Appendix A: Summary of the States' Laws on Interracial Marriage

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Appendix A: Summary of the States' Laws on Interracial Marriage

(Loving v. Virginia 388 U. S. 1 [1967] nullified all laws forbidding interracial marriage.)

States which never had antimiscegenation laws

Northeast: Connecticut, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Vermont Midwest: Kansas, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin

South: District of Columbia

West: Alaska, Hawaii, Washington

States which repealed their antimiscegenation statutes before 1900

Northeast: Maine (1883), Massachusetts (1843), Pennsylvania (i78o), Rhode Island (1881)

Midwest: Ohio (1887), Michigan (1883) West: New Mexico (1886)

States forbidding intermarriage throughout most of their history Northeast: Delaware

Midwest: Indiana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma

South: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vir­ginia, West Virginia

West: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Wyoming

States forbidding other combinations besides Black and White Arizona (White and Mongolian or Indian)

California (White and Mongolian)

Georgia (White and American Indian, Asiatic Indian, or Mongolian) Idaho (White and Mongolian)

Louisiana (White and "Persons of Color", i.e., Black and Indian) Mississippi (White and Mongolian)

Missouri (White and Mongolian) Montana (White and Chinese or Japanese) Nebraska (White and Chinese or Japanese) Nevada (White and Malay or brown, or Mongolian or yellow) North Carolina (White and Indian; Croatan and Black) Oregon (White and Chinese, Kanaka, or Indian)

South Dakota (White and "Corean," Malayan, or Mongolian) Utah (White and Mongolian)

Wyoming (White and Mongolian or Malay).

States declaring interracial marriages void

All those with laws except Alabama, Nevada, Oklahoma, Tennessee

States specifying the degree of Black ancestry that qualifies one for inclusion under the statute (the others simply referred to "Negro" or "Negro and Mulatto")

1/16 (one great-great-grandparent): Louisiana, North Carolina

1/8 (one great-grandparent):

Indiana, Florida, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Carolina, Tennessee

1/4 (one grandparent): Oregon

States by severity of penalty for interracial couples

Severe (maximum imprisonment of more than two years):

Alabama, Florida, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Okla­homa, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wyoming Medium (more than six months and up to two years):

Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Nevada, Ore­gon, West Virginia

Light (up to six months):

Arizona, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Utah No penalty:

California l

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