Assistant professor department of international relations uniersity of karachi university of karachi pakistan

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Concluding remarks
Malaysia and Pakistan are facing the problems of what post-colonial, multi-ethnic societies are facing today i.e. Ethnicity, state-society relations, authoritarian nature of ruling establishment and economic problems. Though Malaysia is trying to develop itself in all these spheres, its politics are revolving around race and religion. Besides, these hitches Malaysia has taken some positive steps in state and nation building process. Moreover, it is facing big challenges i.e. corruption, economic imbalances along racial lines, intra ethnic feuds and Islamic revivalism but the continuity in democratic process shows that the State is committed to reform all these problems through democratic means. On economic front, Malaysia has a strong export performance as well as substantial inflows of foreign direct investment.

On the other hand, Pakistan since independence has been facing ethno-socio-economic chaos which resulted in political instability. There is only one lesson which Pakistan can learn from Malaysia that is the continuity of democratic process and investment in human development rather than non-development sector which creates friction in state-society relations.

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