 246). In the East the celebration of Jan. 6 as the physical as well
as the spiritual birthday of the Lord prevailed generally as early as the first half of the fourth century. Chrysoatom (in 386) states that Earliest the celebration of the birth of Christ
Traces of " according to the flesh " was not in
the Church augurated at Antioch until ten years
Festival. before that date. He intimates that
this festival, approved by himself, was
opposed by many. An Armenian writer of the
eleventh century states that the Christmas festival,
invented in Rome by a heretic, Artemon, was first
celebrated in Constantinople in 373. In Egypt
the Western birthday festival was opposed during
the early years, of the fifth century, but was cele
brated in Alexandria as early as 432. The Jeru
salem church was celebrating birth and baptism
on the same day (Jan. 6) about the middle of the
fourth century, the former at Bethlehem, the latter
at the Jordan, although the twenty mile journey
between involved great inconveniences (supposed
letter of Bishop Cyril of Jerusalem to Bishop Julius
Roman bishop to ascertain the real date of Christ's
birth in order that, if possible, the practical diffi
culty may be overcome. Julius is represented as
sending to Cyril a calculation in favor of Dec. 25,
based upon the supposition (derived from Josephus)
that Zachariass vision took place at the Feast of
Tabernacles. The Jerusalem church, however,
persisted till 549 or later in celebrating birth and
baptism on Jan. 6 (Cosmas Indicopleustes). The
Christmas festival has never been adopted by the
Armenians, the physical and spiritual birthdays
being still celebrated conjointly on Jan. 8.
The wide spread conviction during the early
centuries that the baptism of Jesus was the occasion of his spiritual birth, or his
Relation adoption as Son of God and his exal
to the talon to divine rank and power,
Epiphany. tended to magnify the anniversary of
his baptism and to cause compara
tive indifference as regards the precise date of his birth according to the flesh. In two Latin homilies, ascribed by some to Ambrose of Milan (4th cent.) and by others to Maximus of Turin (5th cent.), Jan. 6 is declared to be the birthday of the Lord Jesus, " whether he was born of the Virgin on that day or was born again in baptism." It is his " natal feast," his " nativity both of flesh and of Bpi *." As thirty years before he " was given for through the Virgin," so on the same day he was " regenerated " and " sanctified " " through the mystery." The writer; or an interpolator, virtually contradicts the statement about Christ's regeneration by explaining that " Christ is baptized, not in order that he may be sanctified by the waters, but that he may himself sanctify the waters."
The naive adoptioniam that was so widely prevalent till the end of the second century in Syria, Asia Minor, Italy, northern Africa, and elsewhere, and for centuries later in Armenia, Spain, etc. , was gradually displaced by the formulation and gen
eral acceptance of a christology (based upon the prologue of John's Gospel and the Epistles of Paul)