Asking how the executive should be allowed to conduct war masks the fundamental question of whether war should be allowed at all – ensures a military mentality


Allies require treaties – Israel isn’t an ally



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Allies require treaties – Israel isn’t an ally


Wortzel 05, Former Professor of Asian Studies and director of the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College

(Larry, Change Partners: Who Are America's Military and Economic Allies in the 21st Century?, www.heritage.org/research/lecture/change-partners-who-are-americas-military-and-economic-allies-in-the-21st-century



In the international system, a strict understanding of a formal ally is a nation that has entered into a treaty with the United States, and a treaty is actually a contract with a foreign nation-an agreement, sovereign state with sovereign state, which derives "from obligations of good faith." For the United States, the Constitution grants the President the power to make treaties "by and with the advice and consent of the Senate." The responsibilities related to treaties are immense. In Federalist Papers Two and Three, John Jay told our citizens that the ability to make treaties is a distinguishing characteristic of a nation-state. The exercise of that power, however, brings obliga­tions. These include security obligations as well as obligations regarding trade and enterprise. Besides treaties, there are other types of interna­tional agreements that may be made by the execu­tive branch. These executive agreements are binding in international law, and in most cases, no agreement can be made without consulting with the State Department and, often, the Department of Commerce. Congress often gives the flexibility to the Presi­dent to create international agreements in specific areas so the government can carry out its business smoothly, particularly in the scientific field, in for­eign aid, agriculture, and trade. Working Together to Advance Core Values We form partnerships to combine our strength with the strength of like-minded nations in the preservation and advancement of core values. These values that distinguish us from our adversar­ies are, in the words of U.S. Trade Representative Robert Zoellick, now Deputy Secretary of State, "openness; peaceful exchange; democracy; the rule of law; and compassion." Americans live for these values, as well as die for them. We even extend these values to the way we treat our enemies. As Thomas Paine wisely explained, "He that would make his own liberty secure, must guard even his enemy from oppres­sion; for if he violates this duty, he establishes a pre­cedent that will reach to himself." Thus, we observe international norms like the Laws of Land Warfare and the Geneva Convention. Who are our allies? And why do we form these partnerships? The formal treaty allies of the United States are the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, now numbering 26 nations; Japan; South Korea; Australia; the Philippines; Thailand; and the Rio Pact nations. The Rio Pact is a hemi­spheric treaty of 23 nations in the Americas, signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1947. It actually pre-dates NATO.




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