Asian Art Museum uc berkeley History-Social Science Project 2012 Medieval Japan Summer Institute



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Asian Art Museum

UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project

2012 Medieval Japan Summer Institute

Institute Lesson Final Draft



Brendan Hurd, Seventh Grade

Unit Topic: Medieval Japan

(See provided Medieval Japan Unit Map)


Unit Focus Question:

How did medieval Japan's acts of borrowing from other parts of Asia shape their culture?


Unit Teaching Thesis:

Recognizing their geographical isolation, the Japanese chose to blend ideas of government, religion, and art from nearby civilizations (especially China and Korea) with their own traditions to create a unique culture.


History-Social Science Content Standard:

  • 7.5.3 Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting influence of the warrior code in the twentieth century.

  • 7.5.5 Study the ninth and tenth centuries' golden age of literature, art, and drama and its lasting effects on culture today, including Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji.


6 -8 Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills Standard:

Chronological and Spatial Thinking

  • Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.

  • Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.

Historical Interpretation

  • Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.


Common Core Standards: Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: Grade 6-8:

Key Ideas and Details

RH.6-8.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.



Craft and Structure

RH.6-8.5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).



Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RH.6-8.7. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.


Common Core Standards: Writing Standards for Literacy in History / Social Studies: Grade 6-8:

WHST.6-8.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.


Lesson Plan

Lesson Topic: The Tale of Heike and the Gempei War
Lesson Focus Questions: How does the Tale of Heike reflect the values of Bushido? 
Lesson Teaching Thesis: The Tale of the Heike reflects the values of Bushido by depicting a sumurai’s skill, bravery, honor, and loyalty.
Texts:

  • Medieval and Early Modern Times California Edition by Diane Hart (Pages 336-338)

Pearson Prentice Hall; Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 2006

http://www.phschool.com/atschool/california/webcodes/itext_samples/medieval/iText/products/0-13-133478-6/ch12/ch12_s4_1.html



  • Japan in the Days of the Samurai by Virginia Schomp

Benchmark Books Marshall Cavendish, New York 2002

  • Short summaries for the Tale of Heike: John Wallace, 27 Dec 2004 john.r.wallace@stanfordalumni.org http://sonic.net/~tabine/heike081003/Heike_mainpage.html


Primary Source: Tale of Heike and the six panel screen painting of the Battle of Ichi-no-Tani as depicted in Chapter 9 of the Tale of Heike

Battles at Ichi-no-tani Mountain and Yashima, from Tale of the Heike, 1650–1700


Japan
Edo period (1615–1868)
Six-panel screen, ink and colors on gold
The Avery Brundage Collection, Asian Art Museum, B80D2 http://aamdocents.org/AAM/Japan/Rotation/Painting/b80d2HeikeBattles.htm
Primary Source Analysis:

  • “I Notice – I See – I Wonder”


Writing Instruction: Writing About the Primary Source

Writing Question: What characteristics of Bushido are illustrated in the part of The Tale of Heike that depicts the battle of Ichi-no-Tani?
Reading Strategy: Passage Level Analysis – Chronological Passage Organization
Lesson Procedures:

Into activity: Students write observations, thoughts and questions about a small section of the six panel screen depicting the battle of Ichi-no-Tani. Encourage them to write as many bullets as they can about what they see in the painting, but also to make guesses about who painted it, who is in the painting and what is going on.

Background reading #1 “The Way of the Warrior”: At least start reading this passage as a class. After reading the first paragraph ask what the main idea will be for the rest of the passage. (Bushido and the two ideals of personal honor and loyalty.) Students then fill in the chart with several details supporting the main idea of the passage that bushido consisted of those two ideals. They will use these same bullets in the writing activity.
Background reading #2 “The Gempei War”: As students read the passage either as individuals or as a class they circle any signal words or phrases for chronological passage organization. Before reading discuss the meaning of the term “chronological”. Ask students why historians might use this form of organization. Consider using pair-share technique for the questions and direct the students to the third paragraph to answer questions 2-5.

Gempei War map: Students follow up the reading about the Gempei War by looking at a map of the battle locations and dates. Consider using a document camera or a digital projection of the map from the website (http://www.samurai-archives.com/map4.html). If this is not available, pass out enlarged maps to pairs or groups. As a class go over the battles and dates and try to put them in order. Identify Kyoto and explain its importance as the imperial capital where the different clans vied for influence over the emperor. Students should see the Taira clan retreated to the Southwest over sea and that the last two battles are not on the main island of Honshu. Finally, the family tree can be used to show the family hierarchy of the clans and the position of Yoritomo Minamoto at the end of the war as Shogun, the leader of the dominant clan.

Primary source analysis- The Tale of Heike: The battle of Ichi-no-tani. Students match close-ups taken from a six panel screen painting depicting the battle of Ichi-no-tani with brief summaries of parts of chapter 9 in the Tale of Heike. They also put together three pictures to make the entire six panel screen. After matching and checking their answers students should use the details of bushido from Background reading #1, “The Way of the Warrior”, to describe the trait from bushido depicted in each event in the Tale of Heike’s description of the battle.

Short paragraph write: Students use the graphic organizer from the matching activity to describe one aspect of bushido using an example from the screen/Tale of Heike. Students should use their own words to describe the details from the tale to support their interpretation and explanation of bushido.

Name _____________________________________________________________________________

Look at the painting above. Take notes on your observations of what you see in the painting. Write down your guesses as to what is going on in the painting. Write down at least one question that you have about the painting or its content.

I notice (observe…)

I Think

I wonder (Question…)









Name Key Key Key Key NO WRONG ANSWERS NO WRONG ANSWERS These are just suggestions

Look at the painting above. Take notes on your observations of what you see in the painting. Write down your guesses as to what is going on in the painting. Write down at least one question that you have about the painting or its content.

I notice (observe…)

I Think

I wonder (Question…)

Two warriors

The sea

Horses

An upturned boat or is that a whale? Sea monster?

People under the boat

One warrior has a fan

One warrior has white behind him the other has red

One warrior is in the water and the other is on the shore


The warriors are on different sides

The warrior in the sea is losing

The warrior in the sea is afraid

The boat was overloaded

The land looks like brown clouds.



Why is a warrior waving a fan?

What is that? A boat? A whale?

Why is the warrior on a horse in the sea?

Are they enemies or friends?

Is one warrior saving the other from drowning? “Here, take hold of my fan! I’ll pull you in!”



Name

Period Date


Name

Date________________Class _______



The Way of the Warrior

From Medieval and Early Modern Times

Chapter 12 Section 4 (Excerpted from pages 336-338)

The Way of the Warrior

Two ideals guided the samurai warriors of Japan: personal honor and loyalty to one’s lord. These ideals formed the heart of a warrior code called bushido. This was a strict code of conduct that guided the behavior of samurai. It means “the way of the warrior.”



The Code of Bushido

The code of bushido governed a samurai’s life. He trained fiercely, fought bravely, and died with honor. He spent years learning how to use a sword and shoot and arrow with deadly skill. “A samurai should live and die with sword in hand,” one samurai advised….



Loyalty and Honor

Under the code of bushido, loyalty to one’s lord was more important than loyalty to family, religion, or even the emperor. If a samurai’s lord was in danger, he would follow him…

Personal honor was also important. Riding into battle, a samurai shouted out his name and family. He wanted everyone to see his bravery and skill. A samurai was also careful about his appearance. His robe, his armor, and even his horse reflected his pride.

Give details about each of the ideals of bushido from the reading above.

BUSHIDO

PERSONAL HONOR

LOYALTY







KEY KEY KEY KEY KEY KEY KEY

The Way of the Warrior

From Medieval and Early Modern Times

Chapter 12 Section 4 (Excerpted from pages 336-338)

The Way of the Warrior

Two ideals guided the samurai warriors of Japan: personal honor and loyalty to one’s lord. These ideals formed the heart of a warrior code called bushido. This was a strict code of conduct that guided the behavior of samurai. It means “the way of the warrior.”



The Code of Bushido

The code of bushido governed a samurai’s life. He trained fiercely, fought bravely, and died with honor. He spent years learning how to use a sword and shoot and arrow with deadly skill. “A samurai should live and die with sword in hand,” one samurai advised….



Loyalty and Honor

Under the code of bushido, loyalty to one’s lord was more important than loyalty to family, religion, or even the emperor. If a samurai’s lord was in danger, he would follow him…

Personal honor was also important. Riding into battle, a samurai shouted out his name and family. He wanted everyone to see his bravery and skill. A samurai was also careful about his appearance. His robe, his armor, and even his horse reflected his pride.

Give details about each of the ideals of bushido from the reading above.

BUSHIDO

PERSONAL HONOR

LOYALTY

1. Samurai shouted their names in battle

2. cared about how they looked

3. Robe, armor and horse were important

4. spent years training with sword and bow

5. Died with honor- What does that mean? Not as a prisoner or as a coward

  1. One’s lord

  2. Family

  3. Religion

  4. emperor

He would follow his lord into danger

He would sacrifice himself and even his family for his lord

Name ___________________________

Date________________Class _______

The Gempei War

from Japan in the Days of the Samurai by Virginia Schomp
Chronological Reading Organization:

Read over the paragraphs circling chronological words or phrases. Chronological means “time order”.

Using the chronological sentence starters, complete the summary below (use your own words).
Around 1160 the Taira [clan] swept the Fujiwara [clan] from power. Then the Minamoto [clan] tried to overthrow the Taira. The rivalry between the two clans led to a six-year civil war known as the Gempei War.
The final battle of the Gempei War took place at sea in 1185. The Taira forces had suffered one defeat after another. Now their four hundred ships faced a much larger Minamoto fleet near a beach call Dan-no-ura. Sailing on one of the Taira warships was the emperor, eight-year-old Antoku.
The Tale of Heike, a thirteenth century [1200’s] collection of stories, describes how the Taira forces faced defeat. Antoku’s grandmother “took the Emperor in her arms and said, ‘though I am but a woman, I will not fall into the hands of the enemy…In the depths of the ocean is our capital’”. The old woman told Antoku to say his prayers. Then, holding the boy tightly, she stepped off the ship and “sank with him at last beneath the waves.” Following their example, thousands of Taira soldiers and court ladies leaped into the sea and drowned.
Around 1160

In 1185


In the 1200’s

1. What were the two sides in the Gempei War?


Read about the battle of Dan-no-ura from the excerpt from the Tale of the Heike (in the third paragraph above).

2. What important person was sailing on one of the Taira ships?

Read about the battle of Dan-no-ura from the excerpt from the Tale of the Heike (in the third paragraph on the other side of the paper).


3. Considering what you know of the Bushido code of honor, why did Antoku’s grandmother decide to take her life and Emperor Antoku’s?

4. Who followed the example of the Emperor and his grandmother?


5. What ideals of Bushido does the end of this story illustrate?




http://www.shibuiswords.com/gempei_files/gempei.jpg


http://www.samurai-archives.com/map4.html

Name



On the map, complete the following….

1. Circle Dan-no-ura. It is in the south(near the bottom of Japan)

2. Circle Kyoto. It is in the middle and is the traditional capital of the Emperor. Kyoto is close to where the war began.

3. Circle Kamakura. This is where the Minimoto moved the government. It is the furthest town to the East(left)

4. Find the name of Yoritomo on the Minamoto family tree. Circle it. He became the powerful Shogun and political leader of Japan.

5. Find the battle of Ichi-no-Tani that we will learn about.

6. Use the dates by the battles to answer the following question. As the war came to a close, what direction did the war move in?

a. Toward the northeast

b. Toward the Southeast

c. Toward the Northwest

d. Toward the Southwest

KEY KEY KEY

The Gempei War

Around 1160 the Taira [clan] swept the Fujiwara [clan] from power. Then the Minamoto [clan] tried to overthrow the Taira. The rivalry between the two clans led to a six-year civil war known as the Gempei War.

The final battle of the Gempei War took place at sea in 1185. The Taira forces had suffered one defeat after another. Now their four hundred ships faced a much larger Minamoto fleet near a beach call Dan-no-ura. Sailing on one of the Taira warships was the emperor, eight-year-old Antoku.

The Tale of Heike, a thirteenth century [1200’s] collection of stories, describes how the Taira forces faced defeat. Antoku’s grandmother “took the Emperor in her arms and said, ‘though I am but a woman, I will not fall into the hands of the enemy…In the depths of the ocean is our capital’”. The old woman told Antoku to say his prayers. Then, holding the boy tightly, she stepped off the ship and “sank with him at last beneath the waves.” Following their example, thousands of Taira soldiers and court ladies leaped into the sea and drowned.

Chronological Writing Organization:

Read over the first few paragraphs taking notes whenever you see a chronological phrase. Chronological means “time order”.

Paraphrase the information (take notes in your own words).
Around 1160 the Taira took power from the Fujiwara. The Minamoto tried to overthrow the Taira. This started a six year civil war.
In 1185 the final battle took place at sea after the Taira had suffered many defeats.
In the 1200’s the tale of Heike was written about the civil war. It was a series of stories.
1. What were the two sides in the Gempei War?

The two sides were the Minamoto and Taira clans.

Read about the battle of Dan-no-ura from the excerpt from the Tale of the Heike (in the third paragraph above).
2. Who was sailing on one of the Taira ships? The 8 year old emperor, Antoku.

3. Considering what you know of the bushido code of honor, why did Antoku’s grandmother decide to take her life and Emperor Antoku’s?

To be captured and surrender is not honorable. She did not want the emperor to be disgraced as a coward or failure.

4. Who followed their example?

Thousands of Taira samurai and noble women killed themselves.
5. What parts of Bushido does the end of this story illustrate?

The end of the story illustrates loyalty to a samurai’s lord and to the emperor. The samurai and the noble women chose personal honor instead of defeat.





Key Key Key

Key

Key


http://www.shibuiswords.com/gempei_files/gempei.jpg



3


2




5



6



1


4


A

battle scenes of tale of the heike detail7

B

battle scenes of tale of the heike detail16

C
battle scenes of tale of the heike detail12

D

battle scenes of tale of the heike detail23
E

battle scenes of tale of the heike detail13

F

battle scenes of tale of the heike detail11

G

battle scenes of tale of the heike detail20

H

battle scenes of tale of the heike detail8

Name ___________________________

Date________________Class _______

Battle Scenes from Tale of the Heike, approx. 1650–1700. Japan. Edo period (1615–1868). Six-panel screen, ink and colors on gold. Asian Art Museum, the Avery Brundage Collection, B63D8.

Put the letter of the close-up print next to the correct summaries of different parts of the Tale of Heike then write a trait to describe the part of the bushido code of the samurai in each scene

Photo placard

Part of the Tale of Heike, Chapter 9

What characteristics of bushido are present?




The Assault from the Cliff — This is the famous charge the Minamoto horsemen made down a very steep hill as the surprise attack on the rear of the Taira forces at Ichi-no-tani.








The Death of Tadanori —Tadanori pins down Tadazumi and is about to kill him when Tadazumi’s aide runs up behind Tadanori and chops off his arm. Tadanori, who is then horribly wounded, asks for permission to recite Buddhist prayers before being beheaded.








The Emperor waits- The large building shown at center is the temporary Taira headquarters, where Taira soldiers hold the youthful Emperor Antoku despite the raging battle outside.








The Death of Atsumori —

Atsumori is trying to ride out to a Taira boat when Naozane calls him back with his fan. They fight and Naozane wins. When Naozane sees that it is just a boy who he is about to behead, he stops since he has a son nearly the same age. Nevertheless, someone will certainly kill Atsumori, so he takes his life and prays for the boy. After his death, he finds a flute beneath










The Retreat — The Ichi-no-tani battle ends, with the surviving Taira fleeing by boat in many directions. The hopes among clan members of a return to power are completely crushed. Women can be seen being carried into the boats on the backs of Taira warriors.




Can you put the panels together correctly? Here are some hints: The Taira Fortress lies in the center. The Taira boats and the death of Atsumori should be off to the left. The frontal assault of the fortress lies off to the right. In the upper right-hand side you can see the Minamoto forces being led across the mountains by following a rider-less horse who finds the best path. What three close-ups did you use to make the whole painting?

1. How did the artist separate the different key moments of the tale, yet keep it all in one picture? Or, in other words, what is used by the artist to make separate scenes?



2. Why does Naozone hesitate from killing Atsumori?



3.Why is the death of Atsumori a tragedy?



4. Based on the geography you see in the painting and the end result of the battle, do you think this battle took place toward the beginning or end of the Gempei War? What evidence is there in the painting to support your opinion?



Now explain one aspect of bushido and use part of the Tale of Heike as an example to support your explanation.



Writing About the Primary Source

Writing Question: What characteristics of bushido are illustrated in the part of The Tale of Heike that depicts the battle of Dan-no-uri?

is an important characteristic of bushido, the code of the

(Topic)


Samurai. This characteristic is displayed in the Tale of Heike when

(use evidence from the Tale of the Heike)

This part is an example of bushido because

(analysis – explain how evidence and topic sentence are connected)



Key Key Key Key

Battle Scenes from Tale of the Heike, approx. 1650–1700. Japan. Edo period (1615–1868). Six-panel screen, ink and colors on gold. Asian Art Museum, the Avery Brundage Collection, B63D8.

Put the letter of the close-up print next to the correct summaries of different parts of the Tale of Heike then write an trait to describe the part of the bushido code of the samurai in each scene

Placard or photo

Part of the Tale of Heike

What characteristics of bushido are present?

C

The Assault from the Cliff — This is the famous charge the Minamoto horsemen made down a very steep hill as the surprise attack on the rear of the Taira forces at Ichi-no-tani.


bravery, skill at horseback riding, personal honor

A

The Death of Tadanori —Tadanori pins down Tadazumi and is about to kill him when Tadazumi’s aide runs up behind Tadanori and chops off his arm. Tadanori, who is then horribly wounded, asks for permission to recite Buddhist prayers before being beheaded.


bravery, honor at death, dignity, skill at fighting

B

The Emperor waits- The large building shown at center is the temporary Taira headquarters, where Taira soldiers hold the youthful Emperor Antoku despite the raging battle outside.

loyalty to the emperor, loyalty to the lord

G

The Death of Atsumori

Atsumori is trying to ride out to a Taira boat when Naozane calls him back with his fan. They fight and Naozane wins. When Naozane sees that it is just a boy who he is about to behead, he stops since he has a son nearly the same age. Nevertheless, someone will certainly kill Atsumori, so he takes his life and prays for the boy. After his death, he finds a flute beneath



bravery, skill at fighting, personal honor and integrity

D

The Retreat — The Ichi-no-tani battle ends, with the surviving Taira fleeing by boat in many directions. The hopes among clan members of a return to power are completely crushed. Women can be seen being carried into the boats on the backs of Taira warriors.


loyalty to the lord

Can you put the panels together correctly? Here are some hints: The Taira Fortress lies in the center. The Taira boats and the death of Atsumori should be off to the left. The frontal assault of the fortress lies off to the right. In the upper right-hand side you can see the Minamoto forces being led across the mountains by following a rider-less horse who finds the best path. What three close-ups did you use to make the whole painting? F-E-H

1. How did the artist separate the different key moments of the tale, yet keep it all in one picture? Or, in other words, what is used by the artist to make separate scenes?



The artist added large clouds of gold leaf to separate all the scenes.

2. Why does Naozone hesitate from killing Atsumori?



Naozone realizes that Atsumori is a young man, as young as his own son.

3.Why is the death of Atsumori a tragedy?



Naozone finds a flute on the body of Atsumori. This shows that he was much more than a warrior, but an musician; an artist with feelings and a soul.

4. Based on the geography you see in the painting and the end result of the battle, do you think this battle took place toward the beginning or end of the Gempei War? What evidence is there in the painting to support your opinion?This took place at the end. The Taira enter boats and go out to sea.



Writing About the Primary Source

Writing Question: What characteristics of bushido are illustrated in the part of The Tale of Heike that depicts the battle of Dan-no-uri?

Writing sample #1

Bravery is an important characteristic of bushido, the code of the Samurai.

This characteristic is displayed in the Tale of Heike when the Minamoto clan samurai charge down a steep hill to surprise the Taira by attacking the rear of the fortress.

This part is an example of bushido because it shows that the Minamoto warriors were not afraid of falling down the hill. They went quickly into battle without anyway to retreat back up the mountainside. They had to rely on their horses and their training and skill to safely go down the hillside and then engage in battle.

Writing sample #2

Personal honor is an important characteristic of bushido, the code of the Samurai.

This characteristic is displayed in the Tale of Heike when Naozone fights Atsumori. . He challenged Atsumori’s honor as Atsumori tried to escape to the sea. Naozone hesitates before he kills Atsumori since he reminds him of his own son. However, Naozone takes Atsumori’s life quickly before other Minamoto warriors will dishonor him.

This part is an example of bushido because it shows that Naozone was much more than a cold-blooded killer. He shows thought and consideration to those he fights. He respects the warriors he fights since he expects them all to uphold the ideals of bushido.


Medieval Japan in the Seventh Grade Curriculum Summer Institute

Lesson Application #1: Gempei War by Brendan Hurd



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