Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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CHRISTIAN: The term Christianos, " of the party of Christ," occurs in the New Testament only in Acts xi. 26, xxvi. 28; I Pet. iv. 1.8. The first passage states that it originated at An­tioch, which accords with the fact that the ter­mination anon was recognized and employed espe­cially in Grecian Asia. The date implied by the passage is 40 44 a.n. None of the New Testa­ment passages requires an invidious meaning, though it is suggested in the second and third, There is no historical foundation for the statement often made that it was a "nickname:" Tertullian says that non Christians pronounced it Chrestianoa, the word commonly associated with the Greek word . chrestos, " serviceable," and the Codex Sinai­ticu8 reads Chrestianos in all New Testament pas­sages. Its earliest use by Christians, apart from the New Testament, is found in the Apologists, Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Theophilus, etc., after whose time it was generally appropriated by Chris­tians. That it originated outside of Christian and Jewish circles is most likely because (1) Christians spoke of one another as "the brethren," "the saints," " the disciples," " the faithful," etc.; (2) the Jews used the term " Nazarene." Its con­venience would justify its use; while the frequency with which the term " Christ " occurred in the Chriatocentric preaching of the early apostolic age would justify its application to the disciples.

GEO. W. Gnmoxm

Bmwoaaerar: R„ A. Lipeiue, Ueber den Uraprung and

. . . Gebrauch dee Chrislennamzna, in GraCulaxionepro­praram der theolop4adten Facultut Jena far Haas, 1873, PP. 6 10; DB, i. 384r388; EB, i. 752 763; DCG, i. 318318.

CHRISTIAN BROTHERS (BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS): The most noted and i influential of the Roman Catholic educational brotherhoods, founded by Jean Baptists de la Salle (b. at Reims Apr. 30, 1651; d. at Rouen Apr. 7, 1719), who was canonized May 24, 1900. Placed in charge of a congregation of Sisters of Jesus in Reims in 1680, De la Salle soon added to his duties the direction of a number of schools for boys, whose teachers he bound to a life of renun­ciation and union. The brothers were required, in addition to the three simple vows, t0 eve in. struction invariably without compensation, and t0 wear a special habit. In 1688 their founder was appointed their first superior general and removed to Vaugirard near Paris, in 1696 to Saint Yon, a house of novices at Rouen, which remained the center of the congregation until 1770. The Chris­tian Brothers spread rapidly throughout France, and in 1724 were recognized by Benedict XIII. The antimonastic decree of the National Assembly ~ of Feb. 13 1790, dissolved the congregation, which then had 121 houses in France, but it still retained its organization in Italy, and was reestablished in

Christian Brothsrs THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 40

Christian Science

France under Napoleon in 1804. By 1822 the

houses of the Christian Brothers numbered 180

in France, and since that time the congregation has

spread over the greater part of the Roman Catholic

world (especially Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Aus­

tria), and is represented in Turkey, India, Egypt,

Australia, and America. With about 1,300 houses,

over 2,000 schools, and 14,000 members, the Chris­

tian Brothers are now the strongest Roman Cath­

olic male order.

Although without official connection with the

Jesuits, the Christian Brothers, who are also called

Ignorantins because of their law which forbids

them to admit to their number priests with a

theological education, have many points in com­

mon with the older order. When the Jesuits were

expelled from France in 1784, the Christian Brothers

aided materially in maintaining sympathy for the

exiles among the people and preparing the way

for their return. Much of their organisation and

discipline also recalls the Jesuit system, especially

the assistants charged with the supervision of the

acts of the superior general, the frequent visita­

tions, the rules for confession and prayer, and the

training of their members, which consists of a

novitiate and a course of practical teaching of one

year each. (O. Ztfcgr.Ext.)

Brsnioassret: Heimbueher, Orden and %onpropationsn,

ii. 280 28b; Die chrieaiche .9ehulbritder. 2 vole.. Auge­

burs, 1844: J. A. Krebs, Leben lea . . . J. B. de la Sane,

ne6at Anhanp fiber (3esehirhte . . . seines Ordena. Regene­

bura, 1858; F. J. Knecht, J. B. de 1a Sane urd das In­

spip,t der chridlirhe„ .SehuibrGder, Freiburg, 1879; Mrs.

M. Wilson, The Christian Brothers, their Origin and Work,

London, 1883: J. B. Blain, La Vie du . . . J. B. de la

Bolls, Versailles. 1887; P. HelYot. Ordres monasti4uu,

viii. 233 eq4•: Carrier. Religious Orders. pp. 47.
CHRISTIAN CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH IN ZION: A religious society, the formal organisation of which was effected by John Alexander Dowie (q.v.) in Chicago, 1896. The growth of the movement dates back to the founder's discovery of his alleged power to obtain cure of disease through prayer, on account of which he retired from the Congregational min­istry in Melbourne and established a church rind tabernacle for " divine healing." His emigration to the United States in 1888 was followed by the establishment of " missions of healing " on the Pa­cific Coast. After his settlement at Evanston, Ill., in 1890 he conducted work on the same lines there and in Chicago,, with missions in Canada, Minne­sota, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. The success of his efforts in Chicago decided him in 1893 to make that his center of operations, and a tabernacle and " divine healing rooms " were erected. His fol­lowing was so large that organisation was deter­mined upon. In 1900 a large tract of hind was bought on Lake Michigan, 42 m. n. of Chicago, and " Zion City " was planned, where were to be erected schools, a college to train the ministry and propa­gandists, various business establishments and fac­tories (for which large sums have been solicited and received from believers), and residences for the adherents of the Church. The branches already established in the West and elsewhere were brought into connection with the central organisation, in which a theocratic element was claimed.

In the organization of the Church Dowie was

" general overseer," and claimed to be Elijah III.,

John the Baptist being Elijah II. Other officers

are overseers, elders, evangelists, deaconeeees, and

conductors of gatherings. The propaganda is

carried on by bands of " Zion Seventies " who in

twos act as tract distributors. Missionaries are

sent in all directions, and branches are established

in different countries in Europe, eastern Asia, and

South America. The basis of church membership

is belief in the Scriptures as the rule of faith and

practise, in the necessity of repentance for sin and

of trust in Christ for salvation, and belief in the

witness of the Spirit.

In 1905 Mr. Dowie was compulsorily retired, and Wilbur Glens Voliva elected in his place, though the former objected that the election violated the theocratic constitution. No statistics are obtain­able as to membership or ministry. The receiver ;pPpt.oi,nr for the affairs of Zion City reported in

8, total assets of $22528,581 and liabilities

of $8,125,018. W. H. LARRABEE.

BIHLIOanAPHT: R. Harlan, John Alexander Dowie and the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, Evansville, Wis., 1908; J. A. Dourie and his Ziona, in Independent. liii (1901), 1788; Dowia Movement in Chicago, in Out­look, bviii (1901), 429: J. M. Buckley, John Alexander Doude, Analyzed and Ciasei¢ed, in Century Magazine, alii (1902), 928 982; J. Swain, 77u Prophet and his Profile, ib., pp. 122 eqq.: J. J. Halsey, Cof a Modern Prophet, in American Journal of Sociology. is (1903).

310; J. K. Friedman, in Everybody's Magazine, a (ice). 687; J. H. 8hepetone. Douda and nix City of Zion, in the London Sunday Magazine,  dii (1904). 553.

The Church periodical is Leaves of Healing, a weekly published at Zion City.

CHRISTIAN COMMISSION, THE UNITED STATES: An organisation to care for the religious needs of the soldiers in the field during the Civil War, firstproposed byVincent Colyer, of NewYork, in 1861. The idea was taken up by the Young Men's Christian Association, and at a invention held in New York in Nov., 1881, a commission of twelve was organized to take charge of the work. Bibles, hymnals, tracts, religious books, and news­papers were distributed through the armies, and personal religious work was done. Two special works were undertaken: The Commission aimed to be a medium of speedy and reliable communica­tion between the soldiers and sailors and their friends at home,, and it circulated loan libraries of general literature. The total value of money con­tributed and other gifts was officially estimated at $6,291,107.68. The final meeting of the Commis­sion was held in Washington Feb. 11, 1866. The leading men in the movement were the president, George H. Stuart, of Philadelphia, and Nathan Bishop (q.v.), of New York.

Binnxoaswrar: Lemuel Moss, Annals of the United States Christian Commission, Philadelphia, 1888.

CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE, SOCIETY OF: The name of several religious associations of which the most important are. (1) The Society of Christian Doctrine (Societd dells doltrina cristiana), founded at Rome in 1582 by Mares de Sadis Cusani, of Milan (d. lb9b), to instruct the people in Christian teach 


Christian Science

ings. It consisted of priests and laymen, and spread in Upper Italy, Germany, and Austria. In 1586 the Roman branch was made a spiritual congrega­tion with its seat at the church of St. Agatha in Trastevere (whence they are sometimes called Agathists). The others constituted a brother­hood under secular presidents, connected with the clerical congregation by a common directing body (de finitorium). They founded schools and under­took general as well as religious instruction, taught in the churches, and strove to lead the young to a religious life. The number of clerical members had fallen to fifty four in 1747, for which reason Benedict XIV. in that year united them with a French congregation of like name, (2) the Fathers of Christian Doctrine (P&ea de la doctrine chrdi­enne), founded in 1592 by CSsar de Bus (b. at Ca­vaillon 1544; d. 1607), with the help of a former Calvinist, J. B. RomiHon, canon of Isle, and a canon of Avignon, named Pirelli. The object was to instruct in Roman doctrine and to check the spread of Calvinism. Clement VIII. confirmed the constitution in 1597. Most of the members were united with the Somaschians (q.v.), while a mi­nority joined the Oratorians of Berulle in 1616. In 1647, however, Innocent X. again made the Pyres doctrinaires an independent body, and Alex­ander VII. in 1659 allowed them to take the simple vows. At the outbreak of the French Revolution they bad twenty eight houses in France; in 1900 they had one in France (at Cavaillon, diocese of Avignon) sad six in Italy. Cardinal Bellarmine wrote his Dottrina criatiana and Dichiaratio7ze pile capiosa delta dottrina cristiand for the use of the Italian congregation, and De Bus composed a popular exposition of the catechism for the French congregation (published at Paris, 1866). The only scholar of the congregation worthy of note was the general superior Pierre Annat (d. 1715), author of an Apparatus methodicua ad positivam theologiam (Paris, 1700, and often).

(O. Z6cztLERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Helyot, Ordree monaetiquee, iv. 237r2b2;

Heimbuoher, Order and %onpregatimwrt, ii. 338 341; Carrier, Relipiow Orders, pp. 438 138; P. du Mss, La Vie du .roinErabk CF,ear de Bus, Paris, 1703; J. J. Cbsmoua, Vie du ro&&nble C6sar de Bus, Paris, 1884.


An organization to promote a deeper spiritual life among Christians of all denominations, and a more aggressive missionary work in neglected fields at home and abroad. The work was begun during a convention at Old Orchard, Me., in 1887 by a num­ber of Christian men and women, connected with various Evangelical denominations in the United States and Canada. It is not a sectarian body, but a fraternal union of Christians. It is incor porated under the laws of the State of New York, and is managed by a board of fifteen directors,' elected for a term of three years at the annual meet 

ing of the society. It hoe about 200 branches in the United States arid Canada, and 100 mission stations in foreign countries. There are about 200 official workers in the home land, and 600 foreign laborers in the mission fields abroad, of whom one­half are natives and the others American and Cana­dian missionaries. There are about 4,000 commu­nicants in the various native churches. The fields include western India, southern, central, and west­ern China, Japan, the Kongo and the Sudan in West Africa, Palestine, the West Indies, Venezuela, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Argentina.

The special object in beginning the foreign mission work was to endeavor to reach neglected fields, where other missions had not been established. Tibet wan the first objective point of the society, and for many years a successful mission has been established on its borders. In other countries the most destitute fields have always been chosen, and the society endeavors to avoid duplicating the work of other societies. Another object was to employ a class of laborers for whom an open door was not easily found under other organizations. Many of the missionaries of the Alliance are laymen specially trained for this work, and also unmarried women. A large and successful Bible Institute is maintained at South Nyack, N. Y., for the preparation of the laborers, from which over 3,000 students have gone out in the past twenty years. The attendance in the classes of 1906 07 was over 300.

The work of the society is sustained by volun­tary contributions. During the past twenty years about E3,000,000 have been contributed in this way, and the annual income at the present time is about a quarter of a million dollars. One aim of the society is to cultivate a spirit of rigid economy and great simplicity and self denial in the methods of work. The missionaries voluntarily receive no fixed salary, but a sufficient amount to meet their actual expenses on the field, gladly giving their lives in disinterested service and simple faith in God to take care of them through the friends at home. There are no expensive buildings, and most of the home workers and officials receive no salary and give their services freely for Christ's sake. In this way the maximum service is secured at the smallest expense, and the self denial of those who give finds its response in the self sacrifice of those who go.



loose confederation of churches in Kentucky, in which each church was independent and claimed to be uneectariau. The churches were bound together by no creed or ecclesiastical tie, but the general system of doctrine was Evangelical, and baptism by immersion was preferred. The confed­eration, now extinct, reported in 1895 thirteen or­ganizations and 754 communicants.

BIBLIOGRAPHY; H. K. Cam" Relipioua Forces o/ the United

.YRatea, p. 98, New York, 1898.



Christian Socialism THE NEW SCELAYF HERZOG 42


I. Definition and Principles. The Term (§ I). Relations to Science and Religion (§ 2). Attitude to Various Forces and Theories (§ 8). II. History.

1. England. Initiation of the Movement (§ 1). Results (§ 2).

2. Continental Europe. Basal Principles (I I). Results (§ 2).

3. The United States.

I. Definition and Principles: The term" Christian Socialism" was first used in 1848 by J. F. D. Maurice (q.v.). He wished to express the idea that social­ism is a development and outcome of

1. The Christianity; and that, if it is to be

Term. effective, it must have a definite

Christian basis. To this view later

Christian Socialists have always adhered, although

the term has been used to express a number

of other ideas, especially in Europe. It is fre­

quently employed there loosely to indicate any ap­

plication of Christian principles to social life. Both

Protestants and Roman Catholics have so applied

the phrase, perhaps in order to show that the

Church was not antagonistic to socialism when

subjoined to the leadership of the Church. The

term should, however, be restricted in use to the

idea which Maurice desired to express; although

this restriction does not imply adherence to the

economic views held by early Christian Socialists.

Circumstances have changed and social thought

has developed. Christian Socialists may, and do,

hold various views on economics; but they must

believe in socialism as a development and outcome

of Christianity if they would be counted among

the followers of Maurice and Charles Kingsley,

The definition of Christian Socialism as given by Maurice can be understood only on the basis of his ethical and religious principles. The most impor­tant of these is that there are two forces which came into prominence in the nine­elv_ teenth century, although they had had

tiona to a prior existence  science, and man as

Science an end in himself. The Church was

and Me  compelled to adopt some attitude in

ligioa. regard to both, since both seemed hos­

tile   science as threatening the en­

tire structure of theology, and the new theory of

man as giving rise to the labor movement with

socialism as an attendant, emphasizing the mate­

rial advantages of civilization. Christian Socialists

maintained an attitude of hospitality toward both

of these forces. They claimed an essential agree­

ment between the ascertained results of science

and the fundamental teachings of the Bible, and

argued that, since God was ruler both in the spiri­

tual and the secular spheres of life, there could

be no discrepancy between revealed religion and

science when both were rightly and fully under­

stood. Both were inspired by God, although in

different degrees and for different purposes. With

respect to the endeavor of the masses to obtain

recognition as individuals, Christian Socialists

maintained that the essence of Christianity was

brotherhood, and that its aim was the acquirement

of dignity by every man as a child of God. They

contended that the system of privileged classes

was foreign to the spirit of Christianity, and a para­

sitic growth upon the body politic. The funda­

mental principle of their philosophy may be sum­

marised in the statement that the world is created

by God  the Christian religion is revealed by him.

The principle has, however, other corollaries:

(1) Since God has created the world, he has also

redeemed it the whole of it, each human being in

ft, and all human relations because the incarna­

tion was a universal redemption. (2) Since all

men are, at least potentially, the children of God,

they are brothers in all relations. (3) Since God

has created men individuals, each with a special

endowment, every man must do some useful work

and develop his God given faculties; he should,

moreover, have the opportunity so to do.

From the vantage point of this principle Chris­tian Socialists began to wage war upon their con­temporaries. They fought the Calvinistic doc­trine of a partial redemption through election; Roman Catholicism, because as an organization that Church depreciates family life more or less by its teaching of asceticism and by ma­8. Attitude king reward in heaven dependent upon to Various " good works," in this way putting a Forces and premium on wealth and requiring the

Theories. continuation of a system whereby the

few are able to reap rewards from the

labor of the many. Against communists, social­

ists, and anarchists it was urged that they denied

the raison d'dre of nationality, and thus violated

a fundamental law of human nature, since the de­

velopment of the individual could take place only

on the basis of nationalism, and not on that of cos 
mopolitanism. They inveighed against the laissez faire doctrine as a perversion of Christian doctrine

and of sound economic principles. They berated

the rich who paid wages merely sufficient to keep

their workmen alive and thus used human beings

as a means to selfish ends. They questioned the

ability of socialism to remedy present evils merely

by changing the system of economic production

and distribution, and pointed out that only by the

infusion of the spirit of Christian brotherhood and

by the conversion of every individual could the in­

dividual be induced to work for all, and all for one,

since the beat work in the world had not been done

from economic motives, but from an unselfish de­

sire to help others.

II. History. 1. England: The year 1848 was a dark one for English workingmen. Conditions combined to bring their wrongs and suffer­ings to a head. Chartism had, moreover, stirred up considerable discussion and caused much po­litical unrest. On April 10 there was

1. Initia  an imin  mass meeting at Ben 

tion of nington Common, London; 100,000 the love  men proposed to march to Parliament

meat. and force it to accept the so called six

points; viz., universal suffrage, aboli­

tion of property qualifications formembers of Par­

liament, annual parliaments, equal representation,

payment of representatives, and vote by ballot.

This programme seemed revolutionary; the Gov 


ernment put Wellington in charge of London, and 150,000 householders were sworn in as special con­stables. But the assemblage was a mere rabble, since sober workingmen stayed away, and O'Con­nor, the Irish agitator, absented himself. A heavy downpour of rain cowed the crowd completely, so that the meeting dispersed in confusion.

But the danger was not yet passed. In order to prevent the recurrence of similar or more dan­gerous meetings, three men, Frederick Denison Maurice, Charles Kingsley, and John M. Ludlow, decided after consultation to write and publish Poli­tics for the People (May 6, 1848). Only seventeen weekly numbers appeared, but these succeeded in turning the impending revolution into a peaceful social evolution. The writers declared their sym­pathy with the workingmen, warned them against violence, appealed to the justice and charity of the rich, and expounded their principles with skill and zeal. .Others joined them, and numerous meetings were held, both for the instruction of workingmen and for mutual encouragement. Henry Mayhew had contributed a series  of  articles to the Morning Chronicle of London during 1849 on the sweating system, and these called forth in 1850 Kingsley's tract Cheap Clothes and Nasty. In the same year the little group of friends decided to issue Tracts on Christian Socialism, with the key­word: Association, i.e., Cooperation versus Com­petition. In order to alleviate at least the direct poverty among the laboring classes, the Christian Socialists started in 1850 the Society for the Pro­motion of Workingmen's Associations. Since co­operative societies were not legal at that time, Lud­low exerted all his influence to have the Industrial and Provident Societies' Act passed in 1852. Mau­rice and his friends immediately used this oppor­tunity to establish a number of cooperative con­cerns. The principles underlying them, adopted at Manchester May 15, 1853, were: (1) human society is a body consisting of many members, not a collection of warring atoms; (2) true workers must be fellow workers, not rivals; (3) the prin­ciple of justice, not of selfishness, must govern exchanges.

These societies thus established have prospered to a remarkable degree. In 1906 the turnover of the Cooperative Wholesale Society, with more than 2,000 local branches, was 16500,000,000, with a sur­plus of over $12,000,000. In 1876 the Guild of St.

Matthew was formed for the purpose 8. 8esulta. of drawing the Church and the work 

ingmen closer together, and to close as far as possible the social chasm between the rich and the poor. It was absorbed in 1880 by the Christian Social Union, under the leadership of Canon Scott Holland, although it still maintains an individual existence within the larger body, and has a spokesman in the Church Reformer. The Union consists of men of all classes who are willing to work for the following purposes: (1) to claim for the Christian law the ultimate authority in so­cial practise; (2) to study how the truths and principles of Christianity may be applied to the social and economic difficulties of the present time; and (3) to present Christ as the living king and

master, the enemy of wrong and of selfishness, and the power of love and righteousness. The earlier Christian Socialists also worked in other fields, such as village improvement societies, drew up a pro­gramme for the National Health League, founded the Workingmen's College in London, and secured the passage by Parliament of a number of laws for the benefit of workingmen. They encountered much bitter opposition both in and out of the An­glican Church. Some of them suffered persecu­tion, as when Maurice was removed from his pro­fessorship at King's College in 1853, although he was later (1866) appointed to one at Cambridge. Nevertheless, their fearless and sincere conduct and self sacrifice made many friends for them. While the movement as a separate organization has died, it has been the seed of many reforms throughout England in every sphere of life, while the United Kingdom itself has been greatly improved socially and morally by the lives and teachings of these men. The conference of 194 Anglican bishops as­sembled in 1897 practically adopted as its princi­ples the platform of Maurice and of the Christian Social Union (see LAMBETH CONFERENCE). The non conformists have also caught the spirit, and the Rev. John Clifford and many others are mem­bers of the Christian Socialist League.

2. Continental Europe: Analogous Continental movements can not properly be called Christian So­cialism. They were always Christian, but never so­cialistic. They were started largely with the purpose of undermining secularaocialiam. Butthe principal objection to applying the term to the

1. Basal Continental movements is that they Principles. never formulated a philosophy of life and of the State such as Maurice and Kingsley gave to England. As a result they were unable to present a world view as systematic, far­reaching, and comprehensive as that offered to English workingmen. This difference may ex­plain why in Great Britain the socialist party and other extremists did not develop great strength after the appearance of the Christian Socialists. The English workingman has been taught to look at the economic problem as only one among many, whereas German and French laborers came to con­sider that of supreme, if not of sole, importance. Marx simply systematized that view in his .Kapl­tal. The Christian workers of France and Ger­many had nothing to put into the hands of work­ingmen which could compare with that book. There is another difference of prime importance be­tween the two schools. The Continentals always leaned on the arm of the Church, of the State, or of both; whereas Englishmen were not afraid to at­tack either or both whenever necessary. Conti­nental laboring men regarded these leaders as hire­lings of the State or emissaries of the hierarchy, while in fact they were defenders of society on Church and State principles, and sought to ally the altar and the crown.

For these reasons the Continental movement was doomed to failure. The laboring class has kept aloof, and adopted Marxism. The leaders were, nevertheless, in earnest, and began work along other lines. The Roman Catholics founded au 

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