Ap us history Unit 5 War and Reconstruction Review Guide For the terms, famous people are italicized and key parts are underlined

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AP US History Unit 5 War and Reconstruction Review Guide
****For the terms, famous people are italicized and key parts are underlined****

  1. Election of 1860Stephen Douglas (from the torn Democratic Party), John C. Breckinridge (from southern Democrats), John Bell (from the Constitutional Union Party), and Abraham Lincoln (from the Republican Party) ran in this election. Lincoln won with a majority of electoral votes but not a majority of the popular vote. Southerners saw Lincoln’s election as a sign that their cause was hopeless, and a few weeks later, South Carolina seceded. Secession led to the Civil War.

  1. Fort Sumter — This was a fort located in the harbor of Charleston, South Caroline. The South asked the North for the fort’s surrender; President Buchanan sent more troops/supplies. The South fired at the arrivals, the first shots of the Civil War, and sent them back. President Lincoln sent more supplies, saying he would only send troops/arms if these supplies were not allowed through. The South ordered General P.G.T Beauregard to seize the island, and two days later, Major Robert Anderson surrendered. The events at Fort Sumter began the Civil War.

  1. Northern Disadvantages/Advantages

    1. Advantages: The North’s larger population gave the North a bigger army and more workers. The North was able to manufacture basically all of its supplies. The railroad system was connected and advanced. The North was only working to maintain what was, not create change. The advantages outweighed the disadvantages and helped the North win the Civil War.

    2. Disadvantages: Northerners were divided about their stance on the war; the North also had to fight on unfamiliar territory around unwelcoming people while using the South’s poor communication system.

  1. Southern Disadvantages/Advantages

    1. Advantages: The war was mainly located in the South, giving the South the home field advantage. The people and places were familiar and helpful. Southerners were more committed to the war and the ideals they were fighting for.

    2. Disadvantages: The South had a smaller population and therefore weaker army, an inability to be self-sufficient in manufacturing, and a poor communication/railroad system. The South was depending on the hope for support from foreign nations. The disadvantages outweighed the advantages and helped the South lose the Civil War.

  1. Jefferson DavisJefferson Davis was the president and secretary of war of the Confederacy, first chosen as president by a Montgomery constitutional convention and then by the people for a six-year term. A Western aristocrat, Davis had been a moderate supporter of secession. As president, he dominated his cabinet but he focused more on routine business than actually winning. Davis’ unsuccessful presidency, especially in comparison to Lincoln’s ability, contributed to the South losing the Civil War.

  1. Election of 1864 President Lincoln (from the Union Party) and George B. McClellan (from the Democratic Party) ran in this election. With the help of Union victories like the capture of Atlanta, Lincoln won the electoral votes and popular vote. His running mate was Andrew Johnson. Due to his reelection, Lincoln was able to continue as commander in chief throughout the remainder of the war.

  1. Robert E. LeeRobert E. Lee was the principal military advisor to Jefferson Davis for the Confederacy. He originally was against secession and was unclear towards his feelings about slavery. Despite his title, Lee spent two years actually commanding forces in person while Davis was the real strategist. While the North was unable to keep one strong general, Lee was a strong general in the South. With Lee in charge, the South won the battles of Manassas (second), Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and others but lost the war.

  1. Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was the aggressive general, appointed by President Lincoln, that led the North’s army. He believed in seeking the South’s supplies and armies, not their land. Grant was the general Lincoln was finally able to trust. With Grant in charge, the North won the battles of Shiloh, Vicksburg, Appomattox, and more. Eventually, with Grant in charge, the North won the entire war.

  1. Anaconda Plan — This was the name of the North’s military plan in the Civil War. The plan called for a blockade of Southern ports. The plan also called for the North to use the Mississippi River to divide the South. It was compared to an anaconda because it was designed to, metaphorically, squeeze the life out of the Confederacy like a snake does with its prey. This strategy successfully helped the North win the war.

  1. Northern Diplomacy William Seward was the secretary of state; the minister to London was Charles Francis Adams. One instance of Northern diplomacy was the Trent Affair. Confederates boarded a ship for England. Union officer Charles Wilkes arrested them; the British demanded their release. After America calmed down about the affair, Lincoln and Seward released them, vaguely apologizing. Another instance carried on for many years. The South bought several ships from the British, which the Union claimed dishonored Britain’s neutrality.

  1. Emancipation Proclamation President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, after his victory at Antietam. It said that slaves in areas of the Confederacy other than areas under Northern control were free. This did not have a big impact because this was not a large area. However, it made clear the war was being fought in part to abolish slavery.

  1. Total War — The Civil war was referred to as the first “modern” or “total” war. The technology used in the Civil War presented a new type of warfare that paved the way for future wars: New weapons like the revolver and repeating rifle were used; because of these, armies changed from standing in lines to having a chaotic lack of formation. Hot-air balloons, ironclad ships, torpedoes, and submarines were introduced. The railroad and telegraph changed wartime transportation and communication.

  1. U.S. Sanitary Commission — Organization of civilian volunteers managed by Dorothea Dix. Gathered massive numbers of female nurses to help out in field hospitals. By the end of the war, women became the dominant figure in nursing- by end of the century; nursing was an almost entirely female profession.

  1. Conscription Act — End of 1861, voluntary enlistments were declining so congress enacted the Conscription Act (April 1862) -ordered all white males between 18-35 to serve the military for three years. A draftee in the North could refrain from service if he is replaced with a substitute.

15. Freedmen’s Bureau — An agency of army lead by General Oliver O. Howard. Distributed food to millions of freed slaves and tried to settle blacks on lands of their own. Wasn’t as significant for it was only to operate for one year.

16. Tenure of Office Act (1867)Declared illegal of president to remove civil officials, including members of his cabinet, without the agreement of the Senate. Main purpose of this law was to protect the job of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton (was cooperating with the Radicals). This act leads to President Johnson’s impeachment.

17. Wade-Davis Bill (1864)Passed by Congress in July 1864, this was the first attempt to resolve how the Reconstruction plan should form. Enabled President to assign a provisional governor for each controlled state. Governor can assemble a state constitutional convention when most of white males of the state pledge their allegiance to Union. Congress passed the bill a few days before it was put off in 1864, then Lincoln settled it with a pocket veto (enraging the Radical leaders).
18. Trent AffairJames M. Madison and John Slidell, Confederate diplomats, got through the Union blockade and headed to Havana, Cuba, where they rode the Trent (English steamer). San Jacinto, ordered by Charles Wilkes, waited and stopped the British vessel, arrested, and brought them to Boston. British government requisitioned a release, reparations (making of amends for wrong), and apology. Lincoln and Seward spun out any discussion about it until the public opinion had cooled down, then discharged the diplomats with an unintended apology.
19. Greenbacks/Issue Greenbacks are paper currency of the sort printed during the Civil War. Debtors pressured government to pay federal war bonds with greenbacks, results would be the increase of the amount of money in circulation. But Grant and most Republicans preferred “sound” currency (gold reserves) -which favors the interests of banks and other creditors. 1875, Republican leaders in Congress tried to eliminate the greenback movement and passed the Specie Resumption Act -greenback dollars would be redeemed by government and replaced with silver coins.
20. Copperheads- AKA The Peace Democrats, felt alarmed that agriculture and Northwest was falling short to industry and the East. Also that Republican nationalism was consuming states’ rights. Most famous Copperhead was Clement L. Vallandigham, a member of Congress.

21. Homestead Act- Allowed any citizen or potential citizen to claim 160 acres of public land and to buy it for a small price after living on it for 5 years.

22. Morrill Act- transferred a huge amount of public acreage (area in acres) to the state governments. The state governments were then suppose to sell the land and use the money to finance public education. This resulted in many state colleges and universities.

23. Lincoln’s Proposed Reconstruction- Forgave white Southerners who pledge loyalty to government and accept elimination of slavery. Loyal voters were able to set up a state government when 10 percent of the number of voters took oath in any state. Lincoln hoped to extend voting rights to blacks who were educated, owned property, and had served in Union Army.

24. Johnson’s Reconstruction Policies- Pardoned those Southerners who would take an oath of allegiance. Plans were similar to the Wade-Davis Bill: president appointed provisional governor for each state, who was to invite qualified voters to elect delegates to a constitutional convention. To win readmission to Congress, a state must call off secession, abolish slavery, ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, and abandon the Confederate and state war debts. Lastly, a state must reelect a state government and send representatives to Congress.

  1. Radical Republicans – This side of the Republicans favored the punishment of the leaders of the Confederate war effort. Also, they felt that many of the white Southerners should be not given the right to vote, protect the rights of blacks and that the property of all who aided the Confederate cause to be divided up and given to the freed slaves.

  1. William Seward – He was the Secretary of State to Lincoln and also the purchaser of what is dubbed “Seward’s Folly”, the purchasing of Alaska from Russia, as well as the Midway Islands. Considered as one of the best Secretary of States, Seward’s expansionist ideas helped with the gaining of lands even further west than what was anticipated.

  1. CarpetbaggersNorthern Republicans as Republican leaders in the South. The term “carpetbaggers” relates to how a poor man would adventure on with only a carpetbag with their stuff. Saw the South a promising frontier.

  1. ScalawagsSouthern white Republicans who were more from the former Whig party, seeking a party that more suited their interests of economic development. This just so happens to be the Republican Party, which all felt favored them the most.

  1. Congressional Reconstruction – This type of reconstruction tended to be radical. Radical Republicans in Congress wanted the plan to be more extreme and were shocked at how mild Lincoln’s was. Their idea was more on the line of a more of a majority of voters to accept themselves into the Union, make the new state constitutions abolish slavery, disenfranchise all southern leaders and make the southern states pay for their own debts. Even later on they would pass laws and amendments mostly for punishing the South.

  1. KKK – The Ku Klux Klan, formed by the former Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest, gradually became the union of a lot of clans against the blacks in the South. Their group is made up of the usage of rituals, secret languages, costumes and other mysterious acts to intimidate all who they hated. Their “midnight rides”, with them in costume and their horses’ hooves muffled, created terror in black communities and acted against them in grisly ways. Congress tried to pass acts to go against the Klan, such as the Enforcement Acts prohibiting the discrimination of races and allowing the federal government to take the cases of crimes of states, and succeeded in weakening the Klan, arresting and convicting many on the Klan’s leaders.

  1. Waving the Bloody Shirt – This was to reference the heroic acts of martyrdom to condemn acts of those against their cause. For example, many of the members of Congress would use this to criticize opponents of their ideas.

  1. Grantism – This was the type of government that Grant ran in his terms of office. His administration was corrupt, with the usage of the spoils system greatly used. He also backed the Radical Reconstruction ideas when many Northerners grew less attracted to it.

  1. Whiskey Ring – This Grant scandal included a group of distillers who were cheating themselves out of government taxes by giving false reports.

  1. Crédit Mobilier – This was a French owned construction company, one of those who helped build the Union Pacific Railroad, used their position of Union Pacific stockholders to create and make fraudulent contracts with others to their company and bilking the Union Pacific, as well as the government, of millions. The stock of Crédit Mobilier was given to high ranking members of Congress to hush them up, but an investigation was still made, finding that some high ranking Republicans actually accepted the bribe, including the current VP at the time.

  1. Redeemers – AKA Bourbons; These were the people, specifically Democrats, who took over the offices of the Southern states after Grant’s presidency. This made Southerners feel redeemed, that their ideas are now back onto the political scale. Basically, the Redeemers are the democrats who have been brought to power in the South after 1877 and they were part of a conservative and powerful oligarchy.

  1. Election of 1876This election was between the new candidate of the Republicans, Rutherford B. Hayes, and the Democrat, Samuel J. Tilden. This campaign between the two of them was very bitter, but their ideas were both on the moderate side. Tilden won the popular vote, but the electoral votes for him were just one short of the presidency. The only electoral votes left were those of Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida and Oregon. If Tilden won one of those votes, then he would have been president. The decision was now up to Congress, but both sides proposed things that would support each side’s candidate. Finally, the deadlock was broken via a Special Electoral Commission, where five Supreme Court justices, five representatives and five senators would make up the commission, five Republicans and five Democrats the congressional delegation, and two Republicans and two Democrats making up the Court delegation. The commission voted 8 to 7 in Hayes’s favor, and he became president.

  1. Compromise of 1877An attempt to aid Hayes in winning the election over Tilden was made by the Democrats. This “Compromise” was made to let the Democrats withdraw the filibuster if the last troops in the South were pulled out. The only way to get Democrats support for Hayes’ idea. The Democrats called for pledges from the Republican Party that would ultimately help industrialize the South.

38. Sharecropping System Most blacks and growing minority of whites became tenants of white landowners, working their own plots of land and paying their landlords either a fixed rent or a share of their crop. This gave a more independent feel for the tenant, and at the same time gave less responsibility for the owner for the tenant’s health.

39. Crop Lien System — New system of credit; defines farming at that time. Farmers relied on credit to buy things at necessary food item stores. Because of no competition, stores were able to charge high interest on goods. Farmers gave merchants a lien (or claim) on their crop as collateral for loans. However, farmers who suffered bad years found themselves in debt.
40. Amendments 13, 14, 15

  1. 13th Amendment: Formal abolishment of all slavery in the United States.

  2. 14th Amendment: Proposed April 1866; First constitutional definition of American citizenship. Everyone bon and naturalized was automatically a citizen entitled to all of the “privileges and immunities” guaranteed by the Constitution, including equal protection of the laws by both state and national governments.

  3. 15th Amendment: Forbade states and federal government to deny suffrage to any citizen on an account of “race, color, or precious condition of servitude.”

**** Overall, all three of these amendments illustrate an immense movement to give equal rights to all citizens, especially blacks. ****

41. Booker T. Washington — Founder and President of Tuskegee Institute; Outspoken African American for race as a whole and commitment to education for blacks. Washington worked his way out of poverty and after acquiring an education. Thus, he urged blacks to follow the same path of self-improvement.
42. Literacy TestsOne of two ways the south tried to evade the 15th amendment. They required voters to demonstrate an ability to read and interpret the Constitution. Tests were applied unequally. Many blacks in the south were restricted to vote because most did not receive an education.
43. Tuskegee Institute — Institute started by Booker T. Washington that fought for an education movement in the south for blacks.
44. Poll Tax Another way the south tried to evade the 15th amendment. Instead, this was a form of property qualification. This was placed because few blacks were prosperous enough to meet such requirements. Hence, it limited many blacks in the south to vote which was the ultimate goal of this.
45. Atlanta Compromise — This was an outlined philosophy of Booker T. Washington; Challenged whites wanted to discourage African-Americans from acquiring an education or winning any economic gains.
46. Civil Rights Act of 1875 — Act that guaranteed everyone was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations. There was one federal effort to mandate school integration in the act, but it was quickly shutdown and taken out of the act with the new South Democratic regimes.
47. Ex Parte Milligan — In this case, the Supreme Court declares that military tribunals were unconstitutional in places where civil courts were functioning, a decision that seemed to threaten the system of military government the Radicals were planning for the South.
48. Ida B. Wells — 1892; Black journalist who launches an anti-lynching movement. Wells gained a lot of support through a series of passionate articles about her three lynched friends.

49. “New South”An effort by white southern leaders to industrialize the South after Reconstruction ended. The fact that the South could not compete with a manufacturing economy was always a belief they thought was a big possibility of why they lost the Civil War. Henry Grady, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, was one of many to try and promote the idea of economic development and improvement. The “New South” resulted in southern textile, iron, and steel industries and railroad development.

50. LynchingWorst such violence to inhibit black agitation for equal rights and utilized because victims were accused of crimes or seemed to somehow violate their proper station. People were hanged in cities in front of large audiences.

Review Questions

  1. Why were the border states so important to Lincoln in reuniting the nation?

The border states, being states on the border and the next few slave states that are the most susceptible to secession into the South, were one of the main focuses of Lincoln during the Civil War. If they were to leave the Union and join the Confederacy, then the North would have less and less states fighting for their cause. Another major problem was that one of those border states was Maryland, a state that contained the Union capitol. If it did happen to secede and join the Confederate cause, then the capitol of the Union would be inside the lands of the South. Obviously this would be unfavorable, because then the capitol would be surrounded by the lands of those against it, making the situation worse.

  1. How did the Civil War show the weaknesses of a confederation style of government?

This war showed the weakness within the Confederacy from the idea that all the states were sovereign. Even though they stated that secession from this Confederacy was not to be tolerated, they still supported the previous idea of sovereignty. This would cause the Confederacy to basically be separated. Also, the president of the confederacy, Jefferson Davis, never presented national leadership, doing routine items too much and unlike Lincoln focused too much on legal and constitutional niceties. Overall this confederation type of government did not emphasize leadership under one too much, and thus many parts of the army in fighting were uncoordinated via they being under their own state’s leadership and not that of the government.

  1. How did Lincoln violate civil liberties in an attempt to win the war?

Lincoln himself violated the liberties of many during the war to win it. He ignored much of the inconvenient parts of the Constitution so he may keep the whole of the Union. He readily used the power that he had during wartime, withholding some public rights of people in prison, like suspending the writ of habeas corpus to many, arresting many dissenters all over the Union, and defied the Supreme Court in some of their cases regarding some of those arrested, like Ex Parte Merryman, where Taney required Lincoln to release the Maryland dissenter leader Merryman. Overall, to make sure that the war would be victorious, Lincoln censored many dissenters’ ideas and when arrested used his powers during wartime to withdraw certain rights of the accused.

4. What exactly did the Emancipation Proclamation do? Why was it written this way?

The Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in the Confederate states, not Union states. The president formally signed it on January 1, 1863, and using his war powers to issue an executive order, declared forever free slaves in all areas under Confederate control. The proclamation’s effect was limited because it only applied to slaves of the Confederacy. It was written clearly and irrevocably to establish that the war was being fought not only to defend the Union but to end slavery as well.

5. What impact did the Civil War have on Northern and Southern industry and economy?

Civil War held up the economy in some areas. Such as cutting manufacturers off from their Southern markets and sources of raw material, and by switching labor and resources to military purposes. However, in the North it sped the economic development: production of coal increased by nearly 20 percent and railroad facilities were improving- adoption of standard gauge (tack width) on new lines. The decreasing number of farm labor to the military commanded farmers to develop the mechanization of agriculture. Industrial laborers experienced a heavy loss of purchasing power- prices in North rose by more than 70 percent during war. This resulted in massive increase of union membership in many industries and creation of few national unions.

6. What impact did the war have on African Americans and women in both the North and South?

African Americans were able to enlist in the Union Army. Fifty-fourth Massachusetts infantry was one of the best known organized fighting unit. When captured by the Confederate, unlike the Northern soldiers that were exchanged for Southern soldiers, the African-American soldier was usually sent back to their master or killed. Women often took over positions vacated by men: teacher, retail sales clerks, office workers, and mill and factory hands. Most importantly, women became nurses through the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Nursing became a dominant profession for women, they were to take care of patients and do tasks that were considered appropriate for women (cooking, cleaning, and laundering). Many women saw the war as a liberating experience. Some women took advantage of this war and used it as an opportunity to win support for their own goals. The war opened up many chances for them to be able to do things that they didn’t know they were capable of doing.

7. In what ways was Lincoln’s assassination another blow to the future of the South?

Lincoln’s assassination was another blow to the future of the South because the Radical Republicans effort to punish the South strengthened. If Lincoln wasn’t assassinated, the Reconstruction Plan would have happened in a faster pace. President Johnson, following Lincoln, proposed amnesty and wanted the South enter the Union in easy terms. The Senate became furious and impeached him using the Tenure of Office Act. In conclusion, the assassination of President Lincoln added more bitterness of North’s hatred toward the South.

8. What mistakes did Andrew Johnson make in dealing with the Radical Republicans?
President Johnson and the Radical Republicans never got along during his presidency, and they rejected Johnson’s Reconstruction Policies. Johnson campaigned for Conservatives for Congress in 1866. Also, Johnson vetoed the Radicals’ three reconstruction bills, though they were able to overturn the veto. Despite the Tenure of Office Act, Johnson fired Secretary of State Edward Stanton. This gave the Radicals a way to impeach him.
9. How did sharecropping become a new form of slavery?
Most black people did not own land during Reconstruction. In need of money, many turned to sharecropping: A landowner would give a sharecropper land, a house, and other supplies/animals; the sharecropper would give the landowner a share of his crop each year. Often, the sharecropping system left the sharecropper with no crop to individually sell. This became a new form of slavery because the sharecropper was very dependent on the landowner and did not profit from personally from laboring.
10. In what ways can Reconstruction be seen as a success during that time?
Southern education improved for white and black people because of the Freedmen’s Bureau, other Northern impetuses, and Southern black people. Schools were created for former slaves, higher black education (like Fisk University, Atlanta University, and Morehouse College) was established, and the governments built public schools. However, the schools were often very segregated.
During Reconstruction, three very important amendments were passed, as well: Amendments 13, 14, and 15. The thirteenth amendment abolished slavery. The fourteenth stated that all people born in America were citizens, punished states that did not give suffrage to adult men, and said that 2/3 of Congress had to agree before a Confederate office holder could take office again. The fifteenth gave the right to vote regardless of race or prior slavery.
11. What tactics did Southern white democrats use to restrict or control black suffrage?
Once Southern white democrats regained control in the South, people tried to suppress black suffrage. Citizens formed organizations like the KKK which used force to stop blacks from voting and the Red Shirts/White Leagues which used force to convince whites to be Democrats and blacks not to engage in politics. Politicians developed a poll tax or landowning requirement plus literacy tests which many blacks could not pass due to the reading/interpretation ability needed. Lastly, Southern white democrats instated grandfather laws which stopped many blacks from voting if their ancestors could not vote.

12. Was Ulysses S. Grant a failure as a president? In your answer, be sure to mention the accomplishments and scandals of the time and his role.

In my opinion, I think it can be safe to consider Ulysses S. Grant’s presidency overall as a failure. First off, his performance was clumsy and ineffectual from the start. For example, with the exception of Hamilton Fish whom Grant appointed Secretary of States, most members Grant appointed to the cabinet were ill-equipped. Furthermore, Grant’s presidency is known to have many scandals such as Schuyler Colfax, his vice president, being involved in accepting stock from the Crédit Mobilier construction company, Benjamin H. Bristow, his third Treasury secretary, and other of his officials were cheating the government out of taxes by filing false reports while operating a whiskey ring. Lastly, an investigation also revealed that William W. Belknap, secretary of war, had accepted bribes to retain an Indian-post trader in office. Ultimately, all of this scandal mess led many citizens to believe that Grantism had brought significant corruption to the government. Finally, many say the peak of Grant’s presidency was in foreign affairs. However, everything that was accomplished and settled in foreign affairs was because of his Secretary of State, Hamilton Fish. Overall, Grant’s presidency should be considered a failure because his greatest successes were not achieved alone and more importantly, the corruption he carried into office.
13. What motivated the scalawags and carpetbaggers during Reconstruction?
The source of motivation during Reconstruction for the scalawags and carpetbaggers was optimism in economic enhancement of the southern region. Specifically, the scalawags were southern white Republicans that included different kinds of people; planters and businessmen, or farmers. The planters and business men were interested in economic development of the region while the farmers, who lived in remote areas where there had been little or no slavery, hoped the Republican program of internal improvements would help end their economic isolation. As for the carpetbaggers, they were white men from the north who served as Republicans leaders in the South. They consisted of well-educated middle class people, including doctors, lawyers and teachers, but the majority of them were veterans of the Union army who looked on the South as a new frontier, more promising than the West. Overall, the scalawags and carpetbaggers saw the south as a place for economic prosperity and in which their road to success would be fulfilled which set the bar for motivation during Reconstruction.
14. Was Samuel Tilden cheated out the presidency in 1876? Explain why or why not.
Samuel Tilden, runner of the Democratic Party in the Election of 1876, was most certainly cheated out of presidency. Just when it seemed liked Tilden had the election in the bag, four states including Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida, and Oregon had disputed returns, Congress unsure of what the actual outcome of each state’s result. In total, these accounted for 20 electoral votes and the only way Haynes would have defeated Tilden was if he won every one of those 20 votes. To start from here, Tilden was largely supported by the south anyway so it was expected that he would win at least one of those electoral votes. But despite this fact, Congress decided to break the deadlock by having what was known as a “Special Electoral Commission” to judge the disputed votes. This commission consisted of seven Republicans, seven Democrats and one independent. First off, the idea of this system is flawed as it is because they are allowing these 15 people account for 20 electoral votes, or four entire states. Anyway, this may have seemed like a fair split, but obviously all of the parties will side with their candidates, which leaves the decision ultimately up to the independent, whose real sympathy was actually with the Republicans. Basically, there was an unfair split in this commission favoring Hayes which is completely unjust. On top of all of this though includes the Compromise of 1877 which makes this decision even more corrupt. Specifically, the Democratic Party threatened to derail the commission’s report unless the Republicans lived up to pledges asked for by the Democrats. In other words, they said they would allow this to happen if the Republicans paid the Democrat’s their bribes of internal improvements and other assets that supported industrializing the south. Thus, he was even stabbed in the back by his own party and “supporters”. At the end of the day, one can look back on this and clearly see that Tilden was certainly in line to win this election, but Congress made an unjust and unwise decision in leaving it all up to a biased committee.

  1. How did the civil-rights cases of 1883 and Plessy v. Ferguson substantially negate the effect of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment?

The civil rights cases of 1883 and Plessy v. Ferguson greatly negated the effect of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. To begin with, the civil rights cases of 1883 negated them particularly in a loose way. To elaborate, the Supreme Court ruled that although the amendment prohibited state governments from discriminating, never did it mention that private organizations or individuals could not do so. This is significantly degrading the 14th amendment because they are restricting it only to state governments and still allowing every citizen and private organization to discriminate. As for the Plessy v. Ferguson case, they negated the amendment as well by ruling that separate accommodations of races on railroads did not deprive blacks of equal rights, even though it is clearly discrimination. Together, all of these court cases ruled in devaluing the fourteenth amendment (also deeming the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional), virtually finding loopholes to still allow discrimination by people and private organizations and also at public locations.

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