Ap government Study Guide Unit One: Constitutional Underpinnings

Political Action Committees (PACs) –

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Political Action Committees (PACs) – Financial branch of an interest group (the part of the business that donates money)

  • 527 Groups – Tax exempt organization created to influence the nomination/election of a candidate

  • Currently, groups are free to spend infinite amounts of money on issue advocacy, as long as they do not say the name of a specific candidate

    Proposed Campaign Financing Reforms

    • Public Financing

    • Limit expenditures

    • Free TV ads

    • Shorten Campaign Season

    Unit Four: Institutions: Presidency and Congress


    • Congress has two bodies, the House and the Senate, in order for a bill to pass it must be passed by both houses

    • After a congressmen proposes a bill, the Speaker (in the house) or the Majority leader (Senate) gives that bill to a committee, which gives it to a subcommittee

    • Congress holds hearings to oversee the executive

    • Incumbents have great chances of wining reelection

    • Has power to create executive agencies (for example the clean air and water act established the EPA)

    • Authorizes and appropriates money for the executive

    • Approves the budget

    How they Vote

    • Sometimes politicians “trade” votes, a process known as logrolling

    • Politicians like to add on extra, unrelated programs to bills that will benefit their constituents, these additions are known as pork barrel spending

    The House of Representatives
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