Part I: Measuring and expanding the knowledge base
1. Write an essay of at least three paragraphs explaining the causes of the Seminole Wars, the dates of the fighting, and the results of the warfare. What was the total cost of the war?
2. Create a timeline of the Seminole Wars. Include the dates when fighting started and stopped, and the significent events and battles in the wars. When did the Seminole Wars start and end? Regarding the First Seminole War, the U.S. Army Infantry history says 1814, and ended in 1819. The U.S. Navy Naval Historical Center says 1816-1818. The unit history of the 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery it started and ended in 1818. What do the Seminoles say? How many Seminole Wars does the Seminole Tribe acknowledge? Go to this website to find out: http://www.seminoletribe.com/ Click on the “History” section and read the material there. In the History section, click on the timeline and look at the dates of the wars. What dates will you use? Why did you choose those dates?
3. Geography and War Go to this website:
What is guerilla warfare? What advantage did the Seminoles have in guerilla-style warfare? How did Florida’s landscape make “conventional warfare” difficult, but guerilla warfare easy?
4. Create a series of maps of the Seminole Wars.
On a Florida map, mark the location of Ft. Heileman, all battle sites in the state, and all the lakes, counties, forts, and towns named for the Generals and natives.
On a map of the south and southwestern United States, mark the significant mileposts along the route of the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma.
On a map of the United States, show where Seminoles, Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw live today.
General Andrew Jackson fought in the First Seminole War, and President Andrew Jackson ordered the Seminoles and other natives to move westward. What did Jackson say about Indian Removal? Use this website:
General Jackson adopted a Creek infant whose parents were killed by his men in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama. He named the boy Lincoyer and raised him as a family member. Lincoyer learned to read and write and learned a trade. He died as a teenager, from TB. How does Jackson’s attitude toward Lincoyer compare to his words in the Congressional address above?
6. The phrase “Columbian Exchange” refers to the ideas, crops, animals, and diseases that Columbus and the subsequent explorers and settlers brought to the New World, and the ideas, crops, animals, and diseases that were taken back to Europe.
This cultural swap dramatically changed the lives of people in the Americas, in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Horses, for example, came from Europe, and changed the lifestyle of Native Americans in the western United States from sedentary (staying in one place) to nomadic, and allowed them to begin hunting bison on the Great Plains. Potatoes, taken from the New World to England in the 1500s, became the basis of the diet of the working class in Ireland. When the potato crop in Ireland failed in the 1840s, it brought an enormous increase in Irish immigrants to the US, which changed American culture as a result. Florida’s orange crop is a consequence of the Columbian exchange.
C. Compare these two pictures. The first one is of Taos Pueblo in New Mexico. The Pueblo is over 1,000 years old. The second one is a new hotel in Sedona, Arizona. How is the architectural style of the buildings similar? Which way is the “Columbian exchange” going?