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AP HISTORY

SUMMER WORK


2011

Summer work deadline:

These chapter assignments are based on the text book, The Earth and Its Peoples. They are due on August 12, 2011. Place them in a folder, staple them, and give them to the secretary in the Main Office. The secretary will place these assignments in my mailbox. These chapter assignments must be typed in 12 point font. Please keep backup copies for yourself! Since this counts for a significant part of your first quarter grade, you must complete the work to remain in the course. To view this assignment online, go to the home page on my AP World History website.


Summer Work Rationale: There is an enormous amount of content in this course. It essentially covers two college classes: World History I and World History II. If we did not assign the summer work, it would be nearly impossible to learn the material in an appropriate manner.
I look forward to an exciting year!
Teacher: Mr. Glen Cummings

glen_cummings@eastiron.monroe.edu


AP SUMMER WORK 2011. Answer each of these questions in a complete sentence. All work must be typed. (If you can’t type because you don’t have access to a computer, please see me). There are eight chapters in this assignment. It is critical to cover these

chapters during the summer because the AP final is in May.


Chapter 1 Text Book Questions
African Genesis (p.5)

1) What book did Charles Darwin write? (p.5) What is natural selection? (p.6)

2) Where did Ray Dart believe that human life originated? Why? (p.6)

3) Who were the Leakeys? Where did they work? What did they find?

4) When did the Great Ice Age begin and when did it end? (p.9)

5) Refer to the map on page 8. Where did human life originate according to this map?

(Observe how human life made it to each continent).
History and Culture in the Stone Age (p.11)

1) What are the two major periods of the Stone Age? Approximately when did the Neolithic era

begin? (p.11)

2) What roles did women play in the Ice Age? What did men do? Why? (See the top of p.14)

3) What did Paleolithic rock art (also known as cave art) show? (p.16)

4) What is culture? Which cultural foundations were laid in the Stone Age? (p.17)


The Agricultural Revolutions (p.17)

1) How did stone tools help the development of agriculture? (p.19)

2) What were wild grasses transformed into? (p.19)

3) How did animal domestication help the development of agriculture? (p.20)

4) Describe the lifestyle known as pastoralism. (Refer to the top of page 21. Note: The people

who practiced pastoralism were called nomadic pastoralists).


Chapter 2 Text Book Questions. Answer each of these questions in a complete sentence. All work must be typed.
Mesopotamia (p.29)

1) Where was Mesopotamia located? Why was it important? (p.29)

2) Which two urban centers ‘sprang up’ after agriculture first appeared in the Middle East? (p.32)

3) Who was Hammurabi? Why was he significant? (p.34)

4) What do anthropologists believe happened to women’s social standing in Mesopotamia

during the Neolithic Revolution? Why?

5) What was cuneiform? (p.39)

6) On which number was the Sumerian/Mesopotamian math system based? What impact did

this have? (p.40)
Egypt (p.40)

1) When did the flooding of the Nile occur? Explain why this was advantageous. (p.41)

2) Define the term pharoah. Explain why the pharaoh was important. Use the term

Ma’at in your answer. (p.42)

3) Technology. What was the function of pyramids?

4) What was the function of Egyptian bureaucrats? What did they do? (p.43, second column)

5) Describe the role, status and privileges of Egyptian women. Be sure to comment on their

property rights. (p.45)
(Chapter two continued)

Indus Valley Civilization (p.48)

1) Where is the Indus River? Which two ancient cities developed on the Indus? (p.48)

2) Describe the key features of these cities. (pp.48-49)

3) Why were cities abandoned after 1900 BCE? (p.51)

4) What caused the demise of the Hakra River civilization? (p.51)
Chapter 3 Text Book Questions. Answer each of these questions in a complete sentence. All work must be typed.
Early China (p.55)

1) Give three specific examples of geographic isolation in China. (p.56)

2) Name two great river systems in China. (p.57)

3) Which metal was developed in Shang China circa 2000 BCE? (p.58)

4) What is divination? How was it used? (p.59-60)

5) Why was the development of the horse-drawn chariot important in Shang China? (p.61)

6) Which dynasty replaced the Shang? Which concept did they use to justify the overthrow of

the Shang? (p.61)



Note: Three schools of Chinese thought developed during the Zhou dynasty: Legalism,

Confucianism, and Daoism.

7) Describe the main beliefs of legalism. (p.62)

8) What are the key features of Confucianism? (Review the Five Relationships and their

political and social impact).

9) What are the key points of Daoism? (Especially Yin and Yang). (p.63)


Nubia (p.69)

1) Where was Nubia? What was its central geographic feature?

2) Who were the Kush? What did they develop?
Conclusion (p.79)

1) Why was the acquisition of bronze weapons a priority for the elite classes?

2) How was bronze used?

3) What led to the fall of Late Bronze Age Civilizations?

Note: You will have to know that the Bronze Age ended the Neolithic Era, and the Iron Age

ended the Bronze Age.


Chapter 4 questions. Answer each of these questions in a complete sentence. All work must be typed.
First Civilizations of the Americas (p.86)

  1. Refer to the map on page 88. Where were the Olmec located? Where were the Chavin

Located?

  1. Refer to the picture on page 89. Which civilization sculpted this giant stone head? Who does

it represent?

  1. Who were the Chavin? Why were they important? (p.89)


Celtic Europe (p.91)

  1. Refer to the map on page 91. Describe the spread of the Celtic people. Where were the early Celts located? Where did they spread to by 500 BCE? 300 BCE? 200 BCE?

(Chapter Four continued)



The Assyrian Empire (p.93)

  1. Refer to the map on page 94. Describe the extent of the Assyrian Empire from the tenth

century BCE to the seventh century BCE.

  1. Define the term mass deportation. (p.95) Why did the Assyrians use mass deportation?


Israel (p.99)

1) What is the Hebrew Bible? Describe it. (p.99) Note: Christians call this the Old Testament.



  1. Why did the Israelites flee to Egypt? (see the top of page 100)

  2. Define the term diaspora (p.102)


Phoenicia and the Mediterranean (p.103)

  1. Which writing system did the Phoenicians develop? Why was this an important development? (p.104)

  2. Refer to the map on page 106. Where was Phoenicia located? What did Phoenicia

begin to do in the ninth century BCE.

3) Where was Carthage located and why was it important? (p.106)


Chapter 5 Text Book Questions. Answer each of these questions in a complete sentence. All work must be typed.
Ancient Iran (p.114)

1) Look at the map on page 116. What was the extent of the Persian Empire. (What were its

western and eastern boundaries? Which part of northern Africa did it include?)

2) How was Persian society stratified (divided)? (see page 117 column 2).

3) What were satraps? Why were they important? (p.118)

4) Darius, ruler of the Persian Empire, created a legal code known as the “laws of the King.”

According to these laws, how did Darius allow each group of people in his empire to live?

(second column p.119 near the top of the page).

5) How was Zoroastrianism, the main Persian religion, similar to Christianity? (p.121, first

column)
The Rise of the Greeks (p.121)

1) Describe the topography of Greece. (p.121)

2) How many symbols were in the Phoenician writing system? (p.123)

3) What advantage did the Greek alphabet have over other writing systems such as cuneiform

or hieroglyphics? (p.123)



  1. What is a polis? (p.125) What was the approximate population of Athens? (p.125)

[Note: It was one of the most heavily populated city-states]

4) Describe one main difference between Athens and Sparta. (p.129)

5) Who was Pericles? Why was he important?
The Struggle of Persia and Greece (p.130)

1) When was the classical period of ancient Greece? (see page 131 The Height of



Athenian Power)

2) Why was Socrates important? (p.133)

3) Briefly describe the achievements of Plato. (p.133)

4) In this course, slavery is referred to as coercive labor. Describe the role and treatment of

Greek slaves. (p.134)

5) Who fought in the Peloponnesian War? When? What was the result? (p.135)

6) What were the accomplishments of Alexander the Great? (p.136)

7) What is meant by the Hellenistic Age? Name the areas that became Hellenized. (p.137)



Chapter 6 Text Book Questions Short response questions. Answer these questions in complete sentences. Be sure to include supporting details. It must be typed.
Note: If you did this assignment in class, you may use the SAME ASSIGNMENT. You should

revise it if you didn’t do a thorough job the first time.


ROME’S CREATION OF A MEDITERRANEAN EMPIRE
1) What contributed to Rome’s success in unifying Italy and all of the lands

ringing the Mediterranean Sea? [p.145]


1a) Refer to the map on page 146. Locate the present day countries of Spain,

France, Great Britain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Israel, and Egypt. You must

know these for the upcoming map quiz. This does NOT require a written response.
2) During the Roman Republic (507 BCE to 31 BCE), state where ‘sovereign

power’ resided. Explain why voting rights for men were not equal. [p.148]


3) Explain why the Roman Senate was the real center of political power in

Rome. (How long did senators serve? What were they the ‘repository’ of?) [p.148]


4) What was the patron/client relationship? What did patrons provide to their

clients? [p.149]


5) Give two reasons why Rome expanded. (What motivated consuls to encourage

warfare? Why did fear drive Roman expansion into new territories?) [p.149]

Questions 6-9 are based on the section titled The Failure of the Republic [pp.150-152]

6) While the soldier-farmers were away at war what happened to their self-sufficient

farms? Who took over these farms? Which “broad estates” replaced these farms?
7) Peasants who lost their farms had difficulty finding work in the countryside due to the

cheapness of slave labor. What happened to these peasants when they moved to

the city? Were they successful or unsuccessful? Explain. [p.151]
8) What was the period following the Roman Republic called? [p.151]
9) Describe the achievements of Augustus (a.k.a. Octavian). Note: You may wish to

consult the website www.roman-empire.net/emperors/augustus.html to get

a very concise answer. [also see p.151]
10) As an ‘urban empire’, Rome was primarily administered through a network of towns

and cities. Name several of these cities. [p.152]


11) What was the pax romana? What did it greatly enhance? [p.154]
12) The Rise of Christianity. Briefly explain how and where the apostle Paul spread

the Christian religion in the Roman Empire? [p.156]


13) Define the term aqueduct. Explain how aqueducts were constructed, where the

water traveled, and how the water traveled. [p.156]

14) Define the term third century crisis. [p.157] Explain the ‘devastating impact’ that

the third century crisis had on the Roman economy. [p.159]


15) Who was Constantine? Where did he move the imperial capital to?

(i.e. from Rome to ?) [p.159]


THE ORIGINS OF IMPERIAL CHINA

Refer to the chronology chart on page 147. Note that the Qin Dynasty lasted from 221 BCE to

206 BCE. It was succeeded by the Han Dynasty which lasted from 206 BCE to 220 CE.
1) Who was Shi Huangdi? What does his name mean?
2) Shi Huangdi was a totalitarian ruler who ruled by the principle of Legalism. Describe Legalism

and briefly explain how Shi Huangdi used it to rule the Qin Dynasty.


3) Give examples of ‘standardization’ that the Qin government developed in order to unify its

society. [p.164]


3a) The Long Reign of the Han. Key points: The Han capital was located in Chang’an (locate

this on page161). The Han ruled according to the Mandate of Heaven principle. This

does NOT require a written response.
4) Describe the role of the gentry (a.k.a scholar gentry). What did they do? Why were

they important? [p.166]


5) Technology and Trade. The use of bronze tools (and the corresponding bronze age)

began in China circa 1500 BCE. Iron was first used in China around 500 BCE.

Describe the Chinese method of producing iron tools and explain why it was more

advanced than the Roman method. [p.166]


6) Refer to the map on page 161. Name the trade that started in Chang’an and extended

westward. Note how the Han dynasty expanded along this road.


6a) China’s infrastructure was greatly enhanced by the construction of canals (see page 158).

The most spectacular canal is the Grand Canal (see http://www.chinapage.com/canal.html)

This does NOT require a written response.
IMPERIAL PARALLELS: Questions that compare and contrast Rome and China
1) How were the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire similar in terms of agriculture?

[p.168; two sentences]

2) Explain how the problems of defense were similar for the Roman Empire and the

Han Dynasty. Describe how they responded to these problems. (What did they build?)

[p.169]

3) How were Roman rulers chosen? In contrast, how were Chinese rulers chosen?



[hint; Mandate of Heaven; see bottom of page169 onto page 170; 2-3 sentences].

4) Explain how armies and bureaucracies made the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty

strong and stable. Give details as to why they were effective. [p.170 top of column two;

2-3 sentences].

5) Answer this question after you have discussed it in class.

What led to the downfall of both the Roman and Han societies? Which society

eventually revived and restored its imperial tradition? Why do you think this happened?

(Hint: Think of how the Mandate of Heaven impacted Chinese thought).




Continue on to chapters 7 and 8.

Chapter 7 questions. Answer each of these questions in a complete sentence. All work must be typed.

Foundations of Indian Civilization (p.174)


  1. Monsoons have a dramatic effect on India. When does the southwest monsoon begin?

How does this effect agriculture? Which crops are grown due to monsoon rainfall? (p.174)

  1. What does Varna mean? What are the four main castes of Hinduism? (p.177)

Which group is outside of this hierarchy? Draw the hierarchy.

  1. Describe gender roles and status at this time. (This starts on the last paragraph on p.177)

  2. Who was Siddhartha Gautama? What class was he born into? How did this

change? What religion did he start? What are its core beliefs? List them. (p.180)

Imperial Expansion and Collapse (p.183)


  1. When was the Mauryan empire? List its main achievements.

  2. Explain the achievements of Ashoka. (p.184)

  3. When and why did the Mauryan Empire end?

  4. When did the Gupta Empire come to power? When did it fall?

  5. Describe the cultural growth under the Gupta.

  6. Describe the Gupta’s government. (p.186)

  7. Explain the technological developments under the Gupta. What did scientists,

astronomers and mathematicians develop?

  1. What was sati? (p.187 )

  2. Describe the gender roles of higher status women.

  3. Describe the Gupta trade routes. What served as a medium of exchange? (p.187)



Southeast Asia (p.190)


1) Define the term swidden agriculture. When did people in this region start

practicing this method of farming? (p.190 under Early Civilization)

2) Describe the impact of Hindu and Buddhist cultures on Southeast Asia.

3) Refer to the caption under the picture of the monument at Borobodur on page 193. What do the ten

levels represent?
Conclusion (read pages 194-195 and answer these questions)

1) Which factors led to the spread of Indian culture?

2) Which advanced technologies did India possess? In which area did it make

a profound contribution?


Chapter 8 Text Book Questions. Answer each of these questions in a complete sentence. All work must be typed.
The Silk Road (p.203)

1) Refer to the picture on page 205. Which animal did the Chinese breed to facilitate Silk Road

travel? Why did caravans often travel in the winter?

2) Which manufactured goods was China best known for? (p.205 last paragraph)

3) What was major impact of Silk Road trade? (p.206)

4) Which invention made riding easier? (p.206)


The Indian Ocean (p.207) Note: IOMS means Indian Ocean Maritime System

1) What was the IOMS? Which lands did it embrace?

2) Contrast the differences between Mediterranean sailors and IOMS sailors.

3) How did the populations on the Arabian coasts of the IOMs differ with those of the Indian

coast?

~continue on the next page~



Routes Across the Sahara (p.210)

1) By 1100 CE, what was transported over the trans-Saharan caravan routes?

2) What does Saharan cave art tell us about past civilizations in this region? What caused this

to change.

3) Scholars believe that camels came to the Sahara from _____________.

4) What is the Sahel?

5) Where was the kingdom of Ghana?

Note: Ghana means War Chief. Ghana became powerful due to the fact that it traded

gold for salt (from the north).
Sub-Saharan Africa (p.216)

1) What is sub-Saharan Africa? (p.216) What are steppes? What are savannas? (p.217)

2) What are Great traditions? What are Small traditions? (p.217)

3) The Sahara turned dry between 5000 BCE and 2500 BCE. As a consequence, where did the

region’s population migrate/

4) Who were the Bantu? Where were they from? Where did they migrate to?

5) Which metal did the Bantu smelt?

Spread of Ideas (p.219)

1) Where and how did Buddhism spread?



AP HISTORY

SUMMER WORK


2011

Summer work deadline:

These chapter assignments are based on the text book, The Earth and Its Peoples. They are due on August 12, 2011. Place them in a folder, staple them, and give them to the secretary in the Main Office. The secretary will place these assignments in my mailbox. These chapter assignments must be typed in 12 point font. Please keep backup copies for yourself! Since this counts for a significant part of your first quarter grade, you must complete the work to remain in the course.


Summer Work Rationale: There is an enormous amount of content in this course. It essentially covers two college classes: World History I and World History II. If we did not assign the summer work, it would be nearly impossible to learn the material in an appropriate manner.
I look forward to an exciting year!
Teacher: Mr. Glen Cummings

glen_cummings@eastiron.monroe.edu







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