Applicable for use in nsw curriculum, Stage 3 (Year 6) and Australian Curriculum: History Written by Kerry Moyst



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Australia’s Under – 18s During World War I

Applicable for use in NSW Curriculum, Stage 3 (Year 6) and Australian Curriculum: History
Written by Kerry Moyst

Registered Primary teacher, New South Wales
This Unit has six lessons taught over a three-week period.

Table of Contents


Aims and Objectives 8

Course Overview 9

Resources List 21

Lesson 1 Resources 27

Questions List 27

Worksheet 1: Overview of WWI 29

Text 1: Australian Women in War 31

Text 2: Children in Sydney 35

Text 3a: Fundraising the War 37

Text 3b: A Returned Hero 39

Worksheet 2: Web Quest 41

Images List 51




Aims and Objectives


Knowledge and Understanding/Skills

This unit aims to:

provide integrated English and History content centred around the topic of Australia as a nation

provide students with ways of exploring the following two key inquiry questions of the topic of Australia as a nation:

How did Australian society change throughout the twentieth century?

What contribution have significant individuals and groups made to the development of Australian society?

explore this topic from the perspective of Australian under-18s during WWI – with whom Stage 3 students share more in common than they do with previous generations of adults

provide engaging opportunities for historical inquiry and research

provide authentic opportunities for student creation of meaningful multi-modal texts.
Links

Throughout the Unit there are clear links to the New South Wales Curriculum, Stage 3 (Year 6) and to the Australian Curriculum: History.



Course Overview


Week

Lesson

Content/Activities

State/Territory and ACARA curriculum links

Assessment

1

1

Overview of the War


Inquiry Question

What was WWI and what was its significance for Australia?


Learning Activities

Teacher elicits student knowledge of WWI.

Teacher gives out Worksheet 1 (one to each student) and students work in groups of 3–4 to complete Column 1. (Try to include at least one student who demonstrated some knowledge of the war in each group.)

Students read Text 1 and complete Column 2 of Worksheet 1.

Students determine which questions are not answered by
Text 1 (Questions 4, 6, 7, 8, 11 and 12).

In pairs, students search the internet to find answers to the questions not answered by Text 1.



  • Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS099) (ACHHS118)

  • Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS098) (ACHHS117)

  • Locate information relevant to inquiry questions in a range of sources (ACHHS102) (ACHHS121)

  • Compare information from a range of sources (ACHHS103) (ACHHS122)

  • Identify and locate a range of relevant sources to support an historical inquiry (ACHHS101) (ACHHS120)

  • Describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia (HT3-1)

  • Applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication (HT3-5)

Worksheet 1




Week

Lesson

Content/Activities

State/Territory and ACARA curriculum links

Assessment




2

Inquiry Question

What was life like for Australia’s under-18s before the war?


Learning Activities

Teacher elicits student ideas about pre-war life for Australia’s under-18s.

Students read Text 2 (about life for children in Sydney in the pre-WWI period).

Discuss Text 2 in small groups:

How was life for children different then? In what ways was it similar to now?

View a selection of photos of Qld and NSW children during the pre-WWI period.

View a selection of photos of children from New South Wales and Queensland during the pre-WWI period:

What does each photo show us about life for children in the pre-war years?

The text mentioned differences between the lives of children from working class and middle class families. Do you think you can see any of these differences in the photos?

What differences can you see between life for children in the rural areas compared to urban areas such as Sydney and Brisbane?

How do the photos add to what we have already learnt from the text to help us to better understand how life was different or similar to life now? Explain.

Write a short text identifying aspects of continuity and change in the lives of Australian children today as compared with the lives of children in the early 1900s (prior to WWI).




  • Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS099) (ACHHS118)

  • Compare information from a range of sources (ACHHS103) (ACHHS122)

  • Identify different points of view in the past and present (ACHHS104) (ACHHS123)

  • Develop historical texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source material (ACHHS105) (ACHHS124)

  • Use a range of communication forms (oral, written, graphic) and digital technologies (ACHHS106) (ACHHS125)

  • Participate in and contribute to discussions, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions (ACELY1709)

  • Communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features (EN3-1A)

  • Composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts (EN3-2A)

  • Thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding to and composing texts (EN3-7C)

  • Describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time (HT3-2)

  • Identifies change and continuity and describes the causes and effects of change on Australian society (HT3-3)

  • Applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication (HT3-5)

Student text




Week

Lesson

Content/Activities

State/Territory and ACARA curriculum links

Assessment

2

3

Inquiry Question

How did Victorian under-18s support Australia's servicemen and contribute to Australia's war effort?


Learning Activities

  • Through pair/share, students discuss ways under-18s might have supported Australia’s servicemen and contributed to Australia’s war effort.

  • Students write their ideas on the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB)/whiteboard.

  • Students read Text 3a about Victorian school children’s fundraising activities in WWI, and Text 3b (a newspaper article) about Victorian children writing to a soldier and sending items to him.

  • In groups of 3–4, students discuss the two texts and compare them with the ideas they generated earlier (and still on the IWB/whiteboard).

  • Students write a brief text comparing the results of their earlier speculation with the examples encountered in the two texts they read during the lesson, stating why they think their earlier ideas were different (or similar) to the examples they have now studied (e.g. lack of knowledge about and/or difficulty in imagining life that long ago; or, perhaps, a relatively good idea about those times based on knowledge gained from the previous lesson of this unit and/or from other sources).

  • Respond, read and write to show understanding of historical matters compare information from a range of sources (ACHHS103) (ACHHS122)

  • Develop historical texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source material (ACHHS105) (ACHHS124)

  • Use a range of communication forms (oral, written, graphic) and digital technologies (ACHHS106) (ACHHS125)

  • Participate in and contribute to discussions, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions (ACELY1709)

  • Communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features (EN3-1A)

  • Composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts (EN3-2A)

  • Thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding to and composing texts (EN3-7C)

  • Describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia (HT3-1)

  • Describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time (HT3-2)

  • Applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication (HT3-5)

Student text




Week

Lesson

Content/Activities

State/Territory and ACARA curriculum links

Assessment




4

Inquiry Question

How did under-18s from other states and territories support Australia’s servicemen and contribute to Australia’s war effort?


Learning Activities

Pairs research the other Australian states and territories using the National Library of Australia’s digitised newspapers from WWI. The aim is to find examples of activities undertaken in support of the servicemen and the war in states other than Victoria (which has already been covered in the lesson).

Teacher divides the states and territories of NSW, NT, Qld, SA, Tas and WA among students (the digitised newspapers for ACT only date from 1925).

Students visit http://trove.nla.gov.au

On the website, select “Digitised newspapers and more”.

Select "Advanced Search" (just under the "Search articles" button).

Search items (under “Key Words”) are entered into “All of these Words”. Relevant key words to enter include “busy bee”, “fundraiser”, “fundraising”, “letter writing” and “write letters”.

Under “Publication Date”, students enter the dates of British involvement in WWI (i.e. from 4 August 1914 to 11 November 1918).

Under “Newspaper Title and Location”, students select the state or territory allocated to them.

Students then click on “Search”.

Students write down examples they find (including the name, date and page number of the source newspaper).

New groups are formed consisting of one student who researched each of the allocated states and territories. Students share and compare findings - and take notes for a final writing activity.

Students write a report, detailing the examples found in their research.


  • Respond, read and write to show understanding of historical matters (ACHHS102)

  • Locate information relevant to inquiry questions in a range of sources (ACHHS121)

  • Compare information from a range of sources (ACHHS103) (ACHHS122)

  • Identify different points of view in the past and present (ACHHS104) (ACHHS123)

  • Identify and locate a range of relevant sources to support an historical inquiry (ACHHS101) (ACHHS120)

  • Develop historical texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source material (ACHHS105) (ACHHS124)

  • Use a range of communication forms (oral, written, graphic) and digital technologies (ACHHS106) (ACHHS125)

  • Participate in and contribute to discussions, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions (ACELY1709)

  • Communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features (EN3-1A)

  • Composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts (EN3-2A)

  • Thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding to and composing texts (EN3-7C)

  • Describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia (HT3-1)

  • Describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time (HT3-2)

  • Applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication (HT3-5)

Research notes

Report





Week

Lesson

Content/Activities

State/Territory and ACARA curriculum links

Assessment

3

5

Inquiry Question

What training and fighting were under-18 boys involved in?


Learning Activities

Students engage in web quest to find out about Australia’s cadets and boy soldiers (Worksheet 2).



  • Respond, read and write to show understanding of historical matters (ACHHS098)

  • Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS117)

  • Locate information relevant to inquiry questions in a range of sources (ACHHS102) (ACHHS121)

  • Identify different points of view in the past and present (ACHHS104) (ACHHS123)

  • Use a range of communication forms (oral, written, graphic) and digital technologies (ACHHS106) (ACHHS125)

Worksheet 2

6

Reflecting on Learning


Learning Activities

Using texts, images and ideas encountered and explored during this unit (plus any others that students want to include from individual research – perhaps including research on one or more of the suggestions included at the end of this unit outline), students create a multi-modal Remembrance Day text to acknowledge the contributions and sacrifices of Australian under-18s during WWI.


PhotoStory 3 is a good choice, but teachers could choose any software application that allows student to create a text from photo/picture, video, audio and written elements. If students are not familiar with the chosen application, then additional time will need to be allocated for training.

  • Respond, read and write to show understanding of historical matters (ACHHS098)

  • Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS117)

  • Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS099) (ACHHS118)

  • Locate information relevant to inquiry questions in a range of sources (ACHHS102) (ACHHS121)

  • Compare information from a range of sources (ACHHS103) (ACHHS122)

  • Identify different points of view in the past and present (ACHHS104) (ACHHS123)

  • Explain why the behaviour and attitudes of people from the past may differ from today (ACHHS101)

  • Identify and locate a range of relevant sources to support an historical inquiry (ACHHS120)

  • Develop historical texts, particularly narratives and descriptions, which incorporate source material (ACHHS105) (ACHHS124)

  • Use a range of communication forms (oral, written, graphic) and digital technologies (ACHHS106) (ACHHS125)

  • Communicates effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and language forms and features (EN3-1A)

  • Composes, edits and presents well-structured and coherent texts (EN3-2A)

  • Thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about information and ideas and identifies connections between texts when responding to and composing texts (EN3-7C)

  • Describes and explains the significance of people, groups, places and events to the development of Australia (HT3-1)

  • Describes and explains different experiences of people living in Australia over time (HT3-2)

  • Identifies change and continuity and describes the causes and effects of change on Australian society (HT3-3)

  • Describes and explains the struggles for rights and freedoms in Australia, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (HT3-4)

  • Applies a variety of skills of historical inquiry and communication (HT3-5)

Multi-modal text

Suggestions for Extending the Unit

The experiences of Australia’s under-18s during World War I can be investigated well beyond the introductory scope of this unit. Below are some suggestions for further inquiries which can be structured by classroom teachers:


Inquiry Questions

What were the experiences of under-18s with close family members (e.g. fathers and brothers) fighting overseas?

What were the experiences of under-18s from family members deemed to be sympathetic to the enemy? (These were people who had ancestry from the countries now at war with Australia.)

What were the experiences of Indigenous Australian under-18s during the war years?

What were the experiences of under-18s with family members who actively opposed Australia’s role in the war on pacifist, religious and/or political grounds? (This is touched on in Lesson 2 of Week 2, but further investigation is warranted.)

How were boy soldiers portrayed in the newspapers? How might these portrayals have influenced Australian boys?






Resources List


Week

Lesson

Resources

1

1

Worksheets

Worksheet 1


Books

Text 1 (included with lesson worksheets):

An extract from Australian Government Department of Veteran’s Affairs. (n.d.)., Australian women in war: Investigating the experiences and changing roles of Australian women in war and peace operations 1899 – today, pages 27–28. Retrieved from www.dva.gov.au/commems_oawg/commemorations/education/Documents/DVA_Women_in_War.pdf


2

Books

Text 2 (included with lesson worksheets):

A short text based on Darian-Smith, K. (2010.) Children. In Dictionary of Sydney, http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/children, viewed 20 January 2014.
Images

A selection of photos of Qld and NSW children during the pre-WWI period (included on an accompanying document), but also listed below:

Image 1: 42 Francis St, Glebe, Sydney, 1900

http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/77038

Image 2: 73-77 Foveaux St, Surry Hills, Sydney, c.1909–1913

http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/18902

Image 3: Cleveland Street Public School, Sydney (infants class, December 1909)

http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/72003

Image 4: Fort Street Boys High School, Observatory Hill, August 1913

http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/40580

Image 5: Girls skipping at Athletics Carnival, Sydney c.1900

http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/43622

Image 6: Byron Street, Bangalow (rural NSW)

www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2010/05/gallery-images-of-australia-early-1900s/captured-scenes-from-1900s-australia_image6

Image 7: Public School, Canowindra (rural NSW)

www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2010/05/gallery-images-of-australia-early-1900s/captured-scenes-from-1900s-australia_image8

Image 8: Children going to school on horseback, Gindie (rural Queensland), 1900–1910

www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1900/page-1/australian-localities/size-3/picture-aem7d7d7/gindie/daniels-children-going-to-school-on-horseback-gindie-queensland-1900-1910

Image 9: Christmas day at Newmarket, Brisbane, 1900

www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1900/page-1/australian-localities/picture-xwi5ap7z/size-3/newmarket/christmas-day-at-the-trackson-residence-newmarket-brisbane-1900

Image 10: Children playing croquet in a garden at Manly, Brisbane, c.1900

www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1900/page-1/australian-localities/picture-neude19q/size-3/manly/children-playing-croquet-in-a-garden-at-manly-brisbane-ca-1900

Image 11: The first motor car in Maleny, Queensland on 23 November 1913

www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1913/page-1/size-3/picture-9kssvc63/maleny/men-women-and-children-gathered-on-and-around-the-first-motor-car-in-maleny-queensland-1913

Image 12: Goat riding at Blackall Showgrounds, Queensland, 1905

www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1905/page-1/picture-1t1b58d7/size-3/blackall/goat-riding-at-blackall-queensland-1905

Image 13: Children performing rhythmic gymnastics at the Gin Gin Show, Queensland, 1904

www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1904/page-1/picture-f6nvfua0/size-3/gin-gin/children-performing-a-rhythmic-gymnastics-demonstration-at-the-gin-gin-show-queensland-1904



2

3

Books

Text 3a (included with lesson worksheets):

A short text based on Triolo, R. (2010). "How did you Raise the Money?” Approved and Forbidden School Fund-raising in the Great War. Agora, Vol. 45, No. 2: pages 4–10. Available from http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=080010960196731;res=IELHSS
Publications

Text 3b (included with lesson worksheets):

A newspaper article from The Essendon Gazette and Keilor, Bulla and Broadmeadows Reporter, Thursday 2 May 1918, page 5. Retrieved from http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/74605775


4

Websites

http://trove.nla.gov.au






Week

Lesson

Resources

3

5

Worksheets

Worksheet 2


Websites

http://aso.gov.au/titles/tv/more-winners-boy-soldiers/clip1

http://aso.gov.au/titles/tv/more-winners-boy-soldiers/clip3

www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/boysoldiers

www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/martin

www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/boysoldiers/first

www.anzacs.org/campbell.html


6

Websites

http://search.microsoft.com/en-au/DownloadResults.aspx?q=photo%20story%203



www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtB6_D_toVQ


Lesson 1 Resources

Questions List


  1. Which year did WWI start?




  1. Why did WWI start?




  1. Which countries were involved on each side?




  1. On what date did Britain become involved?




  1. Why did Australia become involved?




  1. Were Australians legally required to fight in the war?




  1. When did the war finish?




  1. Why did the war finish?




  1. What roles did Australian men play in the war?




  1. What roles did Australian women play in the war?




  1. What was the population of Australia before the war?




  1. What do the letters in ANZAC stand for?




  1. How many Australian servicemen served overseas?




  1. Where did they fight?




  1. How many Australian servicemen were killed?




  1. How many Australian servicemen were wounded?


Worksheet 1: Overview of WWI


Questions and Our Answers

Corrections and/or More Information From Texts

  1. Which year did WWI start?




  1. Why did WWI start?




  1. Which countries were involved on each side?




  1. On what date did Britain become involved?




  1. Why did Australia become involved?




  1. Were Australians legally required to fight in the war?




  1. When did the war finish?




  1. Why did the war finish?




  1. What roles did Australian men play in the war?




  1. What roles did Australian women play in the war?




  1. What was the population of Australia before the war?




  1. What do the letters in ANZAC stand for?




  1. How many Australian servicemen served overseas?




  1. Where did they fight?




  1. How many Australian servicemen were killed?




  1. How many Australian servicemen were wounded?






Text 1: Australian Women in War


An extract from Australian Government Department of Veteran’s Affairs. (n.d.). Australian women in war: Investigating the experiences and changing roles of Australian women in war and peace operations 1899 – today, pages 27–28. Retrieved from www.dva.gov.au/commems_oawg/commemorations/education/Documents/DVA_Women_in_War.pdf.

Key Data


Conflict

World War I, also known as The Great War


Period

1914–1918



Background to the Conflict


In 1914 a series of political tensions in part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire led to the two great sets of alliances, Britain/France/Russia and Germany/Austria-Hungary, and later the Ottoman Empire, going to war. At the outbreak of war, the Australian Government announced that, as Great Britain was at war against Germany, automatically, so was Australia.
Many people responded enthusiastically, and a volunteer army was quickly raised.
This army was sent to train in Egypt, before becoming a part of the British and allied landing force at Gallipoli, Turkey (Ottoman Empire), on 25 April 1915.
Nine months later, and with many more volunteers having been sent to Gallipoli as reinforcements, the force was withdrawn, without having achieved its objectives.
After the withdrawal from Gallipoli, some Australian forces were sent to Egypt; most were sent to the Western Front — those areas of France and Belgium where the war was being fought against the Germans.
Heavy casualties were suffered on the Western Front, and pressure was on in Australia to keep sending reinforcements.
From 1916 to 1918 most of the Australian troops who were sent overseas served on the Western Front, while the Royal Australian Navy served in many parts of the world.

Nature of the Conflict


At Gallipoli and on the Western Front the war was mostly fought from trenches. Conditions varied according to the weather.

The main feature of trench warfare was armies alternately attacking and defending open ground using machine guns, barbed wire, artillery and infantry soldiers on foot, though there were some set-piece battles and cavalry actions.

On the Western Front troops were regularly relieved from the front or rear lines, and were able to take short periods of leave in Britain.

In the deserts of Palestine and the Sinai, Australian mounted infantry, called the Light Horse, campaigned against the Turks.



How Australian Women Were Involved


Australian women served in the Australian Army as nurses, and as other medical workers. There were also a number of Red Cross volunteers who provided comforts to the troops, and teachers and fundraisers.
Nurses were expected to be single or widowed. Some married women got through the recruiting checks, and some married during their period of service.
Of those who served overseas for whom there are detailed statistics, seven were under 21 years old (though the official minimum age for enlistment was 25), 1184 were aged 21–30, 947 were aged 31–40, and 91 were 41 or over.
Seven women received the Military Medal for bravery under fire, and several died of injuries or disease.
More than 2,300 members of the Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS) served overseas in war areas. These included: Egypt, Salonika, France, Belgium, Lemnos, India, off Gallipoli, Palestine, the Persian Gulf, Italy, Burma, Vladivostok and Abyssinia.
Some nurses and women doctors paid their own way to be involved in medical service during the war. There were also masseuses (physical therapists), blood transfusionists, and other support medical occupations.
Other women also performed valuable services. Vera Deakin set up the Red Cross Missing and Wounded Enquiry Bureau, which was instrumental in ascertaining information for families of the circumstances of those who were missing — through death, wounding or capture. Red Cross nurses, known as “Blue Birds”, served in French front line hospitals. Women such as Ranid MacPhillamy and Alice Chisholm set up canteens in Egypt, providing facilities for soldiers on leave.

Key Statistics


416,809 Australians enlisted in World War I, of whom 331,781 served overseas.
61,720 of these died during the war, and 137,013 were wounded.
In all, 2139 women served with the Australian Army Nursing Service, and 130 worked with the Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service. A further 423 nurses served in hospitals in Australia. Twenty-three of these women died in service during the war.

Text 2: Children in Sydney


All information and quotes in the following text are taken from Darian-Smith, K. (2010). Children. In Dictionary of Sydney, http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/children, viewed 20 January 2014.

Children in Sydney During the Early 1900s


Aspects of life for the children of Sydney are described in the online Dictionary of Sydney. The following facts are of relevance to the early 1900s.

Children worked less hours in paid employment than their parents and grandparents did when they were children, because laws made schooling compulsory from the ages of 6–14 and laws also “restricted the working hours of children in order to encourage school attendance”.

The majority of children went to church every week.

There were important differences between the lives of children from working class and those from middle class families. For example, working class children tended to meet with each other and play together in their local streets; while middle-class children “enjoyed family outings, picnics by the harbour and played organised sports, such as tennis, through local clubs or church groups”.

“Children’s books, magazine and toys were becoming more varied and affordable, and children embraced an expanding culture of mass production and consumerism in their games and daily lives.”

A 1910 survey of 177 boys and 165 girls of 9–13 years of age, revealed a great interest in “collectibles such as cigarette cards, postcards, shells, marbles and stamps”.


Text 3a: Fundraising the War


All information and the quotation in the following text are taken from Triolo, R. (2010). “How did you Raise the Money?” Approved and Forbidden School Fund-raising in the Great War. Agora, Vol. 45, No. 2: pages 4–10. Available from http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=080010960196731;res=IELHSS.

Victorian School Fundraising to Support the War


Early in the war, Victorian schools sold special war-related buttons, badges and postcards to school children to collect. The Victorian Education Department also started two clubs – the Young Workers’ Patriotic Guild and the State School’s War Relief Gardeners’ League – which children joined for free. They could buy a membership badge and they were given special certificates after raising specified amounts of money through fundraising activities called “busy bees”. Busy bee activities, as reported by the children involved, included:
Washing a barrister’s bulldog… Keeping my dress clean for the week… Going for the mail and coming straight home… Birthday present, to do what I liked with… Gathering up crusts in the schoolground… Catching a tricky horse” (Triolo 2010, page 6).
Children’s busy bee activities, documented by teachers, included:

making small dresses, iron holders, tea cosies, socks, stockings, milk covers, cake covers and photo frames for sale

gathering wool, cutting chaff, and selling horse hair and rabbit skins

raising and selling canaries, catching and selling fish, catching mice, cutting firewood, growing and selling vegetables



feeding hens and collecting their eggs in return for an egg a day which was then sold
One teacher sold leaflets, which detailed what students were doing to raise money, and the Victorian Education Department recommended that other teachers do the same.
At schools, children made and sold handcrafts, such as doormats, and “Patriotic Quilts”, which displayed the names of people who had paid for the honour. In some cases, items were displayed and sold in local shops. In other cases, they were sold at school bazaars and jumble sales. Money was also raised through school-organised concerts, dances and socials; produce from school gardens; and through collecting and selling recyclable materials such as glass and metal.
Outside the school, and sometimes in connection with schools, money was raised through raffles and guessing games (e.g. paying to guess how many peas are in a jar – in return for the chance to win more money than you paid). However, the Victorian Education Department actively opposed such practices, which it viewed as gambling.

Text 3b: A Returned Hero


Newspaper article from The Essendon Gazette and Keilor, Bulla and Broadmeadows Reporter, Thursday 2 May 1918, page 5.
Retrieved from http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/74605775.

A Returned Hero


In October, 1915, the 6th Grade (then the 2nd) at Kensington State School, sent a billy-can to a soldier at the front. Sgt-Major Fleming, D.C.M., whilst lying wounded in hospital at Lemnos, after the evacuation of Gallipoli, received this billy filled with gifts, good wishes and little messages of love from the children, which he answered, thus beginning a correspondence lasting 2½ years, between the scholars and their soldier brother. Each mail brought and took letters, parcels, comforts, papers, etc. to and from the school children, to the battle fields of Egypt, France, Belgium and later to hospitals in England, each child being eager to write to “Brother Tom” (and equally as eager for an answer, which always came) resulted in some hundreds of letters passing between this Anzac and his little Australian brothers and sisters, who treasured very much the interesting and cheery letters from their adopted soldier-brother. Following the usual custom, the contents of the parcels were divided amongst the men with the Sgt-Major, and many thanks were sent to “Fleming’s Kids”, as the children were called by the soldiers. Great was the joy when the scholars’ learned that their soldier had won the D.C.M., but great was the sorrow when they learnt that he had been badly wounded, and would be in hospital for months. Even when suffering fearful pain, he managed to write a few words to the class, telling them not to worry about him, but to ask that he might be spared to see them. The children brought their pennies to school, and a cablegram of sympathy was sent to the hospital in England. The English nurses were so touched by this action that they had the message pasted up in the ward, and whenever the Australian mail arrived they would say: “Here’s more love and messages from your 60 brothers and sisters.” Just before Easter the long-expected news came that the soldier-brother was to be sent home, and eagerly was each list of returning men read over, to find the name of the one expected, and soon after he came from his home in New South Wales especially to see his little friends. One needed to be present on that occasion to realise the pride and love Australian children have for “Our Boys”. Speaking of his escort to the school by the children, the Sgt-Major remarked that it was the finest escort he had ever had or wished to have. After making friends with his little brothers and sisters, the whole party, at the invitation of their big brother, went for a picnic to North Essendon, and spent such a happy time that the day with “Brother Tom” will be remembered for many years. Besides serving his king and country in Africa, Sgt-Major Fleming has had 3½ years’ active service in this war, and he considered that he had been brought back safely, though much battered, to Sunny Australia and his dear home-folk by the love and prayers of the little ones, who asked every morning, before starting the day’s lessons, that God would bless and take care of their soldier-brother.

Worksheet 2: Web Quest


Got to http://aso.gov.au/titles/tv/more-winners-boy-soldiers/clip1. This website has three short video clips from a drama of historical fiction. The answers to questions 1–6 can be found in the “Educational value points” section of the page.



  1. When did compulsory military training for males become law in Australia?




  1. What organisation trained 12–14 year old boys?




  1. What organisation trained 14–18 year old boys?




  1. Did the males who joined these organisations have to go overseas to fight?




  1. How many boys were prosecuted between 1911 and 1915 for not registering for compulsory military training?



  1. How many boys were sent to prison between 1911 and 1915 for not registering for compulsory military training?


Watch the short video clip at the top of the page (Clip 1) and answer Question 7.


  1. Why didn’t Ned (the rabbito) want to fight in the coming war (WWI)?






Click on Clip 3 (under the video). Watch the short video and answer Questions 8 and 9:


  1. Why did the woman bring a white feather to Will’s house?








  1. How do you think you would feel if you were given a white feather in a time of war?








  1. Why didn’t Will want to do military training?






Go to www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/boysoldiers.


  1. What jobs could 14–17 year old boys legally do in the armed services?






  1. At what age could males, with their parents’ permission, join the army as fighting men during WWI?




  1. At what age could males, without their parents’ permission, join the army as fighting men during WWI?




  1. Why is the number of Australia’s under-18 boys who fought in WWI “impossible to determine”?










  1. Who is believed to be the youngest person on Australia’s WWI Roll of Honour?




  1. How old was he when he died?




  1. Where did he die?


Got to www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/martin.


  1. In which state/territory was Jim Martin born?




  1. How did he die?


Go to www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/boysoldiers/first.


  1. How many boy soldiers and boy sailors have been identified among the 61,000 names on the Australian Roll of Honour for WWI?




  1. Which state/territory was Reginald Keyth Cooper born?




  1. Which state/territory was Charles William Fellows born?




  1. Which state/territory was Roy Clarence Lucas born?




  1. Which state/territory was William Kenneth Buck born?



  1. Which state/territory was Hugh Brian (“Hughie”) O’Donnell from?


Go to www.anzacs.org/campbell.html.


  1. Who was Australia’s oldest survivor of the Gallipoli campaign?




  1. How old was he when he died?




  1. How old was he when he joined the army?




  1. What was his nickname at Gallipoli?




  1. Did his parents give their permission for him to join the army?




  1. How was he able to join the army even though he wasn’t 18?






Images List

Image 1: 42 Francis St, Glebe, Sydney, 1900


Source: State Library of New South Wales [a147257 / PXE 93, 257 (detail)], http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/77038

(From views taken during Cleansing Operations, Quarantine Area, Sydney, 1900, Vol IV, Mitchell Library)

Image 2: 73–77 Foveaux St, Surry Hills, Sydney, c.1909–1913


Source: City of Sydney Archives [000\000734], http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/18902

Image 3: Cleveland Street Public School, Sydney (Infants Class, December 1909)


Source: State Library of New South Wales [d1_11804 / GPO1 11804] (Mitchell Library), http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/72003

Image 4: Fort Street Boys High School, Observatory Hill, August 1913


Source: State Records New South Wales, http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/40580

Image 5: Girls Skipping at Athletics Carnival, Sydney c.1900


Source: Powerhouse Museum [85/1286-772] (Tyrrell Photographic Collection), http://dictionaryofsydney.org/image/43622

Image 6: Byron Street, Bangalow (Rural NSW)


Source: Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2010/05/gallery-images-of-australia-early-1900s/captured-scenes-from-1900s-australia_image6

Image 7: Public School, Canowindra (Rural NSW)


Source: Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2010/05/gallery-images-of-australia-early-1900s/captured-scenes-from-1900s-australia_image8

Image 8: Children Going to School on Horseback, Gindie (Rural Queensland), 1900–1910


Source: www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1900/page-1/australian-localities/size-3/picture-aem7d7d7/gindie/daniels-children-going-to-school-on-horseback-gindie-queensland-1900-1910

Image 9: Christmas Day at Newmarket, Brisbane, 1900


Source: www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1900/page-1/australian-localities/picture-xwi5ap7z/size-3/newmarket/christmas-day-at-the-trackson-residence-newmarket-brisbane-1900

Image 10: Children Playing Croquet in a Garden at Manly, Brisbane, c.1900


Source: www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1900/page-1/australian-localities/picture-neude19q/size-3/manly/children-playing-croquet-in-a-garden-at-manly-brisbane-ca-1900

Image 11: The First Motor Car in Maleny, Queensland on 23 November 1913


Source: www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1913/page-1/size-3/picture-9kssvc63/maleny/men-women-and-children-gathered-on-and-around-the-first-motor-car-in-maleny-queensland-1913

Image 12: Goat riding at Blackall Showgrounds, Queensland, 1905


Source: www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1905/page-1/picture-1t1b58d7/size-3/blackall/goat-riding-at-blackall-queensland-1905

Image 13: Children Performing Rhythmic Gymnastics at the Gin Gin Show, Queensland, 1904


Source: www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1904/page-1/picture-f6nvfua0/size-3/gin-gin/children-performing-a-rhythmic-gymnastics-demonstration-at-the-gin-gin-show-queensland-1904



Directory: sites -> default -> files -> curriculum
curriculum -> The Legend of the Anzac Spirit Applicable for use in Australian Curriculum: History wwi – Year 9
curriculum -> The Great War: Conflict, Chaos and Courage Applicable for use in Australian Curriculum: Year 9 History
curriculum -> Applicable for use in New South Wales Curriculum Year 9 Stage 5, and Australian Curriculum: History wwi – Year 9
curriculum -> The Post-War World: a video Game Applicable for use in Australian Curriculum: Year 10
curriculum -> Wwi applicable for use in Australian Curriculum: Year 9 History
curriculum -> Applicable for use in Australian Curriculum: Year 10 and South Australian Certificate of Education History Stage 1
curriculum -> Australians at War (wwi and wwii) New South Wales Mandatory Depth Study
curriculum -> Wwii: Shaping the Modern World Applicable for use in Australian Curriculum: History wwii — Year 10
curriculum -> Curriculum Vitae Johnie H. Scott, M. A., M. F. A., A. P. R


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