Ap wrap-Up Test Multiple Choice



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AP Wrap-Up Test
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The Anti-Federalists argued that:

a.

a bill of rights was unnecessary in the federal Constitution because all of the states had extensive bills of rights.

b.

natural law and its common law derivatives protecting due process made a federal Bill of Rights unnecessary.

c.

a major failure of the federal Constitution was its lack of a separate bill of rights.

d.

a bill of rights in the federal Constitution would set a dangerous precedent by implying that the national government could violate rights not enumerated.

e.

a major failure of the federal Constitution was its inclusion of a separate bill of rights.

2. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963):



a.

over-ruled Betts v. Brady.

b.

incorporated the right to counsel under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

c.

held that the right to counsel was not fundamental.

d.

a and b

e.

a and c

3. In Abrams v. United States, Justice Holmes:



a.

did not modify his original clear and present danger standard in Schenck v. United States.

b.

stressed the need for government to have wide latitude to regulate speech and press during both wartime and peacetime.

c.

modified his original clear and present danger standard in Schenck v. United States.

d.

stated that government should not regulate speech under any circumstances.

e.

directly overturned Schenck v. United States.

4. To win a libel case, a public official must prove that the libel:



a.

undermines national security.

b.

is not false.

c.

is false.

d.

caused monetary damages.

e.

was made with reckless disregard of the truth or malicious intent.

5. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) announced:



a.

racial segregation in railroad cars does not violate the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause if the facilities are separate but equal.

b.

segregated schools are unequal.

c.

segregated schools are always equal.

d.

segregated schools can be equal.

e.

racial segregation violates the spirit but not the letter of the Thirteenth amendment’s prohibition on slavery.

6. Which of the following statements is incorrect with regard to Brown v. Board of Education (1954)?



a.

The Supreme Court concluded that in the field of public education separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

b.

The Supreme Court held that in some cases separate educational facilities for the races were justified.

c.

The Supreme Court rejected the “separate but equal” doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).

d.

The plaintiffs contended that segregated public schools are not equal and cannot be made equal under any circumstances.

e.

It failed to effectively address the issue of implementation.

7. The 1955 implementing decision in Brown v. Board of Education held that:



a.

implementation of desegregation in education may be delayed until local communities support the idea.

b.

desegregation is to proceed immediately without regard to local problems.

c.

the district courts are to implement desegregation with consideration of local problems but are to require “a prompt and reasonable start” toward compliance and are to act with “all deliberate speed.”

d.

full implementation of the decision may be delayed for no longer than 20 years.

e.

full implementation of the decision may be delayed for no longer than 15 years.

8. The Court held school prayer to be unconstitutional in the case of Engel v. Vitale (1962) on the grounds that it violated:



a.

the First Amendment's Establishment Clause.

b.

the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment.

c.

equal protection of the laws.

d.

First Amendment protections of freedom of speech and press.

e.

the First Amendment protection of the right to assemble.

9. Warren and Brandeis observed in The Right to Privacy that:



a.

privacy is directly derived from the Constitution.

b.

the right to privacy is as ancient as the common law.

c.

the right to privacy is static over time.

d.

privacy is a directly stated constitutional right.

e.

privacy is not a constitutional right.

10. Justice Douglas in Griswold v. Connecticut (1965):



a.

held there is no right to privacy in the Constitution.

b.

upheld the state law banning the sale of contraceptives.

c.

held that the right to privacy included a right to abortion.

d.

found a right to privacy in the penumbras of provisions of the Bill of Rights.

e.

found no right to privacy.

11. In Roe v. Wade (1973), the Supreme Court held that the right to abortion was:



a.

subject to governmental regulation after the first trimester of pregnancy.

b.

subject to governmental regulation to protect the life and health of the fetus.

c.

subject to governmental regulation at any time to protect maternal life and health.

d.

absolute.

e.

not subject to the trimester standard.

12. Justice Powell in Bakke held:



a.

state programs can use racial quotas to remedy the effects of past societal discrimination.

b.

racial and ethnic distinctions in law are always suspect.

c.

racial and ethnic distinctions in law are never suspect.

d.

affirmative action programs do not have to be narrowly tailored to achieve diversity.

e.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans admission programs from taking race into account.

13. Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960) unanimously held that:



a.

state school segregation was unconstitutional.

b.

the federal courts should not intervene in electoral apportionment cases.

c.

state action denying the right to vote in municipal elections on the basis of race violated the Fifteenth Amendment.

d.

the federal courts should exercise judicial self-restraint in reviewing a state apportionment scheme unless an explicit intent to discriminate on the basis of race was part of the apportionment law.

e.

state school segregation was constitutional.

14. In Crawford et al. v. Marion County Election Board (2008) the issue was:



a.

racial classifications in voting.

b.

the poll tax.

c.

the grandfather clause.

d.

literacy tests.

e.

state photo identification requirements for voting.

15. A person treating the U.S. flag contemptuously is



a.

subject to conviction in federal court.

b.

subject to conviction in state court.

c.

subject to conviction in state and federal court.

d.

protected by Fourth Amendment rights.

e.

protected by the right to exercise free speech.

16. Senator Joseph McCarthy became a powerful policy entrepreneur by claiming that



a.

the Japanese posed a West Coast security threat.

b.

hippies were undermining Christianity.

c.

communists had infiltrated the government.

d.

homosexuals were transmitting AIDS to heterosexuals.

e.

secular humanists were indoctrinating educators.

17. The Bill of Rights has come to apply to the states through the interpretation of



a.

the Fourteenth Amendment.

b.

the Tenth Amendment.

c.

the commerce clause.

d.

Article III.

e.

the necessary and proper clause.

18. The earliest incorporations of portions of the Bill of Rights relied on



a.

the notion of a reasonable person.

b.

the shock-the-conscience test.

c.

a rational basis standard.

d.

the due process and equal protection clauses.

e.

the notions of ordered liberty and fundamental rights.

19. The Supreme Court justice who compared unpopular political speech to falsely shouting “Fire!” in a theater was



a.

Louis Brandeis.

b.

Felix Frankfurter.

c.

William Rehnquist.

d.

Warren Burger.

e.

Oliver Wendell Holmes.

20. Slander differs from libel in that it refers to



a.

oral statements.

b.

written statements.

c.

public officials.

d.

private individuals.

e.

administrative hierarchies.

21. Justice Potter Stewart's oft-quoted dictum on hard-core as opposed to soft-core pornography was



a.

“I know it when I see it.”

b.

“Different strokes for different folks.”

c.

“It won’t play in Peoria.”

d.

“One man’s meat is another man’s poison.”

e.

“What could go wrong?”

22. In Tinker v. Des Moines (1969), the Supreme Court ruled in favor of schoolchildren who



a.

disrupted an assembly.

b.

wrote controversial newspapers articles.

c.

burned flags.

d.

wore armbands.

e.

did none of the above.

23. The “clear and present danger” test emerged in the Supreme Court’s decision in the case of



a.

Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire.

b.

Miller v. California.

c.

Texas v. Johnson.

d.

Reno v. ACLU.

e.

Schenck v. United States.

24. The two clauses of the First Amendment that deal with religion are concerned with



a.

free exercise and establishment.

b.

establishment and separation.

c.

separation and prohibition.

d.

prohibition and free exercise.

e.

separation and free exercise.

25. Which of the following laws has the Supreme Court upheld as constitutional?



a.

Laws calling for the teaching of creationism

b.

Laws calling for in-school release time for religious instruction

c.

Laws calling for school prayer

d.

Laws calling for aid to parochial schools for secular purposes

e.

Laws calling for Bible reading in schools

26. The argument that tainted evidence cannot be used in court if citizens’ rights are to be maintained leads to what is called



a.

double jeopardy.

b.

plea bargaining.

c.

disciplining of police officers.

d.

the exclusionary rule.

e.

the silver platter rule.

27. The Supreme Court demanded that the evidence obtained in Mapp v. Ohio be excluded because the police



a.

had not obtained a search warrant.

b.

questioned Mapp in an impolite manner.

c.

used unnecessary force.

d.

refused to let Mapp contact her lawyer.

e.

spied on Mapp with binoculars.

28. Search warrants are signed (issued) by



a.

the police.

b.

the chief of police.

c.

any supervisor of police.

d.

prosecutors.

e.

judges.

29. Search warrants are not to be issued unless the standard of ___________ has been met.



a.

probable cause

b.

reasonable suspicion

c.

articulable suspicion

d.

reasonable doubt

e.

preponderance of evidence

30. A person being arrested must be informed of all the following rights except



a.

the right to sue for false arrest.

b.

the right to hire a lawyer.

c.

the availability of a free lawyer if the person is unable to pay.

d.

the right to remain silent.

e.

the right to stop talking, if the person begins to offer a voluntary statement.

31. Suspected terrorists are to be tried by a military, rather than a civilian, court as a result of



a.

the USA Patriot Act.

b.

an executive order.

c.

a Supreme Court ruling.

d.

a treaty.

e.

a clemency warrant.

32. Which statement best summarizes the correct understanding of civil rights?



a.

Laws cannot make distinctions among people.

b.

Laws cannot discriminate.

c.

Laws must treat everyone equally.

d.

Laws can make distinctions, but not all distinctions are acceptable.

e.

Laws can discriminate as long as they do not make distinctions.

33. An example of a difference in treatment toward certain groups that qualifies as reasonable is



a.

classifying people according to race.

b.

taxing different classes at different rates.

c.

classifying people according to ethnic group.

d.

testing for AIDS according to class.

e.

classifying people according to religion.

34. Blacks were finally able to advance their interests during the 1950s and 1960s in part by



a.

relying less on white allies, especially northern liberals.

b.

downplaying their grievances.

c.

shifting their struggle from Congress to the courts.

d.

setting their sights lower.

e.

refocusing their efforts in individual states.

35. The ________ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution appeared to guarantee equal rights for blacks.



a.

First

b.

Fourteenth

c.

Twenty-first

d.

Twenty-fifth

e.

Twenty-sixth

36. Plessy v. Ferguson had the effect of



a.

declaring that segregated public facilities, if equal, did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment.

b.

prohibiting all-white juries in state court trials.

c.

applying the Bill of Rights to the states as well as to the national government.

d.

ruling that racially separate schools were inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional.

e.

banning interracial marriages in the northeastern United States.

37. The importance of the Brown v. Board of Education civil rights case was that the Supreme Court



a.

declared unconstitutional laws creating schools that were separate but obviously unequal.

b.

declared unconstitutional laws supporting schools that were separate but unequal in subtle ways.

c.

ruled that racially separate schools were inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional.

d.

ruled that schools discriminating on the basis of race could be denied access to federal funds.

e.

ruled that segregation was lawful if mandated by a state constitution.

38. When the Supreme Court reconsidered the question of “separate but equal” facilities for different races in 1954, its decision was to



a.

reverse that policy in a unanimous vote.

b.

reverse that policy in a divided vote.

c.

uphold that policy in a unanimous vote.

d.

uphold that policy in a divided vote.

e.

uphold that policy in a per curiam opinion.

39. In 1955, the Supreme Court ruled that desegregation should be



a.

implemented with due concern for public safety.

b.

monitored by local school officials.

c.

implemented “with all deliberate speed.”

d.

monitored by civil rights groups.

e.

delayed until there were significant shifts in population.

40. Which of the following was made clear by the Fourteenth Amendment?



a.

That segregated schools outside the District of Columbia were illegal

b.

That segregated schools were illegal

c.

That desegregation was to be applied to schools

d.

That race could not be a factor in any decision that excluded a person from entry into a public school

e.

That no state could not deny any of its citizens equal protection of the laws

41. The principle of mandating busing plans to remedy school segregation patterns was approved in the case of



a.

Brown v. Board of Education.

b.

Sipuel v. County Trustee.

c.

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education.

d.

Green v. County School Board of New Kent County.

e.

Plessy v. Ferguson.

42. The philosophy of civil disobedience suggests that there is value to



a.

protesting against laws that are not enforced by civil authorities.

b.

peacefully violating the law.

c.

violating all laws with respect to civility.

d.

protesting in a legal manner, with respect for civil authority.

e.

using violence when laws are not conducive to civil society.

43. The _____ Amendment made clear that no state may deny the right to vote on the basis of sex.



a.

Fifteenth

b.

Nineteenth

c.

Twentieth

d.

Twenty-first

e.

Twenty-second

44. The Supreme Court first found a “right to privacy” in the ________ case.



a.

Griswold

b.

Roe

c.

Webster

d.

Casey

e.

Gonzales

45. The Supreme Court has argued that the right to privacy can be found in ______ of the provisions in the Bill of Rights.



a.

all

b.

legislative interpretations

c.

penumbras

d.

the Founders’ explanations

e.

Thomas Jefferson’s view

46. The Supreme Court’s decision in Casey was notable because



a.

it was the first unanimous decision of the Court in an abortion case.

b.

the Court struck down a parental consent requirement.

c.

the Court struck down a twenty-four-hour waiting period for abortions.

d.

Republican appointees struck down numerous restrictions on abortion in the states.

e.

Republican appointees joined in an opinion that refused to overturn Roe.

47. The Supreme Court ruled in the Bakke case that



a.

explicit numerical quotas are illegal.

b.

busing is a legitimate tool to achieve racial balance.

c.

race should be taken into account when quotas are used.

d.

affirmative action programs are unlawful.

e.

affirmative action plans cannot include firings.

48. In a 2003 case involving admissions practices at the University of Michigan law school, the Supreme Court upheld a policy that used race as a



a.

numerical goal.

b.

fixed quota.

c.

plus factor.

d.

substitute measure.

e.

policy marker.

49. The Lawrence decision brought immediate focus to the topic of



a.

adoption by gay couples.

b.

gay marriage.

c.

gays in the military.

d.

gay rights in the area of employment.

e.

gay rights parades.

50. In a 5–4 decision, the Supreme Court upheld the right of the _____________ to exclude gay men and boys from membership.



a.

Lions Club

b.

Red Cross

c.

Chamber of Commerce

d.

AFLCIO

e.

Boy Scouts of America

AP Wrap-Up Test

Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. C
2. D
3. C
4. E
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. E
10. D
11. A
12. B
13. C
14. E
15. E
16. C
17. A
18. D
19. E
20. A
21. A
22. D
23. E
24. A
25. D
26. D
27. A
28. E
29. A
30. A
31. B
32. D
33. B
34. C
35. B
36. A
37. C
38. A
39. C
40. E
41. C
42. B
43. B
44. A
45. C
46. E
47. A
48. C
49. B
50. E


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