Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.
I. Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers had different economic and imperial goals involving land and labor that shaped the social and political development of their colonies as well as their relationships with native populations.
Spanish efforts to extract wealth from the land led them to develop institutions based on subjugating native populations, converting them to Christianity, and incorporating them, along with enslaved and free Africans, into the Spanish colonial society.
* encomienda system
* casta system
* forced assimilation by Catholic priests
* Native American labor replaced by African slavery
French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few Europeans and relied on trade alliances and intermarriage with American Indians to build economic and diplomatic relationships and acquire furs and other products for export to Europe.
* Both Dutch and French traded European goods for furs
* French sent in Jesuit missionaries to convert Indians and create working relationships; Jesuits learned languages and culture
* French fur traders intermarried with Indians to form alliances
* Dutch allied with Iroquois, whom the French opposed
* Dutch took land and wampum trading network from the Algonquians, who then struck back and almost wiped out Dutch, who then allied with Mohawks to strike back
English colonization efforts attracted a comparatively large number of male and female British migrants, all of whom sought social mobility, economic prosperity, religious freedom, and improved living conditions. These colonists focused on agriculture and settled on land taken from Native Americans, from whom they lived separately.
* English focused on settler colonies predominantly
* Pilgrims and Puritans came to establish their own churches, as well as acquiring substantial amounts of land for farming [Pilgrims, separatists, William Bradford, Thanksgiving] [Puritans, John Winthrop, City Upon a Hill/errand into the wilderness, predestination, conversion experience, Roger Wiliams, Anne Hutchinson, English Civil War, Halfway Covenant, Salem witch trials]
* Jamestown attracted settlers through the profits from tobacco, self-government with the House of Burgesses, and the headright system, which offered the chance to grow wealthy
* Pennsylvania offered land and religious toleration
* Maryland was a Catholic refuge, although Protestants outnumbered Catholics and rejected Act of Toleration
* Rhode Island offered religious toleration
II. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors.
The Chesapeake and North Carolina colonies grew prosperous exporting tobacco – a labor-intensive product initially cultivated by white, mostly male indentured servants and later by enslaved Africans.
* tobacco developed by John Rolfe
* headright system brought in thousands of indentured servants
* only half of indentured servants survived “seasoning”
* overproduction of tobacco, enforcement of Navigation Acts, and decreasing attractiveness of available land and profits dried up pool of indentured servants
* Chesapeake slowly began passing laws creating race-based slavery
* Bacon’s Rebellion was the trigger event shifting the Chesapeake from white indentured servants to African slaves
* tobacco required large amounts of land to be profitable; only the ruling class of planters were able to squeeze out a profit
* tobacco produced colonies with few towns
The New England colonies, initially settled by Puritans, developed around small towns with family farms and achieved a thriving mixed economy of agriculture and commerce.
* Puritans “errand into the wilderness” to create a “City upon a Hill” demanded that all male settlers be treated roughly equally, so land was evenly distributed
* Puritans migrated as church communities, and laws required them to live closely together, near churches and schools, with a communal need to enforce laws based on Bible and a national covenant that discouraged tolerance and diversity
* Puritans required conversion experience for membership, which then allowed males to vote in Massachusetts
* New England grew corn and beans, and fished, which they then sold to the South and Caribbean colonies; NE bought molasses and made rum; trade built them into shipping power
The middle colonies supported a flourishing export economy based on cereal crops and attracted a broad range of European migrants, leading to societies with greater cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity and tolerance.
* New York began as New Amsterdam, welcoming a variety of ethnic groups, including the first Jewish community in America
* Pennsylvania was Quaker, whose pacifism and belief in an Inner Light meant welcoming all, and treating Indians relatively fairly
* Scots-Irish and Germans came to Pennsylvania in large numbers
* Middle colonies heavily focused on wheat
* Middle colonies remained diverse and tolerant throughout their existence
The colonies of the southernmost Atlantic coast and the British West Indies used long growing seasons to develop plantation economies based on exporting staple crops. They depended on the labor of enslaved Africans, who often constituted the majority of the population in these areas and developed their own forms of cultural and religious autonomy.
* South Carolina and Georgia based on rice and indigo, and later cotton
* Caribbean colonies grew sugar, the most profitable of all crops
* All of these colonies used Portuguese-based slavery, which was more cruel and destructive of human dignity, because the profits from sugar were so high, and the supply of slaves so close and so cheap, that they worked their slaves to death and bought more
* African slaves merged African belief systems and Christianity, producing voodoo and Santeria
Distance and Britain’s initially lax attention led to the colonies creating self-governing institutions that were unusually democratic for the era. The New England colonies based power in participatory town meetings, which in turn elected members to their colonial legislatures; in the Southern colonies, elite planters exercised local authority and also dominated the elected assemblies.
* House of Burgesses the first self-government; most other colonies followed their example
* Royal governors or proprietors had to work with these representative assemblies if they wanted to get anything done
* New England town meetings allowed most adult white males to participate in making laws for their local communities
* Planter class in the South either required substantial property to vote or hold office, or they partied with their voters to get their votes
* Domestic politics and/or salutary neglect allowed American colonies to control the legislative process, especially taxation; occasional British efforts to re-assert control (Navigation Acts, Dominion of New England, Glorious Revolution) generally failed or were avoided
III. Competition over resources between European rivals and American Indians encouraged industry and trade and led to conflict in the Americas.
An Atlantic economy developed in which goods, as well as enslaved Africans and American Indians, were exchanged between Europe, Africa, and the Americas through extensive trade networks. European colonial economies focused on acquiring, producing, and exporting commodities that were valued in Europe and gaining new sources of labor.
* Mercantilism (colonies export raw materials, mother country sells back finished goods)
* Navigation Acts enforced trade only with British (bribery and smuggling undercut these for decades)
* Salutary neglect set the pattern
* South Atlantic System / Triangle Trades (food from New England sold in Caribbean, molasses taken back, turned into rum, which was then sold for other commodities, including slaves)
* Dutch, then British, went to war to seize control of slave trade
* Sugar islands the main source of imperial profits
* British went to war against Dutch and seized New Amsterdam / New York in order to enforce mercantilism
* northern American colonies used loophole in Navigation Acts to build trading vessels and control trade between North America and Caribbean
* New England exported food and rum; Middle colonies exported wheat; Chesapeake exported tobacco; North Carolina exported timber; South Carolina exported rice and indigo and later cotton
Continuing trade with Europeans increased the flow of goods in and out of American Indian communities, stimulating cultural and economic changes and spreading epidemic diseases that caused radical demographic shifts.
* Value of European trade goods meant Native Americans went to war to control the trade with European colonies
* fur trade caused massive environmental damage, as beavers were slaughtered, which ruined lake and wetland environments they helped maintain
* Beaver Wars: Iroquois Confederation repeatedly went to war over neighbors to seize control of fur trade and European trade, pushing their neighbors to move, or to capture replacements for their lost tribe members in “mourning wars”
* Diseases spread by traders, French fur trappers, Native Americans forced Native American tribes to remake themselves into new groups and forge new identities and ways of survival (tribalization)
Interactions between European rivals and American Indian populations fostered both accommodation and conflict. French, Dutch, British, and Spanish colonies allied with and armed American Indian groups, who frequently sought alliances with Europeans against other Indian groups.
* Dutch armed the Iroquois, who warred against allies of French; French eventually went to war against Iroquois, who allied themselves with the British over time, or played French and British off against each other
* Puritans in Connecticut waged genocidal Pequot War to seize land
* John Eliot / “praying Indians” / written language created by Eliot, who translated the entire Bible
* John Smith / Pocahontas / Powhatan / Opechancanough’s 1622 and 1644 attacks (Opie was killed by Native Americans allied with English)
* Bacon’s Rebellion / slaughter of frontier Native Americans
* King Philip’s War / Metacom tried to drive English back into sea, but other Native American groups sided with English
* King William’s War / Queen Anne’s War / King George’s War all had Native American groups on both the French and British side
* George Washington’s 1754 expedition into the Ohio Valley saw Native Americans on both sides playing their own political games
* Resulting French and Indian War saw Native Americans forced to take sides as British drove French out of North America
* Spanish war on Aztecs involved conquered tribes allying with Spanish, then becoming conquered themselves
The goals and interests of European leaders and colonists at times diverged, leading to a growing mistrust on both sides of the Atlantic. Colonists, especially in British North America, expressed dissatisfaction over issues including territorial settlements, frontier defense, self-rule, and trade.
* King James I took over Virginia as a royal colony, and ordered House of Burgesses abolished; royal governor discovered he couldn’t rule without it
* Lord Baltimore and Catholic minority often at odds with Protestant majority in Maryland, as can be seen in passage – and dismissal – of Toleration Act designed to protect Catholic minority
* New England unhappy with Oliver Cromwell for ignoring their “City upon a Hill” / Navigation Acts widely defied with smuggling and bribery over the next century
* Louis XIV refused to allow French Huguenots to emigrate, fearing they would rebel, so New France choked off from French settlers (French peasants also refused to emigrate, as they had more rights than English peasants displaced by enclosure)
* Spanish never allowed their colonies any degree of self-rule, nor did they allow any Spanish creoles born in New Spain any kind of significant power
* British colonies often at odds with each other over western lands, which the British kings had granted with conflicting claims
* New England furious with Restoration of King Charles II
* Bacon’s Rebellion put colonists under Nathaniel Bacon at war with royal governor William Berkeley
* King James II took away self-government in New England, putting all of New England, New York, and New Jersey into Dominion of New England
* Glorious Revolution met with acclaim in America, even though William and Mary altered colonial charters and created others
*W.A.G. the French and Indians! Colonies annoyed by treaties
British conflicts with American Indians over land, resources, and political boundaries led to military confrontations, such as Metacom’s War (King Philip’s War) in New England.
* 1622 Virginia massacre by Opechancanough
* Miles Standish’s pre-emptive strike
* Pequot War in Connecticut
* King Philip’s War / Metacom
* Bacon’s Rebellion (involved right to slaughter Native Americans)
* W.A.G. the French and Indians – four wars, all involved conflicts with Indians, as well as the French
* Paxton Boys
American Indian resistance to Spanish colonizing efforts in North America, particularly after the Pueblo Revolt, led to Spanish accommodation of some aspects of American Indian culture in the Southwest.
* Our Lady of Guadalupe
* Day of the Dead
* The Day of the Holy Cross (May 3rd) [major Mexican holy day]
* Maximón also called San Simón, is a folk saint venerated in various forms by Maya people of several towns in the highlands of Western Guatemala. The veneration of Maximón is not approved by the Roman Catholic Church. [source:Wikipedia]
* Pueblo Revolt / Popé’s Rebellion – Native Americans allowed to maintain their own territory and cut down on forced assimilation
Key Concept 2.2
The British colonies participated in political, social, cultural, and economic exchanges with Great Britain that encouraged both stronger bonds with Britain and resistance to Britain’s control.
I. Transatlantic commercial, religious, philosophical, and political exchanges led residents of the British colonies to evolve in their political and cultural attitudes as they became increasingly tied to Britain and one another.
The presence of different European religious and ethnic groups contributed to a significant degree of pluralism and intellectual exchange, which were later enhanced by the First Great Awakening and the spread of European Enlightenment ideas.
* Anne Hutchinson’s heresy trial / rejection of patriarchy / antinomianism / fled to Rhode Island
* New York – Dutch heritage and multi-ethnic community
* Quakers in Pennsylvania – religious and ethnic tolerance due to belief in pacifism and Inner Light – Germans and Scots-Irish came in large numbers and maintained cultural identities
* Church of England largely in hands of local authority, particularly in Chesapeake, which undercut conformity
* Great Awakening; Jonathan Edwards combined Locke’s theory of the senses with his own revival of Puritan conversion experience; British George Whitefield then took Edwards’ hellfire and brimstone style and sparked Great Awakening across the thirteen colonies, which sparked many conflicts between Old Lights and New Lights, who then set up their own churches and colleges (Baptists and Methodists especially, and most of the Ivy League schools were founded as a result)
* Books brought European Enlightenment to America, where an entire generation of educated Americans adopted them – Franklin and all his inventions, his proof that lightning was electricity, his publication of Poor Richard’s Almanack, his anonymous writings under assumed names, lending libraries, fire companies, hospitals; Jefferson and all his talents
* Deism – God as the great watchmaker
The British colonies experienced a gradual Anglicization over time, developing autonomous political communities based on English models with influence from intercolonial commercial ties, the emergence of a trans-Atlantic print culture, and the spread of Protestant evangelicalism.
* most colonies eventually became royal colonies, with the Church of England becoming standard, along with representative assemblies and royal governors
* All colonies spoke English as main language
* Upper classes – northern merchants and southern planters – all modeled their lives on upper class British, from houses to clothing to carriages to education of sons to reading to music
* currency largely dependent on British bills of credit
* every colony tied into the British trading networks
* Enlightenment books also spread anti-authoritarianism (helped lay groundwork for Revolution)
* political ideas heavily shaped by reading the Real Whigs, and their conspiracy theory forms the ideological backbone of the American Revolution, along with John Locke’s theory of government and revolution
[Real Whigs: Beware of DEBT, which leads to high TAXES, which leads to an expansion of GOVERNMENT, which then creates a STANDING ARMY to come take away your freedom!]
[Locke: Government is created to protect rights to life, liberty, and property; if gov’t fails to protect those rights, the people have a right to revolt and create a new government]
The British government increasingly attempted to incorporate its North American colonies into a coherent, hierarchical, and imperial structure in order to pursue mercantilist economic aims, but conflicts with colonists and American Indians led to erratic enforcement of imperial policies.
* King James I and takeover of Virginia as a royal colony
* English Puritans and Navigation Acts
* Restoration colonies showed King Charles II carving up “his” continent
* King James II and the Dominion of New England/Andros
* Glorious Revolution and re-chartering of many colonies with new restrictions [church of England established, royal governors]
* Salutary neglect led to decades of lax enforcement
* Imperials wars w/ the French and Indians!
Colonists’ resistance to imperial control drew on local experiences of self-government, evolving ideas of liberty, the political thought of the Enlightenment, greater religious independence and diversity, and an ideology critical of perceived corruption in the imperial system.
* Colonists had a long tradition of running their own affairs through their representative assemblies (House of Burgesses, New England town meetings)
* Pilgrims were religious separatists
* Puritans insisted their charter granted them political independence [removed from them by King James II and William and Mary]
* Puritans “City upon a Hill” the ideal church – independent congregations
* Virginia planters controlled salaries of Anglican ministers
* Maryland was Catholic, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey were Quaker, with Scots-Irish Presbyterians and German dissenters allowed to practice their own religions
* New York had a Jewish community, and their temple still exists today
* Colonists asserted control over taxation and laws through their colonial assemblies, which controlled royal governors by controlling their salaries
* Enlightenment and Great Awakening both encouraged anti-authoritarianism
* New churches and colleges further eroded authority of British
* experiences in W.A.G. the French and Indians reinforced colonists’ belief that the British didn’t understand them (especially the French and Indian War, which shocked many Americans serving with British regulars – British brutal, authoritarian, and highly disdainful of Americans
* Real Whigs [conspiracy drives American Revolution]
* Salutary neglect encouraged Americans to develop their own way of doing things
* defying Navigation Acts through bribery and smuggling became a way of life for many
II. Like other European empress in the Americas that participated in the Atlantic slave trade, the English colonies developed a system of slavery that reflected the specific economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics fo those colonies.
All the British colonies participated to varying degrees in the Atlantic slave trade due to the abundance of land and a growing European demand for colonial goods, as well as a shortage of indentured servants. Small New England farms used relatively few enslaved laborers, all port cities held significant minorities of enslaved people, and the emerging plantation systems of the Chesapeake and the southernmost Atlantic coast had large numbers of enslaved workers, while the great majority of enslaved Africans were sent to the West Indies.
* slavery existed in every colony, although far fewer in the northern colonies, where there wasn’t an economic need
* Seaport colonies all participated in slave trade, by providing food, buying molasses / making and selling rum, and / or by transporting slaves from Africa
* Sugar colonies drew the vast majority of slaves, but Chesapeake, South Carolina, and Georgia all bought slaves
As chattel slavery became the dominant labor system in many southern colonies, new laws created a strict racial system that prohibited interracial relationships and defined the descendants of African American mothers as black and enslaved in perpetuity.
* 1662 Virginia law made slave status dependent on who mother was
* 1669 Virginia law made murder of a slave by owner not punishable by law
* 1675-76 Bacon’s Rebellion made African slavery the preferred labor force
* 1692 interracial sex made illegal (widely ignored by white males, but a major infraction for black males)
* 1705: Virginia made all Africans, by definition, slaves
* other laws passed: Africans couldn’t own guns, join militia, own white indentured servants, or be freed by religious conversion
Africans developed both overt and covert means to resist the dehumanizing aspects of slavery and maintain their family and gender systems, culture, and religion.
* 1739 Stono Rebellion the major slave rebellion prior to the Revolutionary War
* cooperation the most common response, as it was the easiest, and carried rewards
* passive resistance common as well, working slowly, or poorly, or “accidentally” breaking things
* theft or sabotage
* violence and murder
* running away, intermarry with Native Americans, or flee to towns and hiding as a free man
* Chesapeake slaves often managed to marry and form families, and passed on family names, traditions, and knowledge
* African ritual scarring persisted as “country markings”
* African hairstyles, motifs in carving and pottery, wooden mortars and pestles, house designs, musical instruments, music, Muslim and animist beliefs all passed down
* Congo dances
* rejection of marriage between cousins / incest taboo
* jumping over the broomstick
* older slaves called aunts and uncles / fictive kinship
* slaves negotiated labor requirements through the task system in South Carolina rice plantations