Ap government Study Guide Unit One: Constitutional Underpinnings

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Alliance (or issue) network: coalitions of interest groups, members of Congress, and bureaucrats form a close working relationship (more complicated than a simple iron triangle)

  • Deregulation: removing government restrictions and regulations; deregulation has occurred recently in the telecommunications and transportation industries

  • The bureaucracy has 3 main roles:

    1. Implementation – carry out laws, executive orders (homeland security enforces airport security laws)

    2. Administration – routine administrative work (social security administration sends out social security checks, postal service delivers mail)

    3. Regulation – issue rules and regulations that impact the public (EPA sets out standards for clean air and water)

    The Structure of the Bureaucracy




    Cabinet Departments

    Comprised of the 15 main departments. Headed up by secretaries, secretaries are appointed by president, confirmed by senate. Each has its own budget

    Department of Defense

    Department of Treasury

    Department of State

    Independent Executive Agencies

    Perform services on behalf of government. These are established by Congress outside of the Executive Branch

    Social Security Administration

    Central Intelligence Agency

    Environmental Protection Agency

    Independent Regulatory Commissions

    Regulate economic activities, operate independently. Once appointed, leaders cannot be removed without cause. Leaders serve fixed terms

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