Ap human/ World Cultural Geography Vocabulary List



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AP Human/ World Cultural Geography Vocabulary List
Unit I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts

Note: The following concepts transcend all units in AP Human Geography; they are central to all geographic thinking and analysis and could even be considered central to any definition of geography.

Basic Concepts

Changing attributes of place (built landscape, sequent occupance)

Cultural attributes (cultural landscape)

Density (arithmetic, physiological)

Diffusion (hearth, relocation, expansion, hierarchical, contagious, stimulus)

Direction (absolute, relative)

Dispersion/concentration (dispersed/scattered, clustered/agglomerated)

Distance (absolute, relative)

Distribution

Environmental determinism

Location (absolute, relative, site, situation, place name)

Pattern (linear, centralized, random)

Physical attributes (natural landscape)

Possibilism

Region (formal/uniform, functional/nodal, perceptual/vernacular)

Scale (implied degree of generalization)

Size

Spatial (of or pertaining to space on or near Earth’s surface)



Spatial interaction (accessibility, connectivity, network, distance decay, friction of distance, time-space compression)

Geographic Tools

Distortion

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Grid (North and South Poles, latitude, parallel, equator, longitude, meridian, prime meridian, international date line)

Map (Maps are the tool most uniquely identified with geography; the ability to use and interpret maps is an essential geographic skill.)

Map scale (distance on a map relative to distance on Earth)

Map types (thematic, statistical, cartogram, dot, choropleth, isoline)

Mental map

Model (a simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify causal relationships): Geographers use models (e.g., Demographic Transition, Epidemiological Transition, Gravity, Von Thünen, Weber, Stages of Growth [Rostow], Concentric Circle [Burgess], Sector [Hoyt], Multiple Nuclei, Central Place [Christaller], and so on) to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviors.

Projection

Remote sensing

Time zones



Unit II. Population—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts
Population

Age distribution

Carrying capacity

Cohort


Demographic equation

Demographic momentum

Demographic regions

Demographic Transition model

Dependency ratio

Diffusion of fertility control

Disease diffusion

Doubling time

Ecumene

Epidemiological Transition model

Gendered space

Infant mortality rate

J-curve

Maladaptation

Malthus, Thomas

Mortality

Natality

Neo-Malthusian

Overpopulation

Population densities

Population distributions

Population explosion

Population projection

Population pyramid

Rate of natural increase

S-curve

Sex ratio

Standard of living

Sustainability

Underpopulation

Zero population growth

Migration

Activity space

Chain migration

Cyclic movement

Distance decay

Forced

Gravity model

Internal migration

Intervening opportunity

Migration patterns
• Intercontinental
• Interregional
• Rural-urban
Migratory movement

Periodic movement

Personal space

Place utility

Push-pull factors

Refugee

Space-time prism

Step migration

Transhumance

Transmigration

Voluntary

Unit III. Cultural Patterns and Processes, Part 1—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts

Concepts of Culture

Acculturation

Assimilation

Cultural adaptation

Cultural core/periphery pattern

Cultural ecology

Cultural identity

Cultural landscape

Cultural realm

Culture

Culture region


• Formal—core, periphery
• Functional—node
• Vernacular (perceptual)—regional self-awareness
Diffusion types
• Expansion—hierarchical, contagious, stimulus
• Relocation
Innovation adoption

Maladaptive diffusion

Sequent occupance

Folk and Popular Culture

Adaptive strategies

Anglo-American landscape characteristics

Architectural form

Built environment

Folk culture

Folk food

Folk house

Folk songs

Folklore

Material culture

Nonmaterial culture

Popular culture

Survey systems

Traditional architecture

Language

Creole


Dialect

Indo-European languages

Isogloss

Language

Language family

Language group

Language subfamily

Lingua franca

Linguistic diversity

Monolingual/multilingual

Official language

Pidgin


Toponym

Trade language



Unit III. Cultural Patterns and Processes, Part 2—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts

Religion

Animism

Buddhism

Cargo cult pilgrimage

Christianity

Confucianism

Ethnic religion

Exclave/enclave

Fundamentalism

Geomancy (feng shui)

Hadj


Hinduism

Interfaith boundaries

Islam

Jainism



Judaism

Landscapes of the dead

Monotheism/polytheism

Mormonism

Muslim pilgrimage

Muslim population

Proselytic religion

Reincarnation

Religion (groups, places)

Religious architectural styles

Religious conflict

Religious culture hearth

Religious toponym

Sacred space

Secularism

Shamanism

Sharia law

Shintoism

Sikhism

Sunni/Shia

Taoism

Theocracy

Universalizing

Zoroastrianism

Ethnicity

Acculturation

Adaptive strategy

Assimilation

Barrio

Chain migration

Cultural adaptation

Cultural shatterbelt

Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic conflict

Ethnic enclave

Ethnic group

Ethnic homeland

Ethnic landscape

Ethnic neighborhood

Ethnicity

Ethnocentrism

Ghetto


Plural society

Race


Segregation

Social distance

Gender

Dowry death

Enfranchisement

Gender


Gender gap

Infanticide

Longevity gap

Maternal mortality rate



Unit IV. Political Organization of Space—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts

Annexation

Antarctica

Apartheid

Balkanization

Border landscape

Boundary, disputes (definitional, locational, operational, allocational)

Boundary, origin (antecedent, subsequent, superimposed, relic)

Boundary, process (definition, delimitation, demarcation)

Boundary, type (natural/physical, ethnographic/cultural, geometric)

Buffer state

Capital

Centrifugal

Centripetal

City-state

Colonialism

Confederation

Conference of Berlin (1884)

Core/periphery

Decolonization

Devolution

Domino theory

EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)

Electoral regions

Enclave/exclave

Ethnic conflict

European Union

Federal

Forward capital

Frontier

Geopolitics

Gerrymander

Global commons

Heartland/rimland

Immigrant states

International organization

Iron Curtain

Irredentism

Israel/Palestine

Landlocked

Law of the Sea

Lebanon

Mackinder, Halford J.

Manifest destiny

Median-line principle

Microstate

Ministate

Nation


National iconography

Nation-state

Nunavut

Raison d’être

Reapportionment

Regionalism

Religious conflict

Reunification

Satellite state

Self-determination

Shatterbelt

Sovereignty

State

Stateless ethnic groups



Stateless nation

Suffrage

Supranationalism

Territorial disputes

Territorial morphology (compact, fragmented, elongated, prorupt, perforated)

Territoriality

Theocracy

Treaty ports

UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)

Unitary

USSR collapse

Women’s enfranchisement



Unit V. Agricultural and Rural Land Use—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts
Adaptive strategies

Agrarian

Agribusiness

Agricultural industrialization

Agricultural landscape

Agricultural location model

Agricultural origins

Agriculture

Animal domestication

Aquaculture

Biorevolution

Biotechnology

Collective farm

Commercial agriculture (intensive, extensive)

Core/periphery

Crop rotation

Cultivation regions

Dairying

Debt-for-nature swap

Diffusion

Double cropping

Economic activity (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary)

Environmental modification (pesticides, soil erosion, desertification)

Extensive subsistence agriculture (shifting cultivation [slash-and- burn, milpa, swidden], nomadic herding/pastoralism)

Extractive industry

Farm crisis

Farming

Feedlot

First agricultural revolution

Fishing

Food chain

Forestry

Globalized agriculture

Green revolution

Growing season

Hunting and gathering

Intensive subsistence agriculture

Intertillage

Livestock ranching

Market gardening

Mediterranean agriculture

Mineral fuels

Mining

Planned economy

Plant domestication

Plantation agriculture

Renewable/nonrenewable

Rural settlement (dispersed, nucleated, building material, village form)

Sauer, Carl O.

Second agricultural revolution

Specialization

Staple grains

Suitcase farm

Survey patterns (long lots, metes and bounds, township-and-range)

Sustainable yield

Third agricultural revolution (mechanization, chemical farming, food manufacturing)

“Tragedy of the commons”

Transhumance

Truck farm

Von Thünen, Johann Heinrich



Unit VI. Industrialization and Development—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts
Development

Agricultural labor force

Calorie consumption

Core-periphery model

Cultural convergence

Dependency theory

Development

Energy consumption

Foreign direct investment

Gender


Gross domestic product (GDP)

Gross national product (GNP)

Human Development Index

Levels of development

Measures of development

Neocolonialism

Physical Quality of Life Index

Purchasing power parity

Rostow, W. W.

“Stages of Growth” model

Technology gap

Technology transfer

Third World

World Systems Theory

Industrialization

Acid rain

Agglomeration

Agglomeration economies

Air pollution

Aluminum industry (factors of production, location)

Assembly line production/Fordism

Bid rent theory

Break-of-bulk point

Canadian industrial heartland

Carrier efficiency

Comparative advantage

Cumulative causation

Deglomeration

Deindustrialization

Economic sectors

Economies of scale

Ecotourism

Energy resources

Entrepôt

Export processing zone

Fixed costs

Footloose industry

Four Tigers

Greenhouse effect

Growth poles

Heartland/rimland

Industrial location theory

Industrial regions (place, fuel source, characteristics)

Industrial Revolution

Industry (receding, growing)

Infrastructure

International division of labor

Labor-intensive

Least-cost location

Major manufacturing regions

Manufacturing exports

Manufacturing/warehouse location (industrial parks, agglomeration, shared services, zoning, transportation, taxes, environmental considerations)

Maquiladora

Market orientation

Multiplier effect

NAFTA


Outsourcing

Ozone depletion

Plant location (supplies, “just in time” delivery)

Postindustrial

Refrigeration

Resource crisis

Resource orientation

Special economic zones (China)

Specialized economic zones

Substitution principle

Threshold/range

Time-space compression

Topocide

Trade (complementarity)

Transnational corporation

Ubiquitous

Variable costs

Weber, Alfred

Weight-gaining

Weight-losing

World cities

Unit VII. Cities and Urban Land Use—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts
Agglomeration

Barriadas

Bid-rent theory

Blockbusting

CBD (central business district)

Census tract

Centrality

Centralization

Central-place theory

Christaller, Walter

City


Cityscapes

Colonial city

Commercialization

Commuter zone

Concentric zone model

Counterurbanization

Decentralization

Deindustrialization

Early cities

Economic base (basic/nonbasic)

Edge city

Emerging cities

Employment structure

Entrepôt

Ethnic neighborhood

Favela


Female-headed household

Festival landscape

Gateway city

Gender


Gentrification

Ghetto


Globalization

Great cities

High-tech corridors

Hinterland

Hydraulic civilization

Indigenous city

In-filling

Informal sector

Infrastructure

Inner city

Invasion and succession

Lateral commuting

Medieval cities

Megacities

Megalopolis/conurbation

Metropolitan area

Multiple nuclei model

Multiplier effect

Neighborhood

Office park

Peak land value intersection

Planned communities

Postindustrial city

Postmodern urban landscape

Primate city

Racial steering

Rank-size rule

Redlining

Restrictive covenants

Sector model

Segregation

Settlement form (nucleated, dispersed, elongated)

Shopping mall

Site/situation

Slum

Social structure



Specialization

Squatter settlement

Street pattern (grid, dendritic; access, control)

Suburb


Suburbanization

Symbolic landscape

Tenement

Threshold/range

Town

Underclass



Underemployment

Urban growth rate

Urban function

Urban hearth area

Urban heat island

Urban hierarchy

Urban hydrology

Urban morphology

Urbanization

Urbanized population

World city

Zone in transition



Zoning


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