Assistant professor department of international relations uniersity of karachi university of karachi pakistan

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Pakistan 1977-89

General Zia ul Haq took power and initiated a broad-based Islamization scheme that had a profound impact on Pakistan’s society and politics. Additionally, ethnic challenge confronted the State which again reinforced the tendency to rely on Islam to organize national politics. Zia regime worried about the ethnic undercurrents in Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan,39 appealed to Islam in the hope to contain rising ethnic tensions and bring stability to Pakistan in the name of Islamic solidarity. In sum, Islam would allow the military to limit resistance and its continued control over Pakistan and downplay the Punjabi domination of the State. Throughout Zia period (1977-88) growing importance of ethnic politics. In these three provinces deviated from, and perhaps accounted for, the state’s preoccupation with Islam.40

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