One of the consequences of the Napoleonic era was that it intensified nationalism, or feelings of connection to one's own home, region, language, and culture. France, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and Russia, of course, had already unified and, in some cases, built enormous empires. But the Italian and German city-states were still very feudal, and were constantly at the center of warfare among the European powers. In the second half of the nineteenth century, however, all that changed. Italy and Germany unified, and with unification, they eventually altered the balance of European power.