Apeh exam review multiple choice questions

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(NOTE: The answers to today's questions will appear at the bottom of tomorrow's list of questions.


1. The painting above represents the warmth and serenity of Italian renaissance art as depicted by

(A) Titian

(B) Botticelli

(C) Raphael

(D) Giotto

(E) DaVinci


2. The achievements of the Renaissance were due to the growth in all the following EXCEPT

(A) classical learning that followed rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman works

(B) urban expansion providing an atmosphere conducive to experimentation in art and thought

(C) an optimistic and individualistic outlook on life

(D) an anti-Christian outlook that expressed itself in a large body of art and literature

(E) patronage of the urban nobility


3. Petrarch stated his belief that the millenium after Rome's fail were

(A) the zenith of Western world civilization

(B) a dark age

(C) similar to the period of the Empire

(D) a paradigm for Europe to emulate

(E) the height of classical culture


4. Renaissance humanism

(A) established the dignity of man, as well as the nobility of the human race

(B) concentrated to find answers aiding man in his struggle for salvation

(C) successfully combined the tenents of Scholastic philosophy with the new interest in Aristotelian concepts

(D) intended to make people more eloquent and moral

(E) focused on religiosity


5. A constant factor in the attitude toward human characteristics during the Renaissance was

(A) pride

(B) humility

(C) individualism

(D) religiosity

(E) arrogance


6. The term "Renaissance man" is

(A) an abstract term coined by humanists to characterize anyone dedicated to Renaissance ideals

(B) a person who is accomplished in many different pursuits and is learned and civilized

(C) Leonardo da Vinci, who was a painter, musician, architect, engineer and naturalist

(D) a magnificent male figure carved by Michelangelo as an expression of his philosophy

(E) a man reborn to the faith


7. All of the following fit the Renaissance world view EXCEPT

(A) self-assuredness

(B) confidence

(C) arrogance

(D) caution

(E) pride


8. Which of the following characteristics of human nature were emphasized during the Renaissance?

(A) emotions, basic values, and abstract thought

(B) cyncism and baser values as shown by Machiavelli's political works

(C) the human psyche as demonstrated through the works of Leonardo da Vinci

(D) the perfectability of human nature

(E) all the virtues mentioned above, in addition to breadth of knowledge


9. Primary among the causes for expansion of the secular spirit was the

(A) business success of the merchant class

(B) scholasticism

(C) the Church's condoning of wealth as a path to salvation

(D) the introduction of democracy into the Italian city-states

(E) support of the nobility


10. Erasmus maintained that

(A) emphasis upon scientific research will create better living conditions

(B) Protestant revolutionism is the only possible means to reform the church

(C) misery and injustice are due to ignorance and superstition

(D) Christian rulers are duty bound to lead Crusades against the infidel

(E) atheism is a positive good


11. The major focus of the Italian Renaissance was

(A) preoccupied with theology

(B) to provide a harmonious balance of all aspects of human endeavor

(C) wealth and commerce

(D) political liberation and equality

(E) democracy


12. The great emphasis the humanists placed upon education was expressed in their belief that it should

(A) be a purely private concern

(B) be based only on the Bible

(C) prepare a man for public affairs

(D) be highly technical

(E) be scholarly


NOTE: Answers will appear with the next set of questions.




(Note: Answers to today's questions may be found at the bottom of tomorrow's list)


1. Martin Luther's doctrine included all the following EXCEPT

(A) Salvation through faith

(B) transubstantiation

(C) Scripture as the ultimate source of creed

(D) Salvation through good works

(E) opposition to indulgences


2. The political causes of the Protestant Reformation included

(A) the weakening of the nobility

(B) abuses of the clergy

(C) the Italian Church

(D) resentment of the Holy Roman Emperor

(E) the quest for indulgences combined with the the factors above


3. An indulgence in Christian theology was

(A) absolution of future sins

(B) permission to commit sins

(C) forgiveness of sin

(D) a sacrament of the Church

(E) a last rite


4. St. Thomas Aquinas' theology which the Protestant reformers opposed, taught that

(A) sinners do not need a priest to attain grace

(B) man must have faith in an omnipotent God

(C) sacraments are unnecessary

(D) humans have free will to choose between good and evil

(E) all is predestined


5. Luther's posting of the 95 Theses at Wittenburg was inspired by

(A) his belief in predestination

(B) the sale of papal indulgences

(C) his anger over papal illiteracy

(D) his outrage over papal supremacy

(E) a divine act


6. By the 16th Century, the Reformation had extended its influence to all the following nations EXCEPT

(A) Germany

(B) Switzerland

(C) Spain

(D) Scotland

(E) Sweden


7. For Europe, the Protestant Revolt of Martin Luther

(A) was a cataclysmic event without previous cause

(B) had little impact outside of Germany

(C) was only one of many movements challenging Church corruption

(D) inspired little interest or concern

(E) led to religious toleration


8. The Anabaptists preached

(A) the need for a new Jerusalem on earth

(B) the clergy's role as a guide to salvation was useless

(C) the use of Baptism is ineffectual

(D) that material goods were sinful

(E) that salvation is predestined


9. The most accurate of the following statements concerning the Anglican Church is

(A) It closely resembled Calvinism.

(B) It gained the support of entire population.

(C) It began as a Catholic movement under the king.

(D) It was caused by the people's resentment of the Pope.

(E) It developed as a popular movement in England.


10. The Book of Common Prayer became the

(A) sanctioned prayer book of the Anglican Church

(B) accepted gospel of John Calvin

(C) scripture according to the Presbyterian Church

(D) heresy of the Waldensians

(E) universal prayer book in Europe


11. Martin Luther finally concluded

(A) one's love of God had to be demonstrated by prayer

(B) the sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist were essential to God's grace

(C) ascetic practices were necessary to attain salvation

(D) by faith alone are humans justified in the sight of God

(E) the Pope was infallible


12. All of the following were predecessors of the Luthern reform EXCEPT

(A) John Wycliffe

(B) John Huss

(C) Marsiglio of Padua

(D) Thomas Aquinas

(E) John Gerson


13. Ulrich Zwingli was responsible for the Protestant conversion of

(A) the Netherlands

(B) Switzerland

(C) France

(D) Sweden

(E) Scotland


14. John Calvin's concept of predestination is best verified by

(A) a sign of God's grace at birth

(B) evidence of material success and piety

(C) trial by ordeal

(D) a miraculous occurrence within the congregation

(E) the Holy Office of the Inquisition


15. The German Peasants' Revolt of 1524-1525 was

(A) a desperate attempt to lower prices and break the monopoly of the wealthy

(B) the first documented revolt of the lower classes in Europe

(C) a violent struggle between German peasants and German workers

(D) an attempt by the lower classes to seize political rights

(E) an uprising of serf against noble



1-C, 2-D, 3-B, 4-A, 5-C, 6-B, 7-D, 8-E, 9-A, 10-C, 11-B, 12-C.





(Note: Answers to today's questions may be found at the bottom of tomorrow's questions)


1. The Fuggers of Augsburg were

(A) leaders of the Hanseatic League

(B) bankers

(C) merchants

(D) urban nobility

(E) clergymen


2. The great port of North European commerce in the 16th century was

(A) Rotterdam

(B) St. Petersburg

(C) London

(D) Antwerp

(E) Stockholm


3. The enclosure movement is best described by which statement?

(A) The fencing off of lands without regard for the holdings of the peasants.

(B) It was an agricultural revolution.

(C) It began a development of scientific farming.

(D) It involved the redistribution of lands into parcels among the aristocracy.

(E) It included the enclosure of urban parliamentary voting districts.


4. The London Company was a

(A) partnership

(B) holding company

(C) chartered company

(D) trading company

(E) manufacturing company


5. Magellan's great voyage proved all the following EXCEPT

(A) that the earth was smaller than previously thought

(B) that the islands of Malaya could be reached from the East

(C) that a navigational passage around the tip of South America existed

(D) that the earth was truly round

(E) that sailors could mutiny


6. The voyages of discovery of the 15th and 16th centuries were supported by monarchs for what reason?

(A) royal sailing academies now allowed sailors tO venture into the open sea

(B) religious fervor encouraged exploration

(C) to break the monopolies of Venice and Genoa

(D) to encourage nationalism

(E) to gain papal support


7. The astrolabe was a

(A) 30x magnification telescope

(B) new and powerful development of binoculars

(C) navigational handbook

(D) device to measure the position of the stars

(E) planetarium


8. The most prevalent reason for 15th and 16th century voyages of exploration was

(A) the hope of personal enrichment

(B) to discover barbarian peoples

(C) to weaken Arab control of the Mediterranean

(D) to proselytize the Christian faith

(E) the need for adventure


9. The Cameralists were

(A) merchants desiring a monopoly on trade

(B) dealers in gold bullion

(C) Germans who supported mercantalism

(D) French industrialists

(E) laissez-faire economists


10. Which of the following classes was LEAST affected by 16th century inflation?

(A) the bourgeoisie

(B) the urban poor

(C) the rural aristocracy

(D) the urban nobilty

(E) agricultural workers


11. "The ordinary means therefore to encrease our wealth and treasure is by Forraign Trade, wherein we must ever observe this rule: to sell more to strangers yearly than we consume of theirs in value."


The above quotation, from England's Treasure by Forraign Trade by Thomas Mun, provided the philosophy for the English system of


(A) Bullionism

(B) Regulated companies

(C) Statism

(D) Mercantalism

(E) Capitalism


12. The new society of the Commercial Revolution is best characterized by

(A) the elimination of the domestic system

(B) the increase of the urban population

(C) the pursuit of materialism and self-interest

(D) fewer agricultural workers

(E) a strong nobility


13. The first and second English Navigation Acts were designed to

(A) restrict foreign trade

(B) increase the value of English currency

(C) enhance English tarrifs and shipping

(D) provide lower customs duties on imports

(E) support triangular trade


14. Bullionism as an economic theory was based upon

(A) the quantity of precious metals within a nation

(B) the ratio of value between gold and silver

(C) the royal tax placed upon precious metals

(D) the amount of gold backing paper currency

(E) free trade


15. The Commercial Revolution included all the following characteristics EXCEPT

(A) the growth of private and national banking

(B) changes in the methods of production

(C) laws establishing price controls

(D) development of capitalism

(E) expansion of trade routes



1-B, 2-E, 3-C, 4-D, 5-B, 6-C, 7-C, 8-B, 9-C, 10-A, 11-D, 12-D, 13-B, 14-B, 15-A.




(NOTE: The answers to today's questions will appear at the bottom of tomorrow's list of questions.)


1. The growth of absolutism resulted in wars prompted by the

(A) militant policies of the Huguenots

(B) merchants greed for profits

(C) Hapsburg's new Spanish acquisitions

(D) religious differences and dynastic ambitions

(E) interest in new trade routes


2. Louis XIV supported all the following EXCEPT

(A) the building of the Palace of Versailles

(B) cooperation with the Estates-General

(C) art and culture

(D) the theory of divine right of kings

(E) the policies of Cardinal Richelieu


3. Of the following, which nation BEST completes the statement:

"Others wage war; you, _________, marry"?

(A) England

(B) France

(C) Austria

(D) Spain

(E) Belgium


4. "There are four essential characteristics or qualities of royal authority

First, royal authority is sacred

Second, it is paternal

Third, it is absolute

Fourth, it is subject to reason."


Based upon the above statement, from Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture by Jacques Bousset, which of the following would NOT be a policy of a 17th century absolutist state7

(A) a decentralized government

(B) a large bureaucracy

(C) a professional army

(D) a theory of divine right of kingship

(E) a royal judiciary system


5. Which of the following best reflects Louis XIV's philosophy of government?

(A) The king is responsible for the happiness of his subjects.

(B) Only the Estates-General can meet the needs of France.

(C) The king is responsible only to God.

(D) The separation of powers is necessary for proper government.

(E) The Fronde was just)fied.


6. In England, responsibility for the civil war which led to the downfall of absolutism rests mainly with

(A) Charles I and James II

(B) radical Protestants

(C) Members of Parliament

(D) Scottish Presbyterians

(E) Irish Catholics


7. The political theorist whose views supported that of the British middle class was

(A) SamuelJohnson

(B) Thomas Hobbes

(C) Lord Byron

(D) John Locke

(E) Lord Acton


8. The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell represents the first

(A) English theocratic government

(B) victory of English democracy

(C) development of English absolutism

(D) successful leadership of Parliament

(E) attempt at religious freedom


9. The failure of the Puritan Revolution was due to

(A) armed revolt

(B) dissatisfaction with the policies of Cromwell

(C) the revolt of the Anglicans

(D) resistance by the Lollards

(E) the departure of the Separatists to Holland

10. The portrait above with its suggestion of power, confidence, and self-assurance depicts Louis XIV's Minister of State

(A) Sully

(B) Necker

(C) Richelieu

(D) Turgot

(E) Rousseau


11. "He reduced everyone to subjection, and brought to his court those very persons he cared least about. Whoever was old enough to serve did not demur. It was still another device to ruin the nobles by accustoming them to equality and forcing them to mingle with everyone indiscriminately."

The statement above by the Duc de Saint-Simon refers to the reign of

(A) Louis XV

(B) Charles VII

(C) Louis XI (Spider King)

(D) Louis XIV

(E) Charles V


12. After the death of Oliver Cromwell, England witnessed the

(A) resurgence of Catholicism

(B) reestablishment of the Stuarts

(C) restoration of military rule

(D) revival of the Tudor dynasty

(E) Long Parliament


13. Which of the following did NOT occur under the rule of Oliver Cromwell?

(A) Persecution of the Jews

(B) Prohibition of public entertainment

(C) Crushing the Irish rebellion

(D) Expansion of maritime trade

(E) Stringent religious policies


14. The term "Glorious Revolution of 1688," refers to the

(A) revolt of the Huguenots against Louis XIV

(B) replacement of an English monarch by Parliament

(C) revolt of the Netherlands against Spain

(D) establishment of Anglicanism in England

(E) peasant's revolt against James II


15. Which of the following statements conceming the Glorious Revolution is true?

(A) It was a violent act.

(B) It was an absolutist act.

(C) It was a constitutional act.

(D) It brought Charles II to the throne.

(E) It ended in disaster.


16. The term "English Restoration," refers to the restoration of

(A) property to the Anglican Church

(B) the Tudor dynasty

(C) Roman Catholicism in England

(D) Charles II to the throne

(E) Puritanism

Answers to: Part 3

1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C, 5-A, 6-C, 7-D, 8-A, 9-C, 10-A, 11-D, 12-C, 13-C, 14-A, 15-C







(Note: Answers to today's questions may be found at the bottom of tomorrow's list)


1. Thinkers of the Enlightenment considered humanity as

(A) emotional believers in God

(B) bundles of feelings, animal urges, and fears

(C) a link in the rationally ordered chain of beings

(D) the only reason for a divinely inspired universe

(E) incapable of reason


2. The impact of the Enlightenment on the political development of Europe can best be seen in

(A) social order maintained by natural law

(B) a desire for new criminal laws

(C) Rousseau's call for liberty and equality

(D) a pacifist view concerning war

(E) a resurgence of democracy


3. Prominent thinkers in the 17th and 18th centuries challenged popular beliefs. Which statement correctly reflects one of these challenges?

(A) The age of reason and science gradually worked to eliminate superstitions.

(B) John Calvin demanded that witch trials be eliminated.

(C) Isaac Newton criticized alchemy.

(D) Jean Bodin insisted on legislation outlawing witch trials.

(E) Voltaire's support of the Church's view of heresy.


4. Which of the following statements concerning scientific research in the 17th and 18th centuries is INCORRECT?

(A) It was based on the belief that understanding nature's laws can contribute to human


(B) It was pursued only at the great universities.

(C) It gave a firm foundation to physics, chemistry, and medicine.

(D) It became intemational in scope.

(E) It involved inductive and deductive reasoning.


5. The 18th century philosophers were

(A) university scholars

(B) deists believing in a prime mover

(C) utopians concerned over an ideal society

(D) writers supporting the concept of social reform

(E) specialists in Greek philosophy


6. Which of the following CANNOT be linked with the concepts of the 18th century Enlightenment?

(A) belief in man's capacity to reason

(B) belief in humanity's capacity for self-improvement

(C) application of natural science in daily life

(D) belief in tradition as a source of truth

(E) acceptance of natural rights


7. The philosopher Rene Descartes' concept of rationalism may best be expressed in Latin as

(A) "cogito, ergo sum"

(B) "carpe diem"

(C) "sic transit gloria mundi"

(D) "guadeamus igitur"

(E) "caveat emptor"


8. Spinoza's ethical philosophy is contained in which of the following statements?

(A) Reason is the only infallible guide to wisdom.

(B) Understanding the harmony of nature is the perfect good.

(C) The universe is a machine governed by laws which man cannot override.

(D) There is no such thing as original sin

(E) God does not exist.


9. In his work Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes maintained that

(A) the future is bright with promise, if men abandon old superstitions

(B) man has a perpetual desire for power

(C) God alone is the source of knowledge

(D) reality is a myth

(E) humanity is inherently good


10. John Locke's approach to knowledge is stated in which of the following?

(A) There are no self-evident truths.

(B) Only divinely inspired reason can be true.

(C) Reason has the power to form a general body of truth.

(D) One must directly observe nature to discover its laws.

(E) Natural rights do not exist.


11. John Locke's Treatise on Civil Government proposed a political philolosophy which was used to justify the

(A) American Revolution

(B) Thirty Years War

(C) Revolutions of 1848

(D) Revolution of 1830

(E) Seven Years' War


12. According to Locke, if there is evil in the world it is the result of

(A) human nature

(B) divine plan

(C) man's environment

(D) original sin

(E) natural law


13. Which of the following of the Enlightenment thinkers was particularly interested in education?

(A) Voltaire

(B) Diderot

(C) Montesquieu

(D) Rousseau

(E) Condorcet


14. Newton's view of the physical universe encompassed

(A) an incomprehensible void

(B) a divine order and plan

(C) a machine of pefect order

(D) an irrational agglomeration

(E) a cosmos based upon the Ptolemaic plan


15. The German philosopher Gotthold Lessing (1729-1781) was convinced that

(A) the Aryan race was a superior one

(B) no one religion had a monopoly of truth

(C) man is the root of all evil

(D) man's life is brutish, nasty, and short power was to be glorified


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