SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERS AND FUNCTION IN THE WORK 1. Candide- discovers fallacy of optimism, naïve, dynamic, man of his word, inconsistent characterization, not street smart (can’t negotiate, taken advantage of), persistent, gets into a lot of trouble, romantic, rejects and comes back to the idea of optimism, impressionable, Protagonist = Candide, only character who changes
2. Pangloss- comes back from dead, proponent of optimism, stubborn, philosopher, contradictory, static, arrogant, naïve-irony b/c he’s a philosopher/teacher
3. Martin- philosopher, pessimist, Manichean, good/evil, realist, good intentions (looks out for Candide), voice of reason, Pangloss’ foil
4. Cunegonde- beauty, youth, relies on looks (time period?), persistent, pragmatic, static ugly, symbol for Candide’s innocence
5. Baron Jr.- protective of nobility/reputation, snob, short-sighted, contradictory, flaws of nobility, puppet-like, controlled, mouthpiece of the aristocracy
6. Cacambo – loyal, level headed, street smart, realist, Candide’s servant, has restrictions on what he can do, met in Cadiz
1. Westphalia castle- presented as Candide’s original utopia, presented through irony as not perfect (it has windows and a door)
2. Eldorado- true utopia, isolated, Candide can’t live there, people are truly happy, people vow to never leave, scientifically advanced, don’t value wealth
3. The farm- a blend of Westphalia and Eldorado, on one hand each character finds a purpose, but they are struggling to be happy, everyone is still bitter, importance of work
4. Old world/New world- Westphalia, Holland, Lisbon, Portugal (Cadiz), Buenos Aires, Paraguay, Peru, El Dorado, Surinam, France, England, Venice, Constantinople/Turkey
THE WORK BEGINS WITH:
Candide being kicked out of Westphalia, literally
THE WORK ENDS WITH:
Everybody working at the farm: Finding their purpose & rejection of optimism
PLOT SUMMARY (10 bulleted events)
1. Auto de fe 6. Cacambo leads the way in the New World
2. Kicked out of Westphalia 7. Dirty deeds in Paris
3. Admiral being killed for not killing 8. Candide meeting slave
4. Finding Eldorado/leaving 9. Finding Cunegonde
5. Old Woman’s story 10. Death of James the Anabaptist
DOMINANT THEMES (no one word statements, morals, or clichés!)
1. Everything is not for the best.
2. Nobility is flawed.
3. Absolute power corrupts absolutely.
4. Perfection is attainable at great cost.
5. You can be happy with the small things in life.
IMPORTANT SYMBOLS OR IMAGERY
Sheep- red! From Eldorado, a place of perfection, symbol of wealth, reflects Candide’s naivety, reflects the transient nature of wealth
Travel- aimlessness, self-discovery piece, breakthroughs, journey through his learning