Apol/theo 697 Apologetics to Islam

Download 105.4 Kb.
Size105.4 Kb.


Apologetics to Islam

  1. Course Description

The course is an intensive study of the differences between Christianity and Islam with special focus on arguments for Christianity and against Islam that involve comparative theology and bibliology. The theologies proper to Islam and Christianity is centrally important in this apologetic discussion. How a worldview’s theology effects anthroplogy is a final constituent to this study.

  1. Rationale

The Christian worldview includes clear affirmations of its doctrine of God while clearly distinguishing it from other worldviews. This course discusses the Christian doctrine of God within the larger framework of the Christian worldview, explains the Islamic doctrine of Allah within the larger Islamic worldview, stresses the defensibility of Christianity over Islam in terms of comparative Scripture and theology, and notes areas of accord and discord between Islam and Christianity. The educated Christian will exit this course ready to engage Muslims; the Muslim popoulation is roughly estimated at 1.8 billion.

  1. Prerequisites


  1. Required Resource Purchase(s)

Ayoub, Mahmoud. A Muslim View of Christianity: Essays on Dialogue, ed. Irfan Omar, faith meets faith. New York: Orbis, 2007. ISBN: 1570756902.

Scalise, Brian. Disseration Notes: An Apologetic from Human Relationships against Islam. [found in the Liberty bookstore].

Timothy of Baghdad. Apology for Christianity. E-book ed. Kindle Digital Services, 2010. Kindle. This source can also be found online for free at http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/timothy_i_apology_01_text.htm

Volf, Miroslav. Allah: A Christian Response. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. IBSN: 0061927082.

White, James. What Every Christian Needs to Know about the Qur’an. Bloomington, MN: Bethany House, 2013. ISBN: 0764209760.

  1. Additional Materials for Learning

    1. Computer with basic audio and video equipment.

    2. Internet access (broadband recommended)

    3. Microsoft Word

(Microsoft Office is available at a special discount to LU students.)

  1. Measurable Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

    1. Analyze Christian Trinitarian theology in view of Muslim objections.

    2. Analyze the Tawḥīdic (oneness) nature of Allah in Islam with an eye to Christian criticisms.

    3. Differentiate Christian cosmology from that of Islamic cosmologies with a special focus on theological anthropologies.

    4. Discuss the relevant issues pertaining to qur’anic bibliology in a context of biblical bibliology.

    5. Articulate the apologetic argument from human relationships against Islam.

    6. Summarize Christology in terms of the New Testament doctrine in contrast to and against the Qur’anic view of Christ.

  1. Course Requirements and Assignments (Number of Assignments may vary)

    1. Outline of Timothy of Baghdad’s Apology for Christianity.

The student will outline Timothy’s apology in preparation for this course. The student must (1) identify the question Timothy is answering, (2) in no more than two sentences summarize Timothy’s answer to that question, and (3) explain how Timothy’s answer leads to the next question by the Muslim Caliph (King). This is due on the first day of class. The student must be ready to discuss their outline in class as part of a rigorous analysis of this text. LOs A, B, D, & F.

    1. Two Book Reviews

The student will write to separate reviews of five pages, due on the first day of class, for A Muslim View of Christianity (Ayoub) and What Every Christian Needs to Know about the Qur’an (White). These reviews must be broken into three parts by means of headings: (1) two pages should discuss the book’s content with the student’s limited commentary. This means that for every paragragh that summarizes part of the book, the student’s comments should be no more than a third of that paragraph and no less than a fourth of that paragraph. (2) Two pages must discuss the themes that are most important to the author. These are identified by close attention to the introductions and conclusions in each section of a book, carefully looking for repeated words or ideas that clue us in to what is important to our authors. (3) The student will discuss, in one page, the relevance of the book for apologetics and interreligious dialogue. LOs A, B, D, & F.

    1. Term Paper

The student will write one term paper of 12 – 15 pages, double spaced, not including title page, table of contents, or bibliography. It is due on April 30, 2015. The paper will engage one of the following apologetic topics, hopefully elucidating and contributing substantial data on chosen topic. This paper must rely on no less than twenty sources, substantially used in the actual construction of the paper and not as “padding” for the bibliography. LOs A, B, C, E, & F.

The Prophet Muhammad: problems with him as a Prophet

The history of Muhammad with special focus on the ethical dimensions of his life

The transmission of the Qur’an across the centuries

Qur’anic variations (textual variants) in the text compared with biblical variations

The trouble of Muslim centralized authority: Shia, Sunni, and Sufi

Troubling differences on a particular doctrine or tenant of Islam among Shia, Sunni, and/or Sufi

Trinity and Allah: ontologically different

The Old Testament’s openness to the possibility of the Son of God in comparison to the Qur’an closeness to the possibility of the Son of God

How Muslims handle the Torah, Zobar (Psalms), and Injil (Gospels) as Scripture although under the greater authority of the Qur’an: are there levels of “inspiredness”

Presenting and defending a traditional Christology (Christ as God) in view of specific Muslim objectors with their objections

Overcoming the Muslim accusation that the Apostle Paul changed the nature of Christianity by teaching doctrine about Jesus’ identity that was different from what Jesus taught about Himself in the Gospels

Dealing with the Muslim claim that the Bible, especially certain texts in the Gospels, has been corrupted

Articulating different theological anthropologies based on the difference between Christian doctrine of God and the Islamic doctrine of Allah.

    1. In class participation

The student’s ability to discuss the relevant issues in Timothy of Baghdad’s Apology for Christianity will be assessed closely for a participation grade. Moreover, students’ are expected to dialogue with the professor and other students about the specified content of the book reviews.

  1. Course Grading and Policies

    1. Points: 1000

Outline of Timothy of Baghdad

200 pts.

White book review

150 pts.

Ayoub book review

150 pts.

Term paper

400 pts.

In class participation

100 pts.

Total Points

1000 pts.

    1. Scale

























    1. Assignment Policies

Late work is not accepted except in view of dire circumstances individually discussed with the professor.

    1. Attendance Policies

The student is obliged to follow the attendance policies identified in the graduate catalog. In an intensive, needing to miss a full day of class will require that the course be dropped.

    1. Academic Misconduct Policies

Academic misconduct is strictly prohibited. See the graduate catalog for specific definitions, penalties, and processes for reporting.

    1. Drop/Add Policies

The student is obliged to follow the drop/add policies identified in the graduate catalog.

    1. Dress Code

The student is expected to maintain a neat, professional appearance while in class. The code is described in the graduate catalog and may be amended with guidelines by the school of study.

    1. Classroom Policies

The use of cell phones will not be permitted, except for emergencies. The use of computers is provisional and only permitted during lecture. Discussion portions of the course require the closing of laptops for the purpose of undivided attention. The student will only be allowed to use a computer if he/she is taking notes during class. Surfing of the web, social networking, or any other activity on a computer that distracts the student from the lecture (in the opinion of the professor) will result in the forfeiture of the privilege of the use of the computer in class. Should one student’s behavior result in the forfeiture of the use of a computer for that student, the entire class may lose the privilege of the use of computers.

    1. Disability Assistance

Students with a documented disability may contact the Office of Disability Academic Support (ODAS) in Green Hall 2668 to make arrangements for academic accommodations. For all disability testing accommodation requests (i.e. quieter environment, extended time, oral testing, etc.) the Testing Center (Green Hall 2700) is the officially designated place for all tests administered outside of the regular classroom.

    1. Student Conduct Policy

The student is expected to conduct himself/herself in a Godly and civil manner when addressing the professor or other students. While good healthy discussion will be expected and encouraged, at no time will personal attacks be tolerated.

  1. Calendar

Semester: The following calendar is a general representation of the course material and is subject to date adjustment and/or change of content if necessary, at the professor’s discretion.



Assignment (LO)


Introduction and relevance of course; Trinity and Allah; ontological differences; anthropological ramifications

A, B,

Timothy of Baghdad outline discussion; Christian and Islamic cosmology with an eye to anthropology

A, B, C, D, E, F

Answering Qur’anic objections to the Christian doctrine of God; Answering Muslim objections to the Christian Scriptures; theories of predication of the Deity

A, B, D, F

Christian Christology; Islamic Christology; the argument from human relationships; the argument from love; the problem of the one and the many

A, B, C, E, F,

  1. Bibliography

“99 Name of Allah.” Mawlana Faizani International, 1997 – 2005. Accessed January 15, 2014. www.faizani.com/articles/names.html.

Abrahamov, Binyamin. Islamic Theology: Traditionalism and Rationalism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998.

Ahmad, Shaykh Zulfiqar. Love for Allah. Translated by Brigadier Ashfaq Ashraf. 2nd ed. Chicago: Faqir Publications, 2004.

Ahmed, Akbar S. “Defining Islamic Anthropology.” Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britian and Ireland 65 (Dec., 1984): 1 – 4.

Ajijola, Alhaj. The Essence of Faith in Islam. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications Ltd., 1978.

Al-Barghouti, Tamim. The Umma and the Dawla: The Nation-State and the Arab Middle East. London: Pluto Press, 2008.

Al-Daylami. Kitab ‘aft al-alif al-ma’luf‘ala ‘l-lam al-ma‘tuf [A Treatise on Mystical Love]. Edited by J. C. Vadet. Cairo: Imprimerie de I‘Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 1962.

Al-Ghazālī, Abu Hamid. Al-Ghazālī’s Path to Sufism: his Deliverance from Error [al-Munqidh min al-Dalal]. Translated by R. J. Mccarthy S. J. Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2006.

_______________. Al-Iqtiṣād Fī Al-I’ Tiqād [Al-Ghazālī’s Moderation in Belief]. Translated by Aladdin M. Yaqub. Chicago: The Univesity of Chicago Press, 2013.

_______________. Al-Maqṣad al-asnā fī sharḥ asmā Allāh al-Ḥusnā [The Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God]. Translated with notes by David Burrell and Nazih Daher, the islamic texts society. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society, 2013.

_______________. Mishkat al-Anwar [The Niche for Lights]. Translatec by William Gairdner Vol. XIX. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1924.

_______________. On Knowing This World. Translated by Jay R. Crook. Introduction by Laleh Bakhtiar. Great Books of the Islamic World. Edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Chicago: Kazi Publications Inc., 2011. Kindle.

_______________. The Alchemy of Happiness. Translated by Claud Field. Kindle.

_______________. The Revival of Religious Sciences. Vol. 6. Translated by Reza Shah-Kazemi.

Al Kindy. In Defense of Christianity Against Islam: With an essay on its Age and Authorship read before the Royal Asiatic Society. Translation and Introduction Essay by Sir William Muir. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. London: E. & E. B. Young & Co., 1887.

Ali Khan, Wazir. A Treatise on the Testimony (Shahadah). London: Dr W A Khan, International Solo Consultant, 2011. Kindle.

Ali, Muhammad. Islam: the Religion of Humanity. Woking: Unwin Bros., 1910.

Allen, Roger, and Shawkat Toorawa, eds. Islam: a Short Guide to the Faith. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011.

Alston, William P. “Functionalism and Theological Language.” In Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

_______________. “Religious Language.” In The Oxford Handbook on Philosophy of Religion. Edited by William J. Wainwright. oxford handbooks of philosophy. Edited by Paul Moser. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Anselm of Canterbury “Monologion” and “Proslogion.” In The Major Works. oxford world classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Kindle

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae. Complete American Ed. Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Electronically developed by MobileReference. Kindle.

Athanasius, Ad Serapionem.

Ayoub, Muhmoud M. Islam Faith and History. Oneworld Publications, 2013.

Bakar, Osman. “Humanity and Diversity.” In Humanity, Texts and Contexts: Christian and Mulsim Perspectives. Edited by Michael Ipgrave and David Marshall. Washington D. C.: Georgetown University Press, 2011.

Balthasar, Hans Urs von. Presence and Thought: An Essay on the Religious Philosophy of Gregory of Nyssa. Translated by Mark Sebanc. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1995.

Barth, Karl. Church Dogmatics. Vol. 2, The Doctrine of God. T & T Clark Publishers, 2006.

Basil. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Vol. VIII, St. Basil: Letters and Select Works. New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1894. Logos Bible Software, electronic.

Bauckham, Richard. Jesus and the God of Israel. god crucified and other studies on the new testament’s Christology of divine identity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008.

Bell, Catherine. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Bell, Joseph Norment. Love Theory in Later Hanbalite Islam. Studies in Islamic Philosophy and Science. Edited by George F. Hourani, Muhsin Mahdi, Parviz Morewedge, Nicholas Rescher, and Ehsan Yar-Shater. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1979.

Boff, Leonardo. Trinity and Society. Translated by Paul Burns. Wellwood, Kent: Burns & Oates, 1988.

Bonevac, Daniel. “Two Theories on Analogical Predication.” Baylor University Paper Presentation (2010). Accessed July 13, 2014: http://bonevac.info/papers/AnalogicalPredication.pdf.

Buber, Martin. I and Thou. Translated by Ronald Gregor Smither. Scribner Classics edition. New York: Scribner, 2000.

Bulgakov, Sergius. The Wisdom of God: A Brief Summary of Sophiology. London: Williams and Norgate, 1937.

Cambon, Enrique. Trinity: Model of Society. Edited by Bill Hartnett. New City Press, 2014.

Ciraulo, Jonathan Martin. “The One and the Many: Peter and Peters.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 48, no. 1 (Winter 2013): 45–57.

Clark, David. To Know and Love God: Method for Theology, Foundation of Evangelical Theology. Edited by John Feinberg. Wheaton: Crossway Books, 2003.

Collins, Paul M. Trinitarian Theology West and East: Karl Barth, the Cappadocian Fathers, and John Zizioulas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Cooper, Derek . Christianity & World Religions: an Introduction to the World’s Major Faiths. Philadelphia: P & R Publishing, 2013.

Cragg, Kenneth. The Call of the Minaret. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.

Craig, William Lane. Time and Eternity: Exploring God’s Relationship to Time. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2001.

Craig, William Lane and Quentin Smith. Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Davies, Douglas. Anthropology and Theology. Oxford: Berg, an imprint of Oxford International Publishers Ltd., 2002.

Davies, Merryl Wyn. Knowing One Another: Shaping an Islamic Anthropology. islamic futures and policy studies. New York: Mansell Publishing, 1988.

Davis, Stephen, Daniel Kendall and Gerald O’Collins, eds. The Trinity: an Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Trinity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

D’Costa, Galvin. Christianity and the World Religions: Disputed Questions in the Theology of Religions. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

DeWeese, Garrett. God and the Nature of Time. Hampshire UK: Ashgate, 2004.

Dulles, Avery. Models of Revelation. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1992.

Dunn, James D. G. The Theology of Paul the Apostle. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Duranti, Alessandro. “Husserl, Intersubjectivity, and Anthropology.” Anthropological Theory 10 (2010): 16 – 35.

El-Yacoubi, Hassan Hasan Sheikh Salim. Islam: The Language of Oneness: Tawḥīd, the Islamic Paradigm. N.p.: H. H. and J. El-Yacoubi, 1994.

Epiphanius, Haereses.

Erickson, Millard. God in Three Persons. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995.

_______________. The Word Became Flesh: a Contemporary Incarnational Christology. 1991; Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2000.

Fairbairn, Donald. Life in the Trinity: an Introduction to Theology with the Help of the Church Fathers. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2009.

Fakhry, Majid. Islamic Philosophy: A Beginner’s Guide. Ebook ed. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2011.

Farley, Edward. Faith and Beauty (Burlington VT: Ashgate, 2001).

Fitzmyer, J. A. “The Semitic Background of the New Testament kyrios-Title.” A Wandering Aramean: Collected Aramaic Essays. Missoula: Scholars, 1979.

Forte, Bruno. The Portal of Beauty: Towards a Theology of Aesthetics. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008.

Frank, Richard. Islamic Philosophical Theology. Edited by Parviz Morewedge. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1980.

Gauss, James F. Islam & Christianity: A Revealing Contrast. Alachua, FL: Bridge Logos, 2009. Kindle.

Geisler, Norman and Abdul Saleeb. Answering Islam: the Crescent in Light of the Cross. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2002.

George, Timothy, ed. God the Holy Trinity: Reflections on Christian Faith and Practice. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2006.

_______________. Is the Father of Jesus the God of Muhammad: Understanding the Differences between Christianity and Islam. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002.

Ghamidi, Javed Ahmad. Islam: A Comprehensive Introduction. Translated by Shehzad Saleem. 51-K Model Town Lahore, Pakistan: Al-Mawrid, 2012. Kindle.

Gibb, H. A. R. Mohammedanism: an Historical Survey. 2nd ed. New York: Galaxy Book, 1962.

Goldziher, Ignaz. Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law. Translated by Andras and Ruth Hamori. Introduction and notes by Bernard Lewis. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Greear, J. D. Breaking the Islam Code: Understanding the Soul Questions of Every Muslim. Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 2010.

Gregory of Nyssa. The Letters. Translation, introduction, and commentary by Anna Silvas. Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae [formerly titled Philosophia Patrum]. Edited by J. Boeft, J. Oort, W. Petersen, D. Runia, J. Winden, and C. Scholten. Vol. 83. Boston: Brill, 2007.

Gregory Nazianzen the Theologian. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Vol. VII, S. Cyril of Jerusalem & S. Gregory of Nazianzen. New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1894. Logos Bible Software, electronic.

Grenz, Stanley J. The Social God and the Relational Self: A Trinitarian Theology of the Imago Dei. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.

_______________. The Named God and the Question of Being: A Trinitarian Theo-Ontology. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2005.

Grillmeier, Aloys. Christ in Christian Tradition. Translated by John Bowden. Vol. 1, From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon. Rev. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975.

Grondin, Jean. Introduction to Philosophical Hermeneutics. Translated by Joel Weinsheimer. Yale Studies in Hermeneutics. Darmstadt, Germany: Yale University, 1994.

Gunton, Colin E. The One, the Three and the Many: God Creation and the Culture of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

_______________. The Promise of Trinitarian Theology. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1991.

_______________. The Triune Creator: A Historical and Systematic Study. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Haddad, Ynonne Yazbeck, Ed. The Muslims of America. Religion in America Series, edited by Harry S. Stout. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Hart, David Bentley. The Beauty of the Infinite: the Aesthetics of Christian Truth. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003.

Hartman, Dayton. “Answering Muslim Objections to the Trinity.” Answering Islam. Accessed January 18, 2014. www.answering-islam.org.

Haskar, William. God, Time, and Knowledge. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Hick, John. “Islam and Christianity.” A lecture to the Iranian Institute of Philosophy, under the auspices of the Iranian Institute for Interreligious Dialogue in Tehran. March 2005, accessed June 26, 2014: www.johnhick.org.uk/article12.html.

Hoffstaedter, Gerhard. “Islam and freedom of religion: Anthropology, theology and clashes of universalisms in contemporary Malaysia.” The Australian Journal of Anthropology 24 (2013): 270 – 289.

Holdcroft, David. Saussure: Signs, System, and Arbitrariness. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Horrell, J. Scott. "Chapter 2: The Eternal Son of God in the Social Trinity.” In Jesus in Trinitarian Perspective, Edited by Fred Sanders and Klause Issler. Nashville TN: B&H Publishing Group, 2007.

Hurayrah, Abu. The Most Beautiful Names. Putney, VT: Threshold Books, 1985.

Hurtado, Larry. How on Earth did Jesus become a God? Historical Questions about Earliest Devotion to Jesus. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005.

_______________. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005.

_______________. One God, One Lord: Early Christian Devotion and Ancient Jewish Monotheism. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.

Ibn Abd Il Wahhaab, Muhammad. The Four Principles of Shirk. Kindle.

Ibn ‘Arabi, Muhammad. Traité de l'amour. Translatec by M. Gloton. Spiritualités vivantes. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986.

_______________. Al-Futūḥāt. Beirut: Dar Sadir.

Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad. Al-Ihtijaj bi-l-qadar in Maimu‘at al-rasa ‘il al-kubra. Cairo: al-Matba‘a al- ‘Amiriya al-Sharafiya, 1905 – 1906.

_______________. Al-Jawab Al Sahih Li-Man Baddal Din Al-Masih [A Muslim Theologian’s Response to Christianity]. Edited and translated by Thomas Michel S. J. Delmar NY: Caravan Books, 1984.

_______________. Al-‘Ubudiyyah [Being a True Slave of Allah]. Edited by Afsar Siddiqui. Translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab. London: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., 2013.

_______________. Majmū‘ Fatāwā. Edited by ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Qāsim and Muḥammad. Rabat, n.d.

Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din, Al-Ghazālī Website, www.al-ghazali.org.

Jenson, Robert W. Systematic Theology. Vol. 1, The Triune God. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

John of Jerusalem, Life of John of Damascus.

Johnson, Junius. Christ and Analogy: the Christocentric Metaphysics of Hans Urs von Balthasar. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2013.

Kateregga, Badru D. and David W. Shenk. Islam and Christianity: a Muslim and Christian in Dialogue.Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Katz, Steven T., Ed. Mysticism and Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Kim, Stephen Myongsu. Transcendence of God - a comparative study of the Old Testament and the Qur’an. Ph.D. thesis. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 2009. yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10172009-125341/ >. Accessed on March 2, 2014.

Khamenae, Ayatollah Sayyid Ali. An Outline of Islamic Thought in the Qur’an. London: ICAS Press, 2007.

Kolig, Erich. Conversative Islam: A Cultural Anthropology. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Lexington Books, 2012.

Krokus, Christian S. “Divine Embodiment in Christian-Muslim Perspective.” Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 22, no. 2 (January 1, 2012): 158–169.

Labourt, Hieronymus. De Timotheo I: Nestorianorum Patriarcha (728 – 823) et Christianorum Orientalium Condicione sub Chaliphis Abbasidis. Paris: Apud Victorem Lecoffre, 1904.

LaCugna, Catherine Mowery. God for Us: The Trinity and Christian Life. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1991.

Lash, Nicholas. Believing Three Ways in One God: A Reading of the Apostles’ Creed. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame Press, 1993.

Letham, Robert. The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2004.

Lévinas, Emmanuel. Existence and Existents. Translated by Alphonso Lingis. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

Lewis, Bernard and Buntzie Ellis Churchill. Islam: the Religion and the People. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc., 2009.

Lonergan, Bernard. Method in Theology. Rep. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. Kindle.

Longhurst, Christopher Evan. “TAWḤĪD AND HOMOOÚSIOS: NARROWING THE GAPS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN UNDERSTANDING OF GOD'S DIVINE ONENESS.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 48, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 255-258.

Mackintosh, H. R. The Person of Jesus Christ. London: T & T Clark, 2000.

Macmurray, John. Persons in Relation. New York: Harper & Row, 1961.

Mahmud, Abdel Haleem. The Creed of Islam. London: World of Islam Festival Trust, 1978.

Markos, Louis. Apologetics for the 21st Century. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2010.

Masse, Henri. Islam. Translated by Halide Edib. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1938.

Maximus the Confessor. Maximus the Confessor. Translated with Introduction by Andrew Louth. The Early Church Fathers. Edited by Carol Harrison. New York: Routledge, 1996.

_______________. Maximus the Confessor: Ambigua to Thomas and Second Letter to Thomas. Tranlated with Introduction and notes by Joshua Lollar. Corpvs Christianorvm in Translation. Vol. 2., Maximi Confessoris Ambigva ad Thomam Vna Cvm Epistvla Secvnda ad Evndem. Turnout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers, 2009.

_______________. Maximus the Confessor: Selected Writings. Translated and notes by George C. Berthold. the classics of western spirituality: a library of great spiritual masters. Edited by John Farina. New York: Paulist Press, 1985.

_______________. Epistle 12.

McDowell, Josh and Jim Walker. Understanding Islam and Christianity.

McFague, Sallie. Metaphorical Theology: Models of God in Religious Language. U.S.A.: Fortress Press, 1982.

McNeill, William, and Marilyn Waldman. The Islamic World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Mcpartlan, Paul. The Eucharist Makes the Church: Henri de Lubac and John Zizioulas in Dialogue. Fairfax, VA: Eastern Christian Publications, 2006.

Meerson, Michael Aksionov. The Trinity of Love in Modern Russian Theology: The Love Paradigm and the Retrieval of Western Medieval Love Mysticism in Modern Russian Trinitarian Thought (from Solovyov to Bulgakov). Quincy Il: Franciscan Press, 1998.

Meyer, Stephen. Signature in the Cell. Harper’s Collins, 2009. Kindle.

Milbank, John. Theology & Social Theory: Beyond Secular Reason, Signposts in Theology Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

Moltmann, Jürgen. The Trinity and the Kingdom. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Publishers, 1993.

Montgomery, Daniel and Kate Montgomery. Christian Personality Theory: a Self Compass for Humanity. Montecito, CA: Compass Works, 2009.

Moreland, J. P. and William Lane Craig. “The Coherence of Theism I” and “The Coherence of Theism II.” In Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview. Downers Grove, Il: InterVarsity Press Academic, 2003.

_______________. Compass Psychotheology: where Psychology and Theology really meet. Albuquerque, NM: Compass Works, 2006.

_______________. Trusting in the Trinity: Compass Psychotheology Applied. Montecito, CA: Compass Works, 2009.

Morrison, John. Has God Said? Scripture, the Word of God, and the Crisis of Theological Authority. the evangelical theological society monograph series. Edited by David Baker. Eugene OR: Pickwick Publications, 2006.

Murata, Sachiko and William C. Chittick. The Vision of Islam. Visions of Reality: A Series on Religions as Worldviews, edited by Roger Corless. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House, 1994.

Nagel, Tilman. The History of Islamic Theology: From Muhammad to the Present. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2006.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Islamic Life and Thought. Albany: State University of New York, 1981.

_______________. Islamic Philosophy from its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy. Suny series in Islam. Edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2006.

_______________. Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization. New York: Harper Collins e-book, 2003.

_______________. “We and You: Let Us Meet in God’s Love.” A lecture delivered at the “Common Word” meeting with Pope Benedict XVI. Nov. 6, 2008.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Ed. Islamic Spirituality Manifestations. New York: Crossroad, 1991.

Netton, Ian Richard. Allāh Transcendent: Studies in the Structure and Semiotics of Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Cosmology. Digital ed. New York: Routledge, 2006. Kindle.

_______________. Islam, Christianity and the Mystic Journey: a Comparative Exploration. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd., 2011.

“Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.” Together at One Altar. National Catholic Education Commission, 2014. Accessed May 15, 2014. http://www.togetheratonealtar.catholic.edu.au/receive/dsp-content.cfm?loadref=78.

Nicholas of Cusa. Nicholas of Cusa’s De pace fidei and Cribratio Alkorani. Translated by Jasper Hopkins. Minneapolis: Banning, 1994.

Nissiotis, Nikos A. The Orthodox Ethos. Edited by A. Philippou. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964.

O’Collins, Gerald. The Tripersonal God: Understanding and Interpreting the Trinity. New York: Paulist Press, 1999.

Oktar, Harun Yahya-Adnan. Names of Allah. Global Publishing, 2011.

Oldham, Michael. Allah and Elohim: Do Muslims and Christians Worship the Same God? n.p.: Tate Publishing and Enterprises, n.d. Kindle.

Othman, Norani. “Grounding human rights arguments in non-western culture: Shari’a and the citizenship rights of women in a modern Islamic nation-state.” In The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights. Edited by J. R. Bauer and A. Bell. Cambridge: Cambride University Press, 1999.

Ouellet, Marc Cardinal. Divine Likeness: Toward a Trinitarian Anthropology of the Family. Transated by Philip Milligan and Linda M. Cicone. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006.

Packer, J. I. and L. Wilkinson, eds. Alive to God: Studies in Spirituality, Presented to James Houston. Downers Grove: 1992).

Padgett, Alan. God, Eternity and the Nature of Time. rep. London: Wipf and Stock, 2000.

Palacios, Miguel Asin. El Islam cristianizado. Madrid: Editorial Plutarco, 1931.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart. Anthropology in Theological Perspective. Translaed by Matthew J. O’Connell. Edinburgh: T&T Clark LTD, 1999.

_______________. Systematic Theology. Vol. 1. Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Wolfhart Pannenberg, What is a Man? Contemporary Anthropology in Theological Perspective. Translate by Duane A. Priebe. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1970).

Papanikolaou, Aristotle. Being with God: Trinity, Apophaticism, and Divine-Human Communion. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006.

Peters, F. E. Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Peters, Ted. God—The World's Future: Systematic Theology for a New Era. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000.

_____________. God as Trinity: Relationality and Temporality in Divine Life. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1993.

Plantinga, Alvin. “Advice to Christian Philosophers.” Faith and Philosophy: Journal of the Society of Christian Philosophers 1, no. 3 (October, 1984): 253 – 271.

Plantinga Jr., Cornelius. “Social Trinity and Tritheism.” In Trinity, Incarnation and Atonement. Edited by Ronald J. Feenstra and Cornelius Plantinga Jr. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1989.

Porter, Stanley, and Jason Robinson. Hermeneutics: an Introduction to Interpretive Theory. Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2011.

Quick, Oliver. Doctrines of the Creed. London: Fontana Press, 1947.

Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Revised and translated by Ahmad Zaki Hammad. Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1990.

Rahman, Fazlur. Major Themes of the Qur’an. 2nd Ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Rahner, Karl. The Trinity: with an Introduction, Index, and Glossary by Catherine Mowry Lacugna. Translated by Joseph Donceel. Milestones in Catholic Theology. New York: Crossroad Publishing, 1970.

Ratzinger, Joseph [Pope Benedictine XVI]. Introduction to Christianity. Translated by J. R. Foster. New York: The Seabury Press, 1979.

Rauf, Muhammad Abdul. Islam: Creed and Worship. Washington, D. C.: The Islamic Center, 1974.

Reeves, Michael. Delighting in the Trinity: an Introduction to the Christian Faith. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2012.

Renard, John. Islam and Christianity: Theological Themes in Comparative Perspective. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2011.

Saeed, Abdullah. The Qur’an: an Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Sailhamer, John H. The Meaning of the Pentateuch: Revelation, Composition, and Interpretation. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2009.

Sanders, Fred. The Deep Things of God: how the Trinity Changes Everything. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2010.

Scalise, Brian. “Perichoresis in Gregory Nazianzen and Maximus the Confessor.” Eleutheria 2 (2012): 58 – 76.

Scotus, John Duns. Philosophical Writings. Translated by Allan Wolter. the nelson philosophical texts. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1962.

_______________. God and Creatures: The Quodlibetal Questions. Translated, with an introduction, notes, and glossary, by Felix Alluntis and Allan Wolter. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Searle, John. Speech Act: an Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969.

Seamands, Stephen. Ministry in the Image of God: The Trinitarian Shape of Christian Service. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2005.

Shahzad, Qaiser. “Accomodating Trinity: a Brief Note on Ibn ʻArabī’s Views.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 48, no. 1 (December 1, 2013): 114–120.

Shults, F. LeRon. Reforming the Doctrine of God. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005.

Smail, Tom. Like Father, Like Son: The Trinity Imaged in Our Humanity. Milton Keynes, Bucks, UK: Paternoster, 2005.

Sokolowski, Robert. Christian Faith & Human Understanding: Studies on the Eucharist, Trinity, and the Human Person. The Catholic University of America Press, 2006.

Soulen, R. Kendall. The Divine Name(s) and the Holy Trinity. Vol. 1, Distinguishing the Voices. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011. Kindle.

St. Augustine. A Treatise on the Spirit and the Letter. Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007.

_______________. De Trinitate. Rev. ed. Revised and annotated by William Shedd. Edited by Paul Boer. Translated by Arthur Haddan. Veritatis Splendor Publications.

_______________. Quaestiones in Heptateuchum.

St. John of Damascus. Saint John of Damascus, Writings, the Fount of Knowledge: the Philosophical Chapters, On Heresies, & On the Orthodox Faith. Translated by Frederic H. Chases, Jr. Vol. 37, the Fathers of the Church, edited by Bernard Peebles, Robert Russell, Thomas Halton, Hermigild Dressler, William Tongue, and Josephine Brennan. Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1958.

Swinburne, Richard. The Christian God. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.

_______________. The Coherence of Theism. Rev. Ed. Clarendon Library of Logic and Philosophy, edited by Jonathan Cohen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Tennent, Timothy. Christianity at the Religious Roundtable: Evangelicalism in Conversation with Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002.

The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed. Antiochain Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North American. 2000 – 2013. Accessed May 15, 2014. www.antiochian.org/674.

“The Nicene Creed.” The ELLC Texts; A Survey of Use and Variation. Worldwide Usage of the Revised Common Lectionary, 2007. Accessed May 15, 2014. http://www.englishtexts.org/survey.html#thenicenecreed.

Thiselton, Anthony. Hermeneutics: an Introduction. Cambridge: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2009.

_______________. The Two Horizons: New Testament Hermeneutics and Philosophical Description. Reprint Ed. Grand Rapids: Paternoster Press, 1993.

Timothy I. Apology for Christianity. Introduction by Rendel Harris. Vol. 2. woodbrooke studies: Christian documents in syriac, Arabic, and garshuni. Edited and translated with a critical apparatus by A. Mingana. Cambridge: Cambride W. Heffer & Sons Limited, 1928.

Timothy of Baghdad. Apology for Christianity. Kindle.

Torrance, James B. Worship, Community, & the Triune God of Grace. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1996.

Torrance, Thomas. Divine and Contingent Order. Edinburgh: Oxford University Press, 1981.

_______________. The Christian Doctrine of God: One Being Three Persons. New York: T & T Clark, 1996.

Turner, Denys. “The ‘Same’ God: Is there an ‘apophatic’ Solution, or, Who’s to Know?” Unpublished paper for the consultation on “The Same God.” Yale Center for Faith and Culture, September 23 – 24, 2009.

Vanhoozer, Kevin. Is there a Meaning in This Text? The Bible, the Reader, and the Morality of Literary Knowledge. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998.

Vanhoozer, Kevin, ed. The Trinity in a Pluralistic Age: Theological Essays on Culture and Religion. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.

Volf, Miroslav. After Our Likeness: The Church as the Image of the Trinity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

_______________. Allah: A Christian Response. HarperCollins e-books, 2011. Kindle.

Volf, Miroslav and Michael Welker, eds. God's Life in Trinity. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 2006.

Waltke, Bruce and Charles Yu. An Old Testament Theology: an exegetical, canonical, and themantic Approach. Zondervan. Kindle

Walton, Douglas. Abductive Reasoning. Alabama Press, 2005.

Ward, Graham. Barth, Derrida and the Language of Theology. Paperback Ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Ware, Bruce A. Father, Son, and Holy Spirit: Relationships, Roles, & Relevance. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2005.

Watt, W. Montgomery. Islam and Christianity today: a Contribution to Dialogue. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983.

Westphal, Merold. Overcoming Onto-Theology: towards a postmodern Christian Faith. perspectives in continental philosophy. Edited by John Caputo. New York: Fordham University Press, 2001.

Wheeler, Brannon, ed. Teaching Islam. aar teaching religious studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

White, James. What Every Christian Needs to Know about the Qur’an. Bloomington, MN: Bethany House, 2013.

Winsinck, J. A Handbook of Early Muhammadan tradition. London: E. J. Brill LTD. Publishers and Printers, 1927.

Winter, Tim. The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge Companions to Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

_________. History and the Triune God: Contributions to Trinitarian Theology. Translated by John Bowden. New York: Crossroad, 1992.

Wolterstorff, Nicholas. Divine Discourse. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Zaka, Anees, and Diane Coleman. The Truth about Islam: the Noble Qur’an’s Teachings in Light of the Holy Bible. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&P Publishing Co., 2004.

Zwemer, S. M. Arabia: Studies in the Geography, People, and Politics of the Peninsula, with an Account of Islam and Mission-Work. Edinburgh: Oliphant Anderson and Ferrier, 1900.

Zizioulas, John. Being as Communion: Studies in Personhood and the Church. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Press, 1997.

____________. Community & Otherness. Edited by Paul McPartlan. London: T&T Clark, 2006.

____________. The One and the Many: Studies on God, Man, the Church, and the World Today. Edited by Gregory Edwards. contemporary Christian thought series. Alhambra, CA: Sebastian Press, 2012.

Share with your friends:

The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page