Ap literature & Composition



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AP Literature & Composition

Language Arts Standard I: Students read and understand a variety of materials.

Language Arts Standard II: Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and audiences.

Language Arts Standard IV: Students apply critical thinking skills to their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing.

Language Arts Standard VI: Students read and recognize literature as a record of human experience.
j0233771AP English Major Work Review Guide j0233771

DIRECTIONS: For each major work, complete the following review guide to use in preparation of the AP Exam in May.



TITLE: Candide

AUTHOR: Voltaire YEAR PUBLISHED:1759

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SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERS AND FUNCTION IN THE WORK
1. Candide- discovers fallacy of optimism, naïve, dynamic, man of his word, inconsistent characterization, not street smart (can’t negotiate, taken advantage of), persistent, gets into a lot of trouble, romantic, rejects and comes back to the idea of optimism, impressionable, Protagonist = Candide, only character who changes
2. Pangloss- comes back from dead, proponent of optimism, stubborn, philosopher, contradictory, static, arrogant, naïve-irony b/c he’s a philosopher/teacher
3. Martin- philosopher, pessimist, Manichean, good/evil, realist, good intentions (looks out for Candide), voice of reason, Pangloss’ foil
4. Cunegonde- beauty, youth, relies on looks (time period?), persistent, pragmatic, static  ugly, symbol for Candide’s innocence
5. Baron Jr.- protective of nobility/reputation, snob, short-sighted, contradictory, flaws of nobility, puppet-like, controlled, mouthpiece of the aristocracy
6. Cacambo – loyal, level headed, street smart, realist, Candide’s servant, has restrictions on what he can do, met in Cadiz

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SIGNFICANT SETTINGS AND WHY IMPORTANT

1. Westphalia castle- presented as Candide’s original utopia, presented through irony as not perfect (it has windows and a door)


2. Eldorado- true utopia, isolated, Candide can’t live there, people are truly happy, people vow to never leave, scientifically advanced, don’t value wealth
3. The farm- a blend of Westphalia and Eldorado, on one hand each character finds a purpose, but they are struggling to be happy, everyone is still bitter, importance of work
4. Old world/New world- Westphalia, Holland, Lisbon, Portugal (Cadiz), Buenos Aires, Paraguay, Peru, El Dorado, Surinam, France, England, Venice, Constantinople/Turkey
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THE WORK BEGINS WITH:

Candide being kicked out of Westphalia, literally


THE WORK ENDS WITH:

Everybody working at the farm: Finding their purpose & rejection of optimism



PLOT SUMMARY (10 bulleted events)

1. Auto de fe 6. Cacambo leads the way in the New World


2. Kicked out of Westphalia 7. Dirty deeds in Paris
3. Admiral being killed for not killing 8. Candide meeting slave
4. Finding Eldorado/leaving 9. Finding Cunegonde
5. Old Woman’s story 10. Death of James the Anabaptist

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AUTHOR’S STYLE (techniques, literary devices, key ideas)

Philosophical tale, comedy, everyone dies/lives, irony, satire, quick-pace, characters are limited in their description which enables them to act more as symbols, tongue and cheek, cheeky

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DOMINANT THEMES (no one word statements, morals, or clichés!)

1. Everything is not for the best.


2. Nobility is flawed.
3. Absolute power corrupts absolutely.
4. Perfection is attainable at great cost.
5. You can be happy with the small things in life.
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IMPORTANT SYMBOLS OR IMAGERY

Sheep- red! From Eldorado, a place of perfection, symbol of wealth, reflects Candide’s naivety, reflects the transient nature of wealth

Travel- aimlessness, self-discovery piece, breakthroughs, journey through his learning

Cunegonde- transient nature of beauty, constrained by her society

Characters are symbolic

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QUOTATIONS OF INTEREST (What and who says it!)
“In this, the best of all possible worlds” (Pangloss)

“Yes, that is true but we must cultivate our garden” (Candide)



“We find that work banishes those three great evils, boredom, vice, and poverty.” (The Turk)
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POINTS OF COMPARISON WITH OTHER LITERATURE

Hero’s Journey, Rite of passage—maturity.

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