Ap us history final Exam Review Describe the changes taking place in Europe that preceded the development of interest in the New World

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AP US HISTORY Final Exam Review
- Describe the changes taking place in Europe that preceded the development of interest in the New World

  1. Discoveries from Scientific Revolution  thirst for exploration

    1. Guise of religious mission

      1. Really wanted gold in the area

  2. Religion change

    1. Expulsion of Moors from Spain; reunification of the country under Catholic rulers Isabella and Ferdinand  Spanish exploration

      1. Challenges in power with Martin Luther

      2. Movement to move away from the church

    2. John Calvin (middle class French born intellectual) made Calvinism

      1. Supreme power of God; humans were naturally wicked

      2. Followers went to Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire

    3. Puritans protested against similarities between the Anglican Church and the Catholic Church

      1. Encouraged by John Calvin; sought to purify Anglican church

      2. King James thought this was a threat to his power; kicked them out

- Compare and contrast the Spanish, British, French, and Dutch approaches to colonization and settlement.

  1. French:

    1. Better relations with Natives

    2. Focused on fur trading rather than plantation; had skilled hunters

    3. Tried to convert Native Indians to Christianity

    4. Settled more North; near Canada region

    5. Small population of French settlers; more clumped than the British

  2. British:

    1. English much more brutal to the Natives (exception of Roger Williams and William Penn)

    2. British settled more south; had 13 colonies and were much more spread out

    3. Focused on marine trade and seafaring

    4. Focused on mercantilism and limited trade by setting up certain acts

    5. Usually were proprietary; governors

  3. Spanish

    1. Mostly done by ambitious conquistadores

    2. Wanted to spread religion to the Natives and also obtain wealth like gold and silver

    3. Sent by the crown

  4. Dutch

    1. New Amsterdam became New York

    2. Colonized New York region we know today (called New Netherlands) as a private business venture for fur trade

      1. Later became New York

- Discuss the Spanish settlement of the American Southwest, analyzing its successes and failures, and nothing the Pueblo Revolt

  1. Spanish settlements

    1. Mention Pizarro, etc.

  2. Pueblo Revolt

    1. Spanish tried to force a certain religion onto the Native Americans

      1. Had labor system for them

    2. Tried to revolt against it because they were displeased

      1. Arguably most successful Native American revolt

      2. Spanish did come back, but became much more tolerant

- Describe the differences in the types of settlements and development of New England, Chesapeake, and the Restoration colonies

  1. New England (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut): focused on industries, manufactured goods, subsistence farming

    1. Massachusetts
      - William Bradford

      1. Main reason for settlement = religion

      2. Wanted to purify Anglican Church

      3. King James I felt threatened and expelled them

        1. Made of separatists (Pilgrims)

        2. The Great Migration led by John Winthrop (“city upon a hill”): referred to model Christian community

    2. Massachusetts - John Winthrop

      1. Made up of nonseparatists; believed they had to remain within Church of England to reform it

      2. Success in fishing, timber, shipbuilding

      3. Somewhat democratic; town hall meetings

        1. Still limited because Puritans part of the Congregational church participated; only men allowed to vote

      4. Non-puritans = dissenters

        1. Ex.) Anne Hutchinson, banished, went to Rhode Island

        2. Ex.) Roger Williams; leaves and founds Rhode Island

        3. Ex.) William Penn; leaves and founds Pennsylvania (Quakers)

      5. Halfway Covenant: gave nonconverted Puritans partial membership in Church

      6. Salem Witch Trials: accused girls of witchcraft  20 girls executed

        1. Strict moral standards

    3. Rhode Island

      1. Founded by Roger Williams after banishment from Massachusetts Bay

        1. Believed there is no place for church in matters of state; “separation of Church and state,” US Constitution

        2. Known for its freedom of opportunity

      2. Leading importers of African slaves

    4. Connecticut

      1. Royal colony; founded by Thomas Hooker

      2. Became a New Haven

        1. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: first type of Constitution

        2. Blue laws: dictated how people should behave

    5. New Hampshire

      1. Founded by John Wheelwright; royal charter

  2. Middle Colonies (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware): trade, shipping, manufactured goods, farming

    1. New York

      1. Charles II gave land grant of this area to his brother Duke of York; sent British squandron to secure the grant

      2. Had sizable aristocratic class

    2. Pennsylvania

      1. Quakers; religious dissenters

      2. Could now express beliefs freely

        1. Very diverse colony; relatively tolerant

    3. New Jersey

      1. Granted land to two noble proprietors

      2. Settled by New Englanders seeking land + Quakers

        1. Eventually acquired by Quakers

    4. Delaware

  3. Southern/Chesapeake Colonies (Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, Georgia): based on farming, agriculture, had little industry

    1. Virginia

      1. Grew out of Jamestown settlement; first successful colony

        1. John Rolfe turned it into a one crop economy; tobacco

      2. Headright system

        1. Basically where indentured servanthood started

        2. 50 acres of land given to anyone who paid passage to Virginia

        3. ¾ of those who went to Maryland or Virginia = indentured

      3. Had to reassess this system

        1. Bacon’s rebellion: frontiersmen thought that Berkeley’s policy toward Indians were too lenient

        2. Not enough protection from Native Americans; rebelled

        3. Slavery slowly developed

      4. House of Burgesses

        1. Had system of self government; representatives who were elected by male landholders

        2. First families of Virginia

      5. John Smith

        1. Tough guy, knew how to survive and made the settlers work

        2. “He who does not work shall not eat”

    2. Maryland

      1. Also had the headright system

      2. Many Protestants arrived; feared that growing number would thwart religious freedom for Catholics

        1. Maryland Act of Toleration: offered religious toleration to all Christians but death penalty = for those who deny divinity of Jesus

    3. Carolinas (proprietors)

      1. Proprietary colony

        1. Focused trade on rice because of slavery; many African slaves had already had experience with it

        2. The only colony that directly started out with it

      2. North Carolina

        1. Smaller farmers moved up here

        2. Considered to be irreligious and defiant

    4. Georgia (James Oglethorpe)

      1. Last colony founded in the New World

        1. Founded as a buffer state by James Oglethorpe

        2. Haven for debtors and undesirable

      2. Religious tolerance to all except Catholics

        1. Started out with no slavery or alcohol but failed

- Define “mercantilism” and explain its application to the British colonies. Examine how the English attempted to regulate commerce under the Navigation Acts.

  1. Mercantilism = the belief that wealth is limited; try to do everything for nation’s own benefit

    1. More exports than imports

    2. Essentially led to the acts of Britain that limited their source of income

  2. Navigation Act, Staple Act, Plantation Duty Act

    1. Basically all said that everything had to go through Britain first

      1. Navigation Act: certain things on the enumerated list could only be shipped to Britain

      2. Staple Act: goods had to go through Britain, then to the destination

      3. Plantation Duty Act: had to be shipped at the port first

- Explain the motivation for the development of indentured servant hood and its replacement by the system of black slavery.

  1. Indentured servant hood: started with the headright system in states like Virginia

    1. Pay people for their trip in return that they come and work

    2. Inefficient because it had pay  turned to forced labor of black slavery

  2. Colonies

    1. Carolina: the only colony to start with black slavery

    2. Georgia: in the beginning banned slavery and alcohol

    3. Most colonies went from indentured servants to black slavery

- Identify distinctive features of economic development in the North and South along with the rise of commerce and the emergence of colonial urban life.

  1. North: focused on industries and manufactured goods

  2. South: focused on labor intensive agriculture; little industry and few large cities

- Compare and contrast the theological framework of the Puritans, Quakers, and Anglicans. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.

  1. Theological framework

    1. Puritans: wanted change in the church and went against it

      1. Basic belief that everyone should be pure; reformists

      2. Strict moral standards; Salem Witch Trials

    2. Quakers: basically wanted freedom

    3. Anglicans: those who were for the Church

      1. Conflicted with the Puritan beliefs

  2. Great Awakening

    1. Revival; transition and put focus from churches to individuals

    2. Gave the poor people a chance to believe in

      1. Spread to the common people

- Compare the educational philosophy of colonial America to that of the present day.

  1. More religion oriented

    1. Believed that people should be pure

    2. Had strict moral standards

- Explain the significance of the French and Indian War.

  1. Land redistribution

    1. Spain loses Florida

    2. French basically lose their whole entire empire

      1. Region up in the north is completely gone

      2. Enables the British to spread up north

  2. Death of Montcalm and Wolfe

    1. Montcalm = French, Wolfe = British

      1. Political cartoon: Montcalm is presented in bed

      2. Wolfe is presented on the battlefield; Indian is watching

- Describe the emerging “American” political, economic, social, and intellectual viewpoint, and contrast those to traditional English views.

  1. More democratic and willing to self-govern than the English

    1. Town governments and House of Burgesses

      1. Ex.) Virginia, First Families of Virginia

  2. Glorious Revolution

    1. Change in power from James  William and Mary

      1. Believed that James was taking dominant power

      2. Didn’t respect the opinions of the Parliament

      3. No choice but to overthrow him

      4. *Took place in England

  3. Idea of capitalism

- Identify prevailing colonial American attitudes toward representative government.

  1. Most colonies = self governments

  2. Proprietary colonies/royal colonies

    1. Both had a governor

    2. Also had a town government that acted as a Parliament

      1. Proprietary: governor chosen by the proprietors/people

      2. Royal: governor chosen by the Crown

A. King Philip’s War
(a) Location, Date, People or Parties Involved

  • 1621: Massasoit (chief/sachem of nearby Wampanoag Indians)

    • Continued for his and the next generation

    • 1662: “Next generation” (Wamsutta) died

  • Began on June 20, 1675 in the Plymouth Colony town of Swansea

    • King Philip (after Wamsutta) wanted to end the peace treaty for whatever obscure reason

    • King Philip (otherwise known as Metacom) initiated it by attacking the town; war starts

    • John Sassamon also played a major role in initiating the war

  • April 1676: colonists flocked the coast out of fear

  • August 12, 1676: man fighting for both the Indians and Englishmen kills King Philip

  • July 1677: crowd of women kill Indians in a gruesome manner

    • Proves the amount of animosity that developed during the war

  • April 1678: King Philip’s War officially ends with the signing of a treaty at Casco Bay

(b) Causes

  • King Philip’s discontent with the peace treaty and ultimate decision not to follow it

    • Possible reasons for his discontent:

      • Angered by fines on the part of Plymouth courts

      • Colonists’ interminable search for more land; Puritan’s excessive expansion

      • Hostilities by young warriors who were angered by colonists’ hanging of three Indians convicted of murder

    • King Philip displeased with the fact that the contract directly stated his people’s subjection to the Crown

    • John Sassamon told the colonists that Metacom may be planning an attack, which heated things up even before the actual attack

(c) Course of the rebellion/conflict

  • 1621: Massasoit signs peace treaty for Indians and colonists to live in harmony, expecting it to be maintained throughout several generations.

  • 1662: Metacom (King Philip) becomes the chief

    • At first accepts subjection to the Crown, later expresses dissatisfaction with the peace treaty

      • (13 years later): Metacom turns against the English settlements

  • 1674: John Sassamon tells Plymouth colony that Metacom is planning a potential attack against them

  • June 8th, 1675: three Indians are hanged of a convicted murder

  • June 20, 1675: Indians launch an attack in the Plymouth Colony town of Swansea

    • Marks the start of the war

  • August 12, 1676: assassination of King Philip

  • July 1677: crowd of women kill Indians

    • Suggests the amount of hatred that was instigated by this war

  • April 1678: King Philip’s War ends after signing a treaty

(d) Consequences – end result and significance

  • Huge defeat for the Indians

    • Drastic decrease in population

      • Killed and captured thousands of Indians

    • Continued to decline afterwards

      • Due to disease and other reasons, only a few thousand remained by the next century

  • Exposure of Indians’ war techniques/strategies

    • Beginning of the war: English struggled because of the hide and ambush technique that the Indians used

      • English began to adopt it throughout the war

    • Century later: technique was no longer Indian, but rather American

  • New England’s use of resources

    • Despite their victory, still had to use much capital to rebuild

      • Absorbed their energy and resources in order to defend independence

    • Ultimately cost them about 100,000 pounds

      • Significant compared to them earning 20 pounds per year (at average)

Revolutionary America Notes
Empires are at war.. And one of the biggest ones is:
The French and Indian War

  • focused primarily on the battles in Europe and secondarily on the colonies

  • British victory; Peace of Paris :: Britain acquired French Canada and Spain Florida

  • Britain now the dominant naval force in the world :: American colonies did not face attacks from French, Spanish, etc.

And regarding this, the BRITISH thought..

  • colonists didn’t try enough; lack of military effort

  • refused to contribute troops or money in some instances

In the meantime, the COLONISTS thought..

  • they did well, gained confidence that they could self-govern

  • not impressed with British tactics; seemed unfit to America’s wooded terrain

Change in British Policy

  • before, had a fairly loose system in which Britain had little direct control

  • allowed navigation laws to go unenforced :: salutary neglect

  • END of salutary neglect; saw the need for forceful policies, especially with massive war debt

After Pontiac’s rebellion (against west movement of Europeans) Proclamation of 1763

  • measure for stabilizing the western frontier

  • banned colonists from settling west of Appalachian Mountains (Allegheny)

  • Americans angry because they were expecting immediate expansion

New Revenues and Regulations

Sugar Act (1764)

  • external tax, placed duties on foreign sugar and such luxuries

  • also, reinforcement of the Navigation Acts :: those smuggling tried in admiralty courts without juries

  • got the colonists mad but not that mad

Quartering Act (1765)

  • required colonists to provide food and living for British stationed in the colonies

Stamp Act (1765)

  • required that revenue stamps be placed on most documents in colonies

  • first direct tax (paid by colonists instead of merchants); internal tax

Against the Stamp Act

  • Virginia lawyer Patrick Henry :: recognize rights of citizens, no taxation without representation

  • James Otis: called for protests

  • Stamp Act Congress formed in New York, 1765 (formation of Sons and Daughters of Liberty)

  • 1765~1766 :: boycotted, popular to not buy anything British

  • led to sharp drop in trade, forced to repeal

Declaratory Act (1766)

  • known as a face-saving measure for the British

  • asserted that Parliament could tax colonies “in all cases whatsoever”

Second Phase of the Crisis, 1767-1773

Townshend Acts

  • enacted new taxes on tea, glass, and paper

  • enabled search of private homes for smuggled goods under writs of assistance

  • suspended New York’s assembly for colony’s defiance against Quartering Act

Colonial Reaction

  • at first didn’t protest much, but later John Dickinson, Samuel Adams, James Otis started

  • strongly in support of “no taxation without representation”

  • wrote Circular Letter, combatted by the British

  • also conducted boycotts and increased smuggling

Townshend Acts partially repealed

  • Lord Frederick North (new PM) demanded repeal because it didn’t have much effect

  • small tax on tea retained

  • three years (1770-1772) had silence because colonists had economic prosperity

Boston Massacre

  • March 1770: crowd of colonists harassed British guards

  • fired into the crowd and killed 5 people

  • referred to as “massacre” to inflame anti-British sentiments

Renewal of the Conflict

Committees of Correspondence

  • spread the idea that British were conspiring against colonial liberties

  • initiated by Samuel Adams in 1772

The Gaspee

  • opportunity to seize hated vessel

  • colonists dressed up as Native Americans ordered the British crew to set fire on ship

  • British brought guilty individuals to trial

Boston Tea Party

  • Britain passed the Tea Act in 1773 to help out British East India Company

  • made tea cheaper but refused to buy because that would enable British tax

  • Bostonians disguised as Native Americans and dumped 342 chests of tea into harbor

  • some applaud as a gesture of liberty, some dismiss as too radical

Intolerable Acts

  • Boston Tea Party angered the king, demanded punitive acts

  • combination of Coercive Acts (punitive) and the Quebec Act

Coercive Acts (1774)

  • meant for punishing and bringing dissidents under control

  1. Port Act :: closed port of Boston (prohibited trade)

  2. Massachusetts Government Act :: reduced power of Massachusetts legislature

  3. Administration of Justice Act :: crimes tried in England, not colonies

  4. Quartering Act :: expansion, enabled staying in private homes (all colonies)

Quebec Act (1774)

  • all Canadian lands gained from France organized by British

  • accepted by French Canadians but not colonists

  • set up government without representative assembly

  • colonists took it as direct attack on them

The First Continental Congress

  • against the Intolerable Acts, sent delegates to a convention in Philadelphia (1774)

  • determine how the colonies should react to what seemed to pose a threat

  • no desire for independence; just wanted to protest intrusions

  • unrepresented :: the loyals, who did not question the king

So the Continental Congress decided to..

  • reject the Intolerable Acts and demand its repeal by making military prep and boycotts

  • Declaration of Rights and Grievances (recognized Parliament’s authority) but demanded fixation of some of the grievances mentioned

  • urged creation of committees in every town to enforce economic sanctions

  • called for a second meeting in May 1775 if rights went unrecognized

And.. the fighting begins..

Lexington and Concord (April 18, 1775)

  • British entered Concord, destroyed some military supplies

  • British suffered 250 casualties, which was embarrassing

Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775)

  • true battle

  • American victory in many ways, inflicted the British army

The Second Continental Congress (May 1775)

  • met after the fighting began

  • conflict in the colonists -- can they negotiate vs. can they become independent

  • George Washington declared commander in chief

  • July 1775: delegates voted to send “Olive Branch Petition” that would secure rights

  • neglected the petition and passed Prohibitory Act (1775) :: declared colonies in rebellion

Declaration of Independence

  • began to favor independence especially after Common Sense

  • five delegates including Jefferson formed a resolution

  • adopted July 4, 1776

Patriots: wanted independence; had support from African Americans

Loyalists: (Tories): loyal to the king; had support from Native Americans
Initial American Hardships

  • first three years (1775-1777) went badly for Washington’s poorly trained army

  • 1777: British occupied New York and Philadelphia

  • paper money known as Continentals became worthless

French Alliance

  • victory at Saratoga in October 1777

  • persuaded French to join the army against the British (openly)

  • wanted to defeat the most powerful nation in Europe (Britain) anyways

  • decisive in victory


  • American army forced the surrender of General Charles Cornwallis

  • 1781 :: Yorktown, Virginia

  • Treaty of Paris :: independent nation, Mississippi River would be western boundary of that nation, would have fishing rights off the coast of Canada

After independence..

State Governments

  • powers of state government given to three branches: legislative, executive, judicial

  • every state had a bill or declaration

  • right to vote :: extended to all white males who owned property

  • those seeking to hold office often had more property than did the voters

The Articles of Confederation

  • adopted by congress in 1777 and submitted to states for ratification and ratified in 1781

  • unicameral legislature; each state given one vote

  • 9/13 states to pass laws; unanimous to make amendments

  • could NOT regulate commerce or collect taxes

  • no executive power to enforce own laws

As weak and ineffective as it was, it still accomplished..

  • winning the war; ultimate victory and negotiating with Britain about it

  • Land Ordinance of 1785 :: policy for surveying and selling western lands; set aside a section of land for public education

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 :: large territory lying between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River, set rules for creating new states, limited self-government, and prohibited slavery in that region

  • provided a basis for what would become states later on also

Major weaknesses

  • war debts were unpaid and states could only donate; no power to tax

  • other nations had little respect for a new nation that could not pay debts; Spain and US threatened to expand interests in western lands

  • 1786 :: Daniel Shays led an uprising against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, lack of paper money

Constitutional Convention

  • called upon all 13 states to send delegates to Philadelphia (Rhode Island didn’t go)

  • after Annapolis Convention, wanted to revise the Articles of Confederation

  • James Madison called father of Constitution (Washington, Franklin, Hamilton, etc.)

  • system of checks and balances

Three Compromises

  • The Great Compromise :: made a bicameral legislature, one with equal representation and one with representation according to population

  • 3/5 Compromise :: said that slaves count as 3/5 a person for taxation and representation

  • Commercial Compromise :: allowed congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce; including placing taxes on foreign imports

President Power

  • granted president considerable power such as power to veto

  • had the system of electoral college because they didn’t trust the people

  • appointed four heads of departments :: Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state, Alexander Hamilton as secretary of treasury, Henry Knox as secretary of war, Edmund Randolph as attorney general formed the cabinet

Those who were in support of the Constitution were called Federalists

- Federalist Papers written by federalists for persuasion

Those who opposed the Constitution were called anti-Federalists

  • Anti-federalists wanted a Bill of Rights to guarantee individuals’ rights

guaranteed that there wouldn’t be abuses of power by central (federal government)

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