Ap us history



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AP US HISTORY

Colonial History (1600-1763)

1.    Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans – Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth

2.    Northwest Passage – believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth

3.    Conversion Experience – required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church

4.    Social Reciprocity – society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly

5.    Church of England – Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty

6.    Atlantic slave trade – often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange

7.    Jamestown – first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River

8.    John Smith – introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks

9.    Pocahontas – key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617

10.   Mayflower Compact – foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land

11.   John Winthrop – Calvinist, devised concept of “city on a hill” (“A Model of Christian Charity”); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay

12.   “City on a Hill” – exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs

13.   Indentured servants – settlers to pay the expenses of a servant’s voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system

14.   Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649) – mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)

15.   James I, Charles I – reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors

16.   William Penn and the Quakers – settled in Pennsylvania, believed the “Inner Light” could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers

17.   Roger Williams – challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church

18.   Anne Hutchinson – challenged New England Calvinist ministers’ authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism

19.   The Half-Way Covenant – New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints

20.   Bacon’s Rebellion – rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans

 

Independence (1763-1789)

21.   Navigation Acts – only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763

22.   Mercantilism – ensured trade with mother country, nationalism;  too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists

23.   Charles II, James II – tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures

24.   William and Mary – ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies

25.   Dominion of New England – combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one “supercolony” governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a “supergovernor”

26.   The Glorious Revolution – William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures

27.   James Oglethorpe – established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors

28.   The Enlightenment – emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity

29.   Benjamin Franklin – connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan

30.   The Great Awakening – began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities

   Deists – believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine

   George Whitefield – powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity

   Jonathan Edwards – Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance

   New Lights vs. Old LightsNew Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independent of each other

31.   Albany Plan of Union – colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, “Grand Council”); never took effect

32.   French and Indian War – French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn’t need English protection; more independent stand against Britain

33.   Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth

34.   Salutary Neglect – Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements

35.   Writs of Assistance – search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis

36.   Townshend Act (1767) – similar to Navigatio; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries

37.   Sugar Act – increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs

38.   Stamp Act– taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives

   Stamp Act Congress – held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed

   Virginia Resolves – “no taxation without representation,” introduced by Patrick Henry

39.   Currency Act – prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy

40.   Virtual Representation – all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote

41.   The Loyal Nine – group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city

42.   Sons of Liberty – organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation

43.   Declaratory Act – allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists’ say

44.   Boston Massacre – British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter

45.   Committees of Correspondence – committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies

46.   Tea Act (1773) – intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)

47.   Boston Tea Party – peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians

48.   Quebec Acts – former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England

49.   Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) – in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony

50.   Suffolk Resolves – organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain

51.   Olive Branch Petition – politely demanded from the king a cease-fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts, guarantee of American rights

52.   Thomas Paine, Common Sense – stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions

53.   George Washington – American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule

54.   Whigs (Patriots) –  most numerous in New England, fought for independence

55.   Tories (Loyalists) – fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy)

56.   British strengths and weaknesses – British citizenship outnumbered colonies’, large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt

   Colonial strengths and weaknesses – fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles

57.   Battle of Saratoga – American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne

58.   Valley Forge – scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben

59.   Battle of Yorktown – last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies

60.   Treaty of Paris (1783) – full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland

61.   American society during the Revolution – British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved

62.   Articles of Confederation – states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments; too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes

63.   Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786) – foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state

64.   Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – defined process for territories to become states (population reached 60,000), forbade slavery in the new territories

65.   Alexander Hamilton – pushed for Assumption (federal government to assume state debts), pushed creation of the National Bank (most controversial), loose interpretation of Constitution, leader of Federalist Party

66.   James Madison – strong central government, separation of powers, “extended republic”

67.   Shays’s Rebellion – mistreated farmers, fear of mobocracy, forced people to think about central government

68.   Connecticut Compromise – advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population

   Virginia Plan – bicameral congressional representation based on population

   New Jersey Plan – equal representation in unicameral congress

   Commerce Compromise – congress could tax imports but not exports

69.   Federalism – strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution

70.   Changes in the Constitution from the Articles – stronger union of states, equal and population-based representation, simple majority vote (with presidential veto), regulation of foreign and interstate commerce, execution by president, power to enact taxes, federal courts, easier amendment process

      Articles’ achievement – system for orderly settlement of West

      Elastic Clause (“necessary and proper”) – gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution

71.   Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists – Anti-Federalists wanted states’ rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, more power to less-rich and common people; Federalists wanted strong central government, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protect individual rights

72.   The Federalist Papers – written anonymously by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison; commentary on Constitution, republicanism extended over large territory

 

Post-Independence and Critical Period (1789-1800)

73.   Judiciary Act of 1789 – established federal district courts that followed local procedures, Supreme Court had final jurisdiction; compromise between nationalists and advocates for states’ rights

74.   Bill of Rights – protected rights of individual from the power of the central government

75.   Bank of the United States – Hamilton’s plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution

76.   Report on Public Credit – proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank

77.   Report on Manufactures (tariffs) – Hamilton praised efficient factories with few managers over many workers, promote emigration, employment opportunities, applications of technology

78.   Strict vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution – loose interpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank), strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress

79.   Whiskey Rebellion – Western Pennsylvanian farmers’ violent protest against whiskey excise tax, Washington sent large army to put down revolt, protests to be limited to non-violent

80.   Citizen Genet – Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine

81.   Impressment – British Navy would take American sailors and force them to work for Britain

82.   Jay’s Treaty – provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes

83.   Nullification – states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional

84.   Federalists and Republicans – the two political parties that formed following Washington’s presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments

85.   Washington’s Farewell Address – warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency

   Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 – response to French attempts for alliance with US

86.   XYZ Affair – French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission, made Adams unpopular among the people

87.   Alien and Sedition Acts – meant to keep government unquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists

88.   Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional

89.   12th Amendment – required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates Citizen Genet – Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine

90.   Second Great Awakening – emphasis on personal salvation, emotional response, and individual faith; women and blacks; nationalism (Manifest Destiny)

 

Jefferson’s Administration and Growth of Nationalism (1800-1820)

91.   Election of 1800 – Adams, Jefferson, and Burr:  Adams lost, Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie

92.   Barbary Pirates – North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers

93.   Midnight judges – judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson, Marshall among those appointed

94.   Marbury v. Madison – John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional

95.   Lewis and Clark expedition – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on “Voyage of Discovery”

96.   Non-Intercourse Act – sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing

97.   Macon’s Bill No. 2 – president has power to cease trade with any foreign country that violated American neutrality

98.   Embargo Act (1807) – prohibited exports (and imports) based in American ports, most controversial Jefferson legislation

99.   War hawks – Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain (War of 1812)

100.            Henry Clay and the American System – Henry Clay aimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e.g., support internal improvements, tariff protection, and new national bank)

101.   John C. Calhoun – opposed Polk’s high-handedness, avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)

102.   William Henry Harrison – military hero from War of 1812; elected president 1840, died of pneumonia a month later, gave presidency to Tyler

103.   Battle of Tippecanoe – decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison’s campaign for presidency

104.   Hartford Convention – December 1814, opposed War of 1812, called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party

   Essex case – Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention

105.   Era of Good Feelings – Monroe presidency, national unity behind Monroe, post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco), Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports, tightened credit, affected West the most)

106.   James Monroe – provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine

107.   Missouri Compromise (1820) – Maine as free state, Missouri as slave state, slavery prohibited north of 36°30’

Tallmadge Amendment – no further introduction of slaves into Missouri, all children born to slaves to become free at 25

108.   Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) – agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great Lakes

109.   Adams-Onis Treaty – remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined

110.   Monroe Doctrine – Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs; supported Washington’s goal for US neutrality in Americas

 

Age of Jackson (1820-1850)

111.   Panic of 1819 – Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly

112.   Election of 1824 – “corrupt bargain” and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson

113.   Tariff of Abominations – under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade

114.   Jackson’s Presidency – focused on the “Common Man;” removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto

115.   Transportation Revolution – river traffic, roadbuilding, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC

   Erie Canal – goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways

   National Road – part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion

116.   Indian Removal Act – Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory

   Five Civilized Tribes – Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; “civilized” due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion

    “Trail of Tears” – Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll

   Cherokee Nation v. Georgia – first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation

   Worcester v. Georgia – Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes

117.   Spoils System – “rotation in office;”  Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy

   Kitchen Cabinet – Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet

118.   Lowell mill/system – young women employed by Lowell’s textile company, housed in dormitories

119.   Cotton Gin – allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves

120.   Nullification Controversy – southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them

   South Carolina Exposition and Protest – written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification

121.   Bank of the United States – destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution

   Pet banks – small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury

   Independent Treasury Bill – government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations; “America’s Second Declaration of Independence”

   Specie – paper money; specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land

122.   Maysville Road Veto – vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state

123.   Liberty Party – supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society

124.   Whig Party – believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)

125.   John C. Calhoun – opposed Polk’s high-handedness, avid Southern slave owner

126.   Marshall Court (all cases) – Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties’ consent)

127.   Second Great Awakening – religious movements, traveling “meetings,” rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G. Finney

   Burned-Over District – heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith’s Mormonism movement

128.   Horace Mann – worked to reform the American education system, abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix

129.   William Lloyd Garrison – editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery), fought for feminist movement (“Am I not a woman and a sister” picture of slave woman)

130.   Frederick Douglassrunaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star

131.   Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 – for women’s rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence

   Elizabeth Cady Stanton – organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization

   Angelina and Sarah Grimké – fought for women’s rights and abolition, “Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!”

132.   Dorothea Dix – worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann

133.   John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community – John Noyes, New York; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage

      New Harmony – first Utopian society, by Robert Owen

134.   Hudson River School – American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects

135.   Transcendentalism – founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature

   Ralph Waldo Emerson – in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote “The American Scholar”

   Henry David Thoreau (Walden and On Civil Disobedience) – in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants

 

Slavery and Sectionalism (1845-1860)

136.   Nat Turner’s Rebellion – Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation

137.   Yeoman Farmers – family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners

138.   Underground Railroad – network of safe houses of white abolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom



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