McCarthyism – Joseph R McCarthy flourished in the Cold War atmosphere of fear and suspicion, especially when he charged in a public speech that Secretary of State Dean Acheson was knowingly employing 205 Communist Party members in the State Department. The careers of countless officials, writers, actors, and others were ruined after Senator McCarthy had “named” them, often unfairly, as communists or communist sympathizers. He even denounced General George Marshall, former army chief of staff and ex-secretary of state. Eisenhower did little to resist his onslaughts, but finally McCarthy went to far by attacking the US army. A few months later the Senate formally censured him, and he died 3 years later.
Sit-ins – The “sit-in” movement launched on February 1, 1960 by four students in Greensboro, North Carolina who demanded service at a whites-only restaurant. Very soon, sit-ins were used across the south, compelling equal treatment in restaurants, transportation, employment, housing, and voter registration. In April 1960 southern black students formed the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to give more focus and force to these efforts.