Casablanca Conference – Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill participated in the Casablanca Conference produced the agreed term of “unconditional surrender” for WWII.
Second Front – In the Atlantic, progress was slow as Germany’s submarines sunk more than 500 merchant ships in 1942 alone. But the Allies, by cracking the Enigma code, began to fight back, while the British started a raid on Cologne. The Germans under Marshal Erwin Rommel had meanwhile taken over much of Africa, but late in October 1942, British General Bernard Montgomery delivered a withering attack at El Alamein, driving the enemy back to Tunisia, more than 1,000 miles away. The Soviets meanwhile stalled the Germans at Stalingrad, and in November 1942 unleashed a crushing counteroffensive. The Soviets meanwhile pleaded for a “second front” in the west, which America and Britain provided by attacking North Africa, a less risky move than frontal attack on Germany. The secret Allied attack was launched in November 142, headed by Eisenhower. The Germans were trapped in Tunisia, and surrendered in May 1943. Churchill and Roosevelt decided upon an “unconditional surrender” policy to keep the Soviets happy, and attacked Sicily, which fell in August 1943. Mussolini was overthrown and Italy surrendered unconditionally early in September 1943. German troops in Italy fought ferociously, however Rome was finally taken on June 4, 1944. This second front opened the Mediterranean and diverted some German divisions from the Soviet and French fronts.