Apush studyguide chapter 31: "Toward a Transnational America" Summary



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APUSH STUDYGUIDE
Chapter 31: "Toward a Transnational America"
Summary:

George H.W. Bush presented carried over Reagan’s policy on the war on illegal drugs. He also acted like a true Republican and gave his support to the American’s with Disabilities Act. On August 2, 1990 Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and took over under the lead of Suddam Hussein. In order to keep Iraq from invading Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf Bush announced the start of Operation Desert Storm. This led to the Persian Gulf War. Osama bin Laden openly opposed this and began building his Al Qaeda organization. In 1992 Bill Clinton was elected president of the US.

During his first term, Clinton pushed two major trade agreements; the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). He also wanted to create a health care reform but his proposal fell through and it was never approved. Clinton was in office during one of the strongest and longest economic booms in history. American society and culture began to change as improvements in the technological world were made. Tech-stocks reached an all time high and many became billionaires due to the creation of Microsoft, The internet became the new way of life and everyone was using it. The World Wide Web was created and it turned the world into an electronic culture. A huge increase in Latin American immigrants led to racial divide and riots throughout the country. The increasing diversity of American culture as well as the growth of rights for groups such as women and gays had become the momentum for an extensive and controversial movement known as multiculturalism. This led to Proposition 187 and the Defense of Marriage Act.

Towards the end of his second term as president, Clinton was charged with several accusations concerning his moral standards. The scandal known as Whitewater and his affair with a White House Intern led to many calling for his impeachment. However, he was not impeached and ended his second term with the election of 2000. In the 2000 election Clinton’s vice president Al Gore ran against George W. Bush (George H.W. Bush’s son). On election night Gore was announced the winner; however, due to a mix up in Florida the result was not accurate. Florida had to recount all of their votes to determine who actually won. The Supreme Court finally ruled that Florida should halt the counting and George W. Bush, not Gore, was announced as President.

Bush’s presidency began with issues of policies relating to the environment and he acted rapidly to suspend several problems established under Clinton. On September 11, 2001 America faced the largest terrorist attack of her time. 2,572 people died at the twin towers and 184 people died at the Pentagon. Bush, enraged at the injustice done to America, declared the deadly attacks an act of war and vowed to hunt down those responsible for the “evil, despicable acts of terror.” Congress granted him permission to do whatever necessary. Secretary of State Colin Powell stated to all nations harboring terrorists that “You’re either with us or against us.” Millions of Americans rushed to support Bush and aide the victims of 9-11. The day after the attacks President Bush announced that Osama bin Laden was behind the attacks. He told the Taliban to hand over bin Laden but they refused to comply. Bush announced the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom, released a new National Security Strategy Report, the USA Patriot Act, and the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. We then invaded Iraq. Bush was reelected in 2004 began once again leading a nation at war. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina hit destroying everything in her path. Bush’s weak response led to a disapproving country.

In 2008, Barack Obama was elected as the first African American President. He had no political machine and was not well known. But he did have a great electoral tactic. He registered new young and colored voters. He ran against Hilary Clinton in the primaries, she would have been the first woman President if elected. Then when he beat her out he ran against John McCain. In office he is focusing on gradually pulling US troops out of Iraq. He also announced a plan to deploy 30,000 additional troops to Afghanistan. His main focus has been to establish a health-care reform. It was passed but not a single Republican in either House of Senate voted for it. The rest of his accomplishments as president are yet to be seen due to the fact that he is still in office.



Important People:

George H.W. Bush-

President after Reagan. He was in office during Operation Desert Storm and the Persian Gulf War.



Saddam Hussein-

Iraq's military dictator. Invaded Kuwait which led to Operation Desert Storm and then the Persian Gulf War.



Bill Clinton-

President after George H.W. Bush. Pushed the North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization through Congress. He presided over one of the longest and strongest economic booms in American History. He was caught in the Whitewater scandal and had an affair with a young White House intern. The affair led to accusations of him giving a false testimony under oath, witness tampering, and obstruction of justice.



Al Gore-

Clinton's vice president. Ran for presidency against George W. Bush. On election night he was announced winner. However, the next morning it was announced that he may not have won due to a mix up in Florida. After a huge dispute over Florida counting the votes the U.S. Supreme Court announced that they should halt the counting and George W. Bush was announced as America's President.



George W. Bush-

President after Clinton. Was in office during the 9-11 attacks and declared war against our attackers. Changed the conduct and goals of American foreign policy. Headed Operation Enduring Freedom and approved the USA Patriot Act. He responded to pleas from the 9-11 victims’ families and established the National Commission of Terrorist Attacks upon the U.S. He approved the invasion of Iraq and was in his 2nd term when Hurricane Katrina hit.



Osama bin Laden-

Prime suspect behind the 9-11 attacks. Airline hijackers were part of his Al-Qaeda network. Issued a decree that granted religious legitimacy to all efforts to expel the U.S. from the lands of Islam.



Barrack Obama-

President after George W. Bush. 1st African American president. Began a policy of U.S. troop removal from Iraq. Focused largely on his health-care reform which focused more on reforming insurance industry practices than on overhauling how patient care was delivered and paid for.


Key Terms:

Operation Desert Storm-

U.S. military campaign to force Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.



Persian Gulf War-

War initiated by President George H.W Bush in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.



Gramm-Rudman-

Law that mandated automatic spending cuts if the government failed to meet fixed deficit reduction goals leading to a balanced budget by 1991.



Brady Bill-

A pioneering federal effort to regulate the sale and ownership of handguns.



North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)-

Agreement reached in 1993 by Canada, Mexico, and U.S. to substantially reduce barriers to trade.



World Trade Organization (WTO)-

International organization that sets standards and practices for global trade, and the focus of international protests over world economic policy in the late 1990s.



Contract with America-

Platform proposing a sweeping reduction in the role and activities of the federal government on which many Republican candidates ran for Congress in 1994.



Internet-

The system of interconnected computers and servers that allows the exchange of email, posting of Web sites, and other means of instant communication.



World wide web-

A part of the Internet designed to allow easier navigation of the network through the use of graphical user interfaces and hypertext links between different addresses.



Multiculturalism-

Movement that emphasized the unique attributes and achievements of formerly marginal groups and recent immigrants.



Proposition 187-

California legislation adopted by popular vote in California in 1994, which cuts off state-funded health and education benefits to undocumented or illegal immigrants.



Defense of Marriage Act-

Act which specified that gay couples would be ineligible for spousal benefits provided by federal law.



Whitewater-

Arkansas real estate development in which Bill and Hillary Clinton were investors; several fraud convictions resulted from investigations into Whitewater, but evidence was not found that the Clintons were involved in the wrongdoing.



9/11-

Terrorist attack on the United states on September 11, 2001. Hijackers, armed with only knives and box cutters, crashed two jetliners into New York's World Trade Center towers, while a third jetliner slammed into the Pentagon in Virginia. A fourth plane, diverted from its terrorist mission by courageous passengers, hurtled to the ground near Pittsburgh. 246 people perished in the four planes, 189 people died at the Pentagon, 2,752 people died in New York at the site of the twin towers. Saudi Arabian Osama bin Laden was behind the attacks.



Places and Countries:

Bosnia-

A nation in southeast Europe that split off from Yugoslavia and became the site of bitter civil and religious war, requiring NATO and U.S. intervention in the 1990s.



Kosovo-

Province of Yugoslavia where the United States and NATO intervened militarily in 1999 to protect ethnic Albanians from expulsion.



Silicon Valley-

The region of California including San Jose and San Francisco that holds the nation's greatest concentration of electronic firms.



World Trade Centers-

World’s largest commercial complex, home too many businesses, government agencies, and international trade organizations. On September 11, 2001 two jetliners were crashed into the towers, ignited huge, intense fires in the upper stories of both buildings, weakening them and leading to their collapse. The destruction of the towers and large death toll led to America going to war against her offenders.



Pentagon-

Building accommodating the U.S. Dept. of Defense. Located in Arlington, Va. It was the destination of part of the terrorist attacks that took place on 9-11. A hijacked jetliner was intentionally crashed into it. The building caught on fire and 189 people were killed.



Iraq-

Country in Middle East under the rule of military dictator Suddam Hussein. Refused to cooperate with the U.N. to allow U.N. inspectors to make sure that Iraq was not creating nuclear weapons. Finally, in 2003, they allowed the U.N to come inspect their country and they found no weapons of mass destruction. However, due to the fact that Iraq did not actively cooperate with them it can be inferred that Iraq may have destroyed or hidden its weapons before we could get there. Iraq continued to fail to cooperate so the US and Britain gave them an ultimatum. Either Hussein would step down or face invasion. He did not step down so we began airstrikes but he escaped into hiding. He was captured by US forces in Dec. 2003. In 2006 Hussein was finally hanged for crimes against humanity.



Afghanistan-

Country in the Middle East. Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin Laden after the 9-11 terrorists attacks so the US launched attacks against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. In 2009 President Obama announced a plan to deploy 30,000 additional troops to Afghanistan.



Timeline:


1986

Immigration Reform and Control Act solves illegal alien problem.

1988

George H.W Bush is elected president

1990

Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

1991

Operation Desert Storm forces Iraq out of Kuwait

1992

Bill Clinton elected President

1993

1st terrorist attack at world trade center. Kills six people.

Clinton introduces health care reform but it did not get passed.

Congress approves the North American Free Trade Agreement


1994

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) passed.

“Defense of Marriage” Act passed.



1996

Welfare Reform Act passed

President Bill Clinton is reelected



1997

Kyoto Protocol supported by European Union but not the US

1998

Clinton voted to be impeached but vote fails

1999

US joins NATO forces in Kosovo

2001

George W. Bush becomes President

9-11 Terrorist attack

US begins military campaign in Afghanistan

Homeland Security Department established



2003

US invades Iraq

2004

George W. Bush reelected

2005

Hurricane Katrina

2009

Barack Obama elected as 44th President



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