Article 7 – the equality and non-discrimination provision1


Nationality and migration status



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Nationality and migration status are also important grounds of discrimination. In Lebanon, for example, migrant domestic workers are not covered by the labour law and are subject to restrictive immigration rules based on the kafala system, the visa sponsorship system that ties workers to their employers and puts workers at risk of exploitation. An example of discrimination on the basis of family status is the differential treatment, in numerous states, of unmarried persons. In Morocco, Article 490 of the Penal Code criminalizes consensual sex between unmarried people. Age-based discrimination exists in patterns such as abuse of the elderly, denial of reasonable accommodation in access to information (when, for example, vital information is only available online and elderly people with poor IT skills are unable to access it), undue age restrictions in admissions to educational institutions, refusal to employ older workers, and mandatory retirement when it is not based on failure to meet occupational requirements but only on age.
Discrimination on the basis of political opinion is frequently experienced by persons with oppositional and dissenting political views or affiliations, and can take a huge variety of forms, from politically motivated torture and ill-treatment in custody to pressure on employers to dismiss them or on universities to expel them. Finally, millions of people in the world are victims of systemic forms of discrimination based on their socio-economic status, and in this regard, indirect discrimination is particularly relevant. For example, the distribution of public health care resources in a way that puts a poorer community at a particular disadvantage in respect to health care would constitute indirect discrimination on the basis of socio-economic status.



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