APPENDIX C: APPRAISAL OF SINGLE FAMILY HOMES ON NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS C-1 OVERVIEW
For purposes of this appraisal guidebook, if a lender specifically needs an appraisal under
HUD/FHA's Section 248 program on Tribal Trust land or for HUD's Office of Native American
Program (HUD/ONAP) Section 184 on Tribal Trust, allotted (which is also known as individual
trust) and fee simple lands, these guidelines will apply. If the property is on allotted (or
individual) trust or fee simple land located on Native American Reservations and it will be
mortgaged under HUD/FHA's Section 203(b), the appraiser must use the basic appraisal
methodology addressed in this handbook.
Within designated Native American Reservations, treaties and tribal laws have created a variety of ownership patterns. Some parcels may be unrestricted fee simple, other parcels restricted tribal trust or allotted trust land. The appraiser must be familiar with the different restrictions and develop a reasonable value for the subject property. Following are the general designations.
C-2 PROPERTY RIGHTS APPRAISED
FEE SIMPLE UNRESTRICTED
Fee simple unrestricted ownership is ownership real property which may be bought, sold and transferred between Native American or non-Native American purchasers without review by the Tribe or Bureau of Indian Affairs, (BIA). For the HUD/FHA Section 203(b) program, appraisals must conform to all other standard HUD appraisal policies. For the HUD/ONAP Section 184 program, fee simple land on a reservation, the procedures utilized for tribal trust and allotted trust may be followed.
TRIBAL TRUST LANDS
1. Restricted Trust Land is land held by an individual Indian or Tribe which is subject to Federal restriction against alienation or encumbrance. Before any lien can be placed against restricted land, the transaction must be approved by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). All HUD loans must comply with this requirement and provide evidence in the HUD loan file. Lenders are encouraged to make contact with the appropriate BIA and Tribal realty officers early in the loan processing.
Tribal trust lands are held in trust for the tribe by the United States government. Tribes may lease portions of the tribal trust land for the use of specific individuals, but ownership, through the Federal trust, remains with the tribe.
HUD/FHA's Section 248 insures mortgages and HUD/ONAP's Section 184 guarantees mortgages on homes that are located on Native American Tribal Trust Land. For these properties, leased ownership of the underlying land remains with the tribe and will be subject to a long-term 50-year ground lease (or a 25 year lease with a 25 year renewable term). Determining the value for the leasehold estate is the purpose of the appraisal and the subsequent use is to provide supporting documentation for a HUD insured or guaranteed mortgage. Mortgages on tribal trust sites must include an acceptable lease signed by the mortgagor and Tribal authority and approved by the BIA.
2. Allotted (or individual) Trust Land is land owned by individual tribal members but held in trust by the United States government. It is common for allotted trust lands to be owned by several individuals. If a prospective borrower proposes to use all or a portion of a fractionated property, all other owners must indicate acceptance of this arrangement by becoming parties to the mortgage or subdividing the subject parcel out to the individual for undivided ownership.
Mortgages on allotted (or individual) trust sites do not involve a lease, but a specific mortgage rider is required. All HUD loans must have a Deed of Trust Rider attached approving the mortgage pursuant to 25 USC 483 (a) and approved by the BIA.
HUD/ONAP's Section 184 guarantees mortgages on allotted trust land. Allotted trust land is held in trust by the federal government for individual Native Americans. The land is owned by the individual and value is given for the land. When appraising allotted trust land for Section 184, appraisers may follow the method given for Tribal Trust Land.
HUD/FHA insures mortgages on homes that are located on allotted trust land under Section 203(b). The appraiser can use this data for background information, but must use the typical appraisal practices for FHA Section 203 addressed in Chapters 3 and 4 of this handbook.
The appraiser must perform the complete appraisal process according to current USPAP and HUD/FHA standards. This includes consideration of all applicable approaches to value and complete development of all applicable approaches, as identified herein.
C-3 APPROACHES TO VALUE
The appraiser must be familiar with the different restrictions and develop the appropriate value for the subject property. The supply of comparable sales and rental transactions vary by site and by tribes. Until sufficient sales exist on a reservation or within the specific Native American area to provide a reasonable sales comparison approach for determining the value of tribal trust leaseholds or allotted land sales, the appraiser must rely on other value indicators. The appraisal process must be documented more thoroughly than a typical market appraisal. USPAP Standards #1 and # 2 are effective to allow the appraiser to "correctly employ those recognized methods and techniques that are necessary to produce a credible appraisal." And "in reporting the results of a real property appraisal an appraiser must communicate each analysis, opinion and conclusion in a manner that is not misleading." An appraisal on trust land may rely more on the cost approach, or data developed from other tribes. HUD will accept the report if the appraiser has documented the search, information developed and conclusions clearly for the intended users to understand.
The cost approach is often the primary indication of value based on the unique nature of the reservation setting. In Conjunction with the completion of this approach on tribal trust sites, the value of the site as vacant does not apply. On the cost approach addenda to the URAR the value of the site is zero or a small leasehold value. if the land lease is at market and there was no upfront payment the lease-fee value is equivalent to the leasehold value, which is zero. This is the typical scenario and no value exists for the underlying land. The appraiser should enter the statement "subject is on Tribal Trust Land with annual rent not capitalized" in comments. If a market exists and the land was purchased, the value is estimated via traditional methods.
1. New Construction
Due to the flexibility allowed by law, HUD permits the inclusion of development costs for new construction, which can exceed market value, to be used in both section 248 and Section 184. Following are instructions specific to new construction on tribal lands. The basic appraisal methodology is addressed in Chapter 4 of this handbook.
In addition to including the cost of water, septic, and any other on-site costs in the cost approach, for lands within the reservation, the appraiser may provide an allowance for off-site development costs. The lesser of actual pro-rated costs or up to 15% of the cost of the construction of the subject house may be added for off-site infrastructure associated with development of the subject lot. This policy applies principally to new construction where such charges are assessed by tribally approved entities such as housing entities or housing authorities, or agreements with other federal or local government bodies for providing power, utilities, sewer/water and/or road construction. The costs to bring utilities; including public water, sewer, electricity, and telephone represent significant development costs. The traditional tract development of residential homes may not be a part of the local culture. Therefore, the utility costs to hook-up to any form of a public system in a more rural area can exceed local standards.
In remote areas, the construction costs in the Marshall & Swift guide or related cost manuals may have to be adjusted for transportation, labor or other costs not included in the basic estimate. Architect fees are not typically reflected in the base building costs. Due to special circumstances the normal allocation for this fee may not automatically reflect the above actual cost. The appraiser must provide a supporting explanation in the adjustments to the construction costs.
Where market sales are limited, HUD requires the cost approach to be completed on all tribal trust appraisals, including a credible estimate of depreciation.
Native American communities are developing economies at varying rates and degrees. It is important for the lender and HUD to understand the economic factors which affect value. Therefore the appraiser must communicate the local tribal housing market. The sales comparison approach will generally be completed, and in remote areas may involve sales up to 18 months old. Where no credible comparables are available, a narrative justification that discusses the market, and provides any sales, rental or vacancy information pertinent to the subject will be acceptable to support value developed from the cost approach. In addition to the typical data sources the appraiser may obtain sales information from the local tribal or Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) realty office. Sales from other reservations within the region may be considered. Each situation will have unique factors and the appraiser should explain deviations from the sales comparison approach instructions outlined in Chapter 4 of this Handbook. The order of selection preferences for sales would depend on the type of
land being appraised.
Tribal Trust Leasehold sales (market sales between tribal members)
Sales of allotted land trust between tribal members
Fee Simple within the Reservation (residual value of the improvements by adjusting out the land contribution)
Fee Simple proximate to the Reservation
For comparable sales that include land value, an adjustment is required to back-out the raw land value. This adjustment is required when comparing a fee simple comparable sale to a Native American trust sale transaction.
Enter adjustments on the form under "Other" and label as "Raw Land Value," which is determined separately for each of the comparable sales.
The income approach is generally not developed with regard to Native American Trust Land. If the property includes a rental unit(s), the appraiser must provide an estimate of monthly rent for each unit and note whether or not the rent is limited to the tribal sub-market. If the appraiser determines that this approach is justified, the appraiser should complete the income approach according to the specifications outlined in Chapter 4 of this Handbook.
Reconciliation of Value
The appraiser must determine the market value for the restricted trust properties from the limited data available. Value determination on trust land is an exception to typical HUD/FHA instructions; value is not limited to the lower of cost or market. Where market information is limited, greater weight may be given to the replacement cost approach. Document the decision process and the value.
C-4 HUD/FHA REQUIREMENTS
On loans involving restricted trust land, with either Section 184 or Section 248, HUD waives the requirement of a strict interpretation of market value and will accept loans based on the
above market cost approach. All other HUD health, safety, access, and property condition issues must conform to FHA requirements.
The appraiser must indicate if the property is in need of, or in the process of receiving any repairs. Make appropriate requirements for repairs-to-be-completed and appraise the property "as repaired."
The appraiser must indicate if the property conforms to the applicable Minimum Property Requirements of this Handbook. If it does not, the appraiser must recommend correction of the
deficiency or rejection of the loan and explain. Tribally owned and maintained streets and utilities are considered publicly owned. Appraisers must require easements and a maintenance agreement for non-public, common ownership situations.
HUD accepts tribal enforcement of building codes and inspections to the extent they are standard and enforced. At the point tribal support is not available, review and certification that the work complies with an appropriate national standard must be contracted out to a licensed or certified specialist. Example, a tribe issues building permits, but has no provisions for inspections. The lender/borrower must contract with a lender approved qualified specialist such as an engineer, architect or inspector. Inspection/approval by the Indian Health Service is acceptable for individual or community water and sewer systems.
The remaining economic life must be estimated and reported but does not limit the mortgage. The subject property must possess sufficient remaining physical life to warrant a long-term mortgage. The mortgage term may not exceed the remaining physical life of the property.
A. HUD/FHA Section 248 and HUD/ONAP Section 184 Requirements
For both Section 248 and Section 184 programs, the property must be free of hazards, noxious odors, grossly offensive sights or excessive noises which might endanger the physical improvements, affect the livability of the property, its marketability, or the health and safety of its occupants. If any of these conditions exist, the appraiser must recommend correction of the problem or rejection of the loan
For both programs, the appraiser will make appropriate requirements to correct any observed or potential environmental problems. Many reservations have not been mapped for the 100-year flood plain. If the appraiser observes a possible flood plain problem, they are to require flood insurance on existing properties. The Underwriter may waive the flood insurance requirement if the borrower or the tribe provides an elevation certificate from a licensed engineer that the property is not at risk from flooding. Note that the lowest floor (including basement) for new construction must be at or above the 100-year flood elevation.
B. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
The appraiser must report if an approach was not developed and insert the rationale for exclusion of the approach. The appraiser must attach an addendum complete with the assumptions supporting the indication of value by the cost approach. The cost approach is reconciled to the other values, if any, on the URAR. The appraiser will indicate any work requirements or VC pursuant to outstanding instructions. The DE underwriter/lender must assure acceptable completion of any work requirements pursuant to existing instructions.
C-5 INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSISTED APPRAISAL PROCESSING IN APPRAISAL HIGH COST AREAS
To accommodate the special conditions associated with remote sites on Native American lands, the following assisted appraisal process is allowed.
The assigned appraisers may network with local personnel where the high cost of real estate appraisals is a concern for underwriting single family mortgages in Native American communities. To minimize this problem, FHA and ONAP will allow the use of trained local personnel to perform the inspection, provide current analysis of the local market, and draft the appraisal report. The report must be forwarded to the assigned appraiser who win review the report, provide additional documentation, sign the URAR and forward the report to the lender.
Using the Assisted Appraisal Process is restricted to remote areas where licensed appraisers are not readily available. It may be used when the cost of transportation and/or time increases
the cost of the appraisal to twice the cost of typical appraisals in the local urban areas. The process must be monitored and acceptable to the DE underwriter/lender. The assigned appraiser may use local subcontractors who:
Have general real estate skills (construction, lending, sales, management) acceptable to the appraiser (such as Housing Authority staff, Tribal Designated Housing Entities (TDHE) staff or BIA realty personnel, local real estate professionals).
Must comply with the Conflict of Interest limitations (have no personal or financial interest with the buyers or sellers of the property).
An appraiser who signs a real property appraisal report prepared by another, even under the label of "review appraiser" must accept full responsibility for the contents of the report, USPAP Standard 2-5.
The assigned appraiser is responsible for the entire appraisal and signs the URAR. The individual assisting in the report must document the extent of help provided and certify no conflict of interest exists in the certification.
The assigned appraiser must be familiar with the Competency Rule in the USPAP. This includes key issues such as the unique property rights conveyed, the local market involved and market conditions. It is assumed the remote area markets will change slowly. If conditions have changed, an updated analysis is required. The assigned appraiser assumes all responsibility that the appraisal meets all HUD/FHA and ONAP program requirements.