Being a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic state, Pakistan has been facing the problems of ethnic and ideological chaos, which resulted in economic turmoil and political instability. The per capita GDP of Pakistan is around 1,890 dollars and it is on 137 on Human Development Index. This categorizes Pakistan in the low human development list. 36
In Pakistan, the State has outranked the creation of nation, rather than the nation preceding the creation of state. Islam was the only so-called binding force which united both Eastern and Western part. After the separation of East Pakistan, Islamic ideology became questionable. Ethnic nationalism emerged from the ashes of East Pakistan crisis. The new Pakistan after 1971 was politically bifurcated on ethnic lines. Later on, military-bureaucratic establishment over-centralized the state structure of Pakistan. In other words, Pakistan was created on the basis of a separate Muslim identity, which soon dissipated into various ethnic movements challenging the centre for an equitable and just share of power and resources. In this regard, the Baloch nationalist movement for autonomy in the 70’s, the demand for the Sindhudesh in 80’s and the Muhajir movement in 90’s are particularly important.
During 60’s host of problems emerged which challenges Ayub’s regime. These were unequal distribution of wealth, middle class and poor facing economic exigency, corruption, defeat in the 1965 war with India, Left and Islamist forces challenged state’s ideological position, pro-democracy movements demanded end of authoritarian rule, ethnic forces especially in East Pakistan demanded autonomy. Under these pressures Centre collapsed and Ayub Khan resigned in 1969, and delivered power to General Yahya Khan.