The __________ of 1883 created a list of federal civil service jobs to be filled on the basis of examinations administered by the __________.
Under the ____________, government appointments were treated as rewards for those who had served the victorious party.
In the late nineteenth century, virtually all federal funding came from __________ duties and excise taxes on __________ and __________.
Since Abraham Lincoln's administration, late-nineteenth-century American industry had been protected against __________ goods by high duties.
In vetoing a small appropriation for drought-stricken Texas farmers, President __________ stated that though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the people.
In 1859, British naturalist Charles Darwin published __________, in which he developed a bold hypothesis to explain the evolution of living things through the transmission of characteristics he called __________ selection.
Late-nineteenth-century Yale professor William Graham Sumner championed Herbert Spencer's theory known as __________.
In the late nineteenth century, the Supreme Court interpreted the __________ Amendment's due process clause as protecting the property rights and contractual liberty of corporations.
In the late nineteenth century, Irish and German Catholics began to align themselves with the __________ Party.
Political machines in late-nineteenth-century America tended toward one-man rule by __________.
The Mugwumps registered their biggest success in the battle for the __________ ballot.
By the late nineteenth century, the __________ had become the largest women's organization in the United States.
_________ was an early and influential leader of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (or WCTU).
The __________ of Virginia believed that repayment of Reconstruction debts to bondholding speculators would leave the state destitute.
In 1890, Mississippi adopted a(n) __________ test to determine voting eligibility that effectively circumvented the __________ Amendment and drove the state's blacks out of politics.
In Louisiana, other forms of voter disfranchisement included the ______________ and the ______________.
In the 1890s, the white Georgia Populist __________ had advocated a political alliance of black and white poor farmers, but he became a vicious race baiter after blacks were effectively excluded from the vote.
The white legislatures of southern states racially segregated their societies through __________ laws.
In the case of __________, the Supreme Court developed the separate but equal doctrine to uphold segregation.
The Populist Party grew out of the __________ Alliance when its proposals were rebuffed by the Democratic Party as being too radical.
The Populist Party's Omaha platform, adopted in 1892, called for __________ of the railroads and a __________ income tax.
The issue of free __________ emerged as the cardinal demand of the Populist Party.
The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 authorized the purchase of silver to serve as the basis for new issues of U.S. __________.
The jobless who marched on Washington in 1894 were led by __________.
Grover Cleveland's opposition to the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and to demands for the free coinage of silver were reflections of his unswerving belief in __________ money.
Rather than nominate Grover Cleveland for reelection in 1896, the Democrats repudiated him and nominated __________ to run against Republican William McKinley.
Use the following to answer questions 27-29:
The Heyday of Western Populism, 1892
Choose the letter on the map that correctly identifies each of the following.
Birthplace of the Southern Alliance
William Jennings Bryan's home state
Site of the cross of gold speech
A novel published in 1880 speaks derisively of American democracy as being of the people, by the people, for the benefit of Senators. What was there about the political scene that would have prompted the author to say that?
Why was Darwin's Origins of Species, which was strictly about biology, important in the development of the ideology of conservatism?
How do you explain the reverence accorded to the judiciary in the late nineteenth century?
Who were the Mugwumps? Do you regard them as important players in post-Reconstruction politics? If so, why?
What do we mean by ethnocultural politics, and why is it important for an understanding of late-nineteenth-century American politics?
Why was it that women, although they mostly couldn't vote, nevertheless became important political actors in this era?
The Redeemers imposed a system of one-party rule on the South after Reconstruction. Why was this system initially vulnerable to attack?
How do you explain the disfranchisement of southern blacks during the 1890s? What measures did whites enact to prevent blacks from voting?
What was Jim Crow? Would the answer to question 8 serve also to explain its establishment in the South?
Farmers, like other Americans, had strong ties to the established parties, yet many of them became Populists anyway. Why was that?
Cleveland is rated as a pretty good president for his first term and a bad one for his second term. How do you explain that reversal?
It would be hard to imagine American voters today getting excited about the money supply (and hard, no doubt, for students to get excited about it in this chapter). So how do you account for the fact that free silver was the hot topic of the 1896 election?
Line length does not indicate the answer's length; some answers may contain more than one word.
The most influential proponent of the __________ movement was the Baptist minister Walter Rauschenbusch.
A series of articles in McClure's magazine by __________ exposed the corrupt ties between business and political machines in St. Louis, Missouri, and is credited with starting muckraking journalism.
The term ________ became attached to journalists who exposed the underside of American life during the Progressive era.
__________'s brief in the Supreme Court case Muller v. Oregon (1908) used a minimum of legal citations and an enormous amount of sociological data to successfully argue for legislation limiting the workday of women workers.
Women progressives used legal changes to erect a ____________ for American women and children.
The radical and militant women's rights advocate _________ organized the National Woman's Party in 1916.
In its first incarnation, the term __________ meant freedom for women's full personal development.
The __________ Company tragedy was a fire that killed 146 workers, most of them young immigrant women.
At the turn of the twentieth century, liability rules were based on __________ law and so heavily favored employers that victims of industrial accidents rarely got more than token compensation.
__________ of Wisconsin was the preeminent progressive reformer at the state level.
Black journalist William Monroe Trotter and __________, the author of The Souls of Black Folk, broke with Booker T. Washington and called for replacing compromise with resistance to segregation.
The __________ Movement got its name in 1906 when its leaders first met in Canada because U.S. hotels would not admit blacks.
In 1909, influential African Americans founded the ___________, whose journal, The Crisis, was edited by W. E. B. DuBois.
The _______ was created to assist the social welfare needs of black migrants to cities and, like the NAACP, was interracial.
Theodore Roosevelt became president when __________ was assassinated.
Mergers between rival firms whose primary motive was not lower costs but the elimination of competition were called __________.
The __________ of 1906, which gave the Interstate Commerce Commission regulatory power over railroad rates subject to court review, was a triumph for Theodore Roosevelt as a negotiator and a landmark expansion of government power.
The ___________of 1902 authorized irrigation projects for reclaiming and settling arid western lands.
Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel __________ exposed labor exploitation and unsanitary conditions in Chicago plants and led to the creation of the Meat Inspection Acts and the __________ Administration.
A political storm erupted in 1910 when President Taft fired Chief Forester __________ for insubordination because he accused the secretary of the interior, Richard A. Ballinger, of conspiring with private interests against conservationist goals.
The nickname for the Progressive Party in 1912 was __________.
In the 1912 election campaign, Woodrow Wilson called his reform program the New __________, in contrast to Theodore Roosevelt's program of New __________.
One of the most important accomplishments of Woodrow Wilson's first term was the establishment in 1913 of the nation's central banking system, regulated by the __________.
The __________, established by Congress and President Wilson in 1914, had the power to issue cease and desist orders against unfair trade practices that violated antitrust law.
As his second presidential campaign drew near, Woodrow Wilson lost some of his scruples concerning the __________ of pro-labor legislation.
Use the following to answer questions 67-71:
Woman Suffrage, 1890-1919
Choose the letter on the map that correctly identifies the location of each of the following places.
Seneca Falls, site of the first women's rights convention (1848)
Wyoming Territory, the first to allow woman's suffrage (1869)
Mormon territory that granted women the right to vote (1870)
First Pacific state to adopt woman's suffrage (1910)
Political machine, Tammany Hall, which switched sides and supported the movement (1917)
How do you account for the revival of the woman's suffrage movement during the Progressive Era?
In what ways did political reformers of the Progressive Era (like Robert La Follette) differ from the Mugwump reformers of the late nineteenth century?
What is the relationship between progressive reform and the struggle for racial equality?
Why did some consider Theodore Roosevelt an antibusiness president? Do you agree?
Why did William Howard Taft encounter so much trouble following in the footsteps of Theodore Roosevelt?
Although historians describe the decades following William McKinley's election in 1896 as an age of Republican domination, the Democrat Woodrow Wilson won the presidency in 1912. How do you account for that?