Ap european History Unit 6 – The Industrial Revolution – Chapter 22 Pages 829-856



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Unit 6 – The Industrial Revolution – Chapter 22 - Pages 829-856.

  • The Industrial Revolution

  • Essay Question: Analyze ways in which the Industrial Revolution altered the social fabric of European society.

  • DBQ: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/ap/students/eurohistory/euro_hist_frq_02.pdf

  • Overview of the Industrial Revolution

  • Machines began to replace significantly human and animal power in the production and manufacturing of goods.

  • The use of the steam engine for producing textiles in the 1780s was the turning point.

  • Europe gradually transitioned from an agricultural and commercial society into a modern industrial society.

  • As late as the 1830s only a small fraction of British working people were employed in factories.

  • By mid-19th century, industrialism had spread all across Europe.

  • The economic changes of the “Industrial Revolution” did more than any other movement to revolutionize life in Europe and western civilization.

  • Not since the development of agriculture during Neolithic times had there been such a radical change in society.

  • Roots of the Industrial Revolution

  • Commercial Revolution (1500-1700)

  • Spurred great economic growth of Europe and brought about the Age of Exploration

  • Price Revolution” (inflation) stimulated production as producers could get more money for their goods.

  • Bourgeoisie acquired much of their wealth from trading and manufacturing

  • Rise of Capitalism

  • Increased use of surplus money for investment in ventures to make a profit.

  • The middle class came to provide the leadership for the economic revolution (e.g. chartered companies and joint-stock companies).

  • Scientific Revolution produced the first wave of mechanical inventions and technological advances.

  • Increase in Europe’s population provided larger markets

  • Proto-industrialization: the Cottage Industry

  • Rural industry was a major pillar of Europe’s growing economy in the 18th century

  • Rural population eager to supplement its income

  • Merchants in cities sought cheap rural labor rather than paying guild members in towns higher fees

  • Thus, early industrial production was “put out” into the countryside: the “putting-out system”

  • Manufacturing with hand tools in peasant cottages came to challenge the urban craft industry

  • Cottage industry

  • Merchant-capitalist would provide raw materials (e.g. raw wool) to a rural family who produced a finished or semi-finished product and sent it back to the merchant for payment

  • Cottage workers were usually paid by the number of pieces they produced

  • Merchants would sell the finished product for profit

  • Wool cloth was the most important product

  • The Cottage industry was essentially a family enterprise.

  • Work of four or five spinners needed to keep one weaver steadily employed.

  • Husband and wife constantly tried to find more thread and more spinners.

  • Sometimes, families subcontracted work to others

  • Problems with the cottage industry

  • Constant disputes between cottagers and merchants occurred over weights of materials and quality of cloth.

  • Rural labor was unorganized and difficult for merchants to control.

  • Merchant-capitalists thus searched for more efficient methods of production resulting in growth of factories and the industrial revolution.

  • Results

  • Thousands of poor rural families were able to supplement their incomes

  • Unregulated production in the countryside resulted in experimentation and the diversification of goods

  • Goods included textiles, knives, forks, housewares, buttons, gloves, clocks and musical instruments

  • The cottage industry flourished first in England

  • Spinning and weaving of woolen cloth was most important

  • In 1500, half of England’s textiles were produced in the countryside; by 1700, that percentage was higher

  • The putting-out system in England spread later to Continental countries (e.g. France and Germany)

  • Proto-industrialism technology (prior to the steam engine)

  • 1733, John Kay: flying shuttle enabled weaver to throw shuttle back and forth between threads with one hand.

  • Cut manpower needs on looms in half; only one person needed to operate a loom.

  • 1764, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny which mechanized the spinning wheel.

  • Hand operated; simple and inexpensive.

  • Early models had between six to 24 spindles mounted to a sliding carriage; each spindle spun thread.

  • Usually worked by women who moved the carriage back and forth with one hand and turned a wheel to supply power with the other.

  • Spinners now outpaced weavers (usually the husband).

  • 1769, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, which improved thread spinning.

  • Several hundred spindles on a machine required water power.

  • Required large specialized factories that employed as many as 1,000 workers.

  • Produced coarse, strong thread, which was then put out for re-spinning on hand-powered spinning jennies.

  • 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule which combined the best features of the spinning jenny and the water frame.

  • Resulted in all cotton spinning gradually being done in factories.

  • England was the first country to industrialize

  • Began in 1780s (not complete until 1830 at the earliest)

  • Had no impact on continental Europe until after the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815)

  • Economic and Social factors

  • Land and geography

  • Geographic isolation from the Continent offered protection and separation from many of the continental wars

  • Good supply of coal and iron

  • Wales and Northern England important sources

  • Foreign assistance not required

  • Waterways offered a source of alternate power for factories and navigable transport for trade and communication.

  • No part of England was more than 20 miles from navigable water.

  • Much cheaper to ship goods by water than by land.

  • Industrial Revolution grew out of England’s expanding role in the Atlantic economy of the 18th century.

  • The growth of the Royal Navy and the development of ports provided protection from foreign invasion and later aided Britain’s commercial empire.

  • Agricultural Revolution was vital to the Industrial Revolution.

  • Supply of cheap and abundant labor emerged as the enclosure movement forced many landless farmers to move to towns and cities

  • The revolution in agriculture made it possible for fewer farmers to feed larger numbers of people.

  • British population doubled in the 18th century.

  • Demand for goods within the country increased

  • More people were freed up to work in factories (the industrial proletariat) or in the distribution of other goods and services

  • People were free to move around in search of land or other forms of employment.

  • Rural wage earners were relatively mobile

  • Feudalism was reduced significantly and serfdom had long since been abolished

  • Large supplies of capital were available due to over two centuries of profitable commercial activity

  • England avoided many costly continental wars

  • British merchants and gentry had had prospered during the numerous wars on the continent.

  • Establishment by the gov’t of the Bank of England in 1694—the central bank

  • Insurance companies, like Lloyd’s of London, provided some degree protection from commercial failure.

  • Entrepreneurs

  • Class of inventive highly-motivated people who possessed technological skill and were willing to take risks.

  • Many young men from the gentry undertook careers in business.

  • Members of the middle class could rise into the nobility from the wealth created in business.

  • Calvinists in the middle class were driven by the “Protestant work ethic”

  • Colonial Empire

  • Gave Britain access to raw materials needed for development of many industries.

  • Growing market for English goods occurred in its colonies, buttressed by the African slave trade.

  • Role of government

  • Gov’t was sympathetic to industrial development and well-established financial institutions were ready to make loans available.

  • Limited monarchy meant that gov’t did not stifle the growth and expansion of the middle class as was the case in French and Russian societies.

  • Stable government

  • Successful outcome of wars did not leave England devastated (as was the case with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe)

  • Rise of the House of Commons became an instrument of the middle class to gain gov’t cooperation and secured middle class loyalty.

  • In contrast, the French middle classes had led revolutionary movements.

  • Parliamentary legislation was favorable towards growth of industry.

  • Bubble Act repealed which again allowed for the creation of joint stock companies.

  • Lowes Act: Allowed for limited liability for business owners

  • Repeal of the Navigation Acts and the Corn Laws decreased mercantilism’s stifling effect in certain industries

  • A growing demand for textiles led to the creation of the world’s first large factories.

  • Constant shortage of thread in the textile industry focused attention on ways of improving spinning.

  • Inventions of proto-industrialization facilitated increased production

  • The steam engine’s application to textile production was perhaps the key event of the industrial revolution

  • 1780s, Richard Arkwright used the steam engine to power the looms and required factory production of textiles.

  • 1784, Edmund Cartwright invented a loom that was powered by horses, water, or steam.

  • Metallurgical industries flourished as they provided the machinery

  • Results of new technology

  • By 1790, new machines produced 10X as much cotton yarn as in 1770.

  • By 1800, production of cotton thread was England’s most important industry.

  • By 1850, England produced more than ½ world’s cotton cloth.

  • In 1820, cotton almost ½ of Britain’s exports

  • Cotton goods became much cheaper, and were enjoyed by all classes.

  • Poor people could now afford to wear cotton slips and underwear.

  • Steam engines and coal

  • The use of coal to power steam engines was one of the hallmarks of the industrial revolution.

  • This revolution in energy involved a transition from wood-burning to coal-burning.

  • Prior to 1780, processed wood (charcoal) was the fuel mixed with iron ore in the blast furnace to produce pig iron.

  • Much of England as well as parts of Europe were experiencing deforestation.

  • Coal

  • Provided steam power used in many industries.

  • By 1850, England produced 2/3 of world's coal.

  • The steam engine

  • Thomas Savory (1698) and Thomas Newcomen (1705) invented the steam pump to pump water out of mines.

  • Both engines were extremely inefficient.

  • Used to replace mechanical pumps powered by animals

  • James Watt in 1769 invented and patented the first efficient steam engine.

  • By the late 1780s, the steam engine was used regularly in production in England.

  • The steam engine was the most fundamental advance in technology.

  • Steam-power began to replace water power in cotton-spinning mills during the 1780s as well as other mills (e.g. flour, malt and flint)

  • Radical transformations occurred in manufacturing and transportation.

  • The iron industry was radically transformed by steam power.

  • Rising supplies of coal boosted iron production and gave rise to heavy industry: the manufacture of machinery and materials used in production

  • Iron makers switched over rapidly from charcoal to coke in smelting of pig iron.

  • Henry Cort, in 1780s, developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke.

  • Cort also developed heavy-duty steam-powered rolling mills capable of shaping finished iron into any shape or form.

  • By 1850, England produced more than half of world’s iron.

  • Transportation Revolution

  • Made possible by steam power.

  • Necessary to distribute finished goods as well as deliver raw materials to factories.

  • New canal systems

  • Duke of Bridgewater important in development.

  • Canals important in completing basic needs of related interdependent industries: railroad, steel, coal industries

  • Construction of hard-surfaced roads pioneered by John McAdam (1756-1836)

  • Significantly improved land travel

  • 1807, Robert Fulton’s steamboat, the Clermont, traveled up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany.

  • Used an imported Boulton and Watt steam engine.

  • Made 2-way river travel possible and travel on the high seas faster.

  • 1838, first steamship crossed the Atlantic Ocean.

  • Railroad

  • 1803, first steam wagon was used on streets of London

  • 1812, steam wagon was adapted for use on rails.

  • 1825, George Stephenson made railway locomotive commercially successful.

  • By 1829, the locomotive was widely used in England.

  • In 1830, his locomotive, the Rocket, traveled the Liverpool-Manchester Railway at 16mph.

  • World’s first important railroad as it was in heart of industrial England.

  • Many private companies were quickly organized to build more rail lines in the 1840s

  • Impact of the railroad:

  • Greatly reduced cost of shipping freight on land

  • Resulted in growing regional and national market spurring increased industrial productivity to meet larger demand.

  • Facilitated the growth of urban working class who came from the countryside.

  • Many cottage workers, farm laborers, and small peasants worked building railroads.

  • After rail lines were built, many traveled on railroads to towns looking for work.

  • Great Britain in 1850

  • Produced 2/3 of world’s coal.

  • Produced more than ½ of world’s iron.

  • Produced more than ½ of world’s cotton cloth.

  • GNP rose between 1801 and 1850 350%

  • 100% growth between 1780 and 1800.

  • Population increased from 9 million in 1780 to almost 21 million in 1851.

  • Per capita income increased almost 100% between 1801 and 1851.

  • Economy increased faster than population growth creating higher demand for labor.

  • The Crystal Palace was built for the 1851 international exhibit.

  • It was intended to signify Britain’s industrial, economic and military power.

  • It is about 1/3 mile long and about 800,000 square feet inside the structure.

  • Continental Europe began to industrialize after 1815.

  • Parts of the Continent were not far behind Britain industrially in the 1780s.

  • Cottage industry thrived in certain regions

  • Some British manufacturing techniques were copied by certain Continental countries

  • The Napoleonic wars hindered the industrial growth of continental European nations.

  • Disrupted trade, created runaway inflation, and reduced consumer demand.

  • Continental access to British machinery and technology was reduced.

  • By 1815, the continental countries lagged much further behind industrially than in 1789.

  • Britain dominated world markets during the wars.

  • British technology too advanced for most continental engineers and skilled technicians to understand.

  • Technology of steam power was expensive and required large amounts of capital.

  • Continental entrepreneurs struggled to acquire large amounts of capital.

  • Shortage of factory workers.

  • Landowners and gov’t officials did little to encourage industrial growth.

  • After 1815, continental Europe began catching up to Britain

  • Studied Britain’s costly mistakes during early industrialization and avoided them.

  • Industrialization differed in each country after 1815

  • Belgium, Holland, France, and U.S. began their industrial revolutions in the 2nd decade of the 19th century.

  • Germany, Austria, and Italy in mid-19th century.

  • By 1900, Germany was the most powerful industrial country in Europe

  • Eastern Europe and Russia industrialized near the end of the 19th century.

  • Borrowed British technology, hired British engineers, and gained British capital.

  • Used power of strong sovereign central governments and banking systems to promote native industry.

  • Belgium: in 1830s, pioneered the organization of big corporations with many stockholders.

  • Banks used money to develop industries and thus became industrial banks.

  • Banks in France and Germany became important in the 1850s in developing railroads and companies in heavy industries.

  • Crédit Mobilier of Paris was the most famous.

  • Helped build railroads all over France and Europe.

  • Britain was unsuccessful in maintaining a monopoly on technical advances.

  • Until 1825, it was illegal for artisans and skilled mechanics to leave Britain.

  • Until 1843, export of textile machinery and other equipment forbidden.

  • Yet, many emigrated illegally and introduced new methods abroad.

  • Tariff policies were used to protect native industries on the continent.

  • France responded by enacting high tariffs on many British imports.

  • France had been flooded by inexpensive and superior British goods

  • 1834, the Zollverein was a German tariff on non-German imports established to encourage capital investment in German industry

  • Established a free trade zone among member states and a single uniform tariff was levied against foreign countries.

  • Most significant result was increased production and availability of manufactured goods.

  • Social implications of the Industrial Revolution.

  • Replaced the traditional social hierarchy with a new social order.

  • 19th century became the golden age of the middle class.

  • A new class of factory owners emerged in this period: the bourgeoisie.

  • Two levels of bourgeoisie existed:

  • Upper bourgeoisie: great bankers, merchants and industrialists who demanded free enterprise and high tariffs.

  • Lower bourgeoisie (“petite bourgeoisie”): small industrialists, merchants, and professional men who demanded stability and security from the government.

  • New opportunities for certain groups emerged.

  • Artisans and skilled workers who were highly talented achieved significant success.

  • Certain ethnic and religious groups became successful

  • Quakers and Scots in England.

  • Protestants and Jews dominated banking in Catholic France.

  • As factories grew larger, opportunities for advancement declined in well-developed industries.

  • Capital-intensive industry made it harder for skilled artisans to become wealthy manufacturers

  • Formal education thus became more important as a means of social advancement (but the cost was often prohibitive to those below the middle class)

  • In England by 1830 and Germany in 1860, leading industrialists were more likely to have inherited their businesses.

  • Proletariat wage earners

  • Factory workers emerged as a new group in society and the fastest-growing social class: the “proletariat”

  • During the first century of the industrial revolution a surplus of labor resulted in poor conditions for workers.

  • Hours in factories as much as 14 hours a day, occasionally more; few holidays.

  • Working conditions were often brutal and unsafe

  • Low wages, particularly for women and children

  • Poorhouses emerged to provide work to those who were unemployed

  • Poorhouse conditions were often intentionally oppressive.

  • A major goal was to persuade workers to leave the poorhouse and find work elsewhere

  • Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) lashed out at the middle classes in his The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844).

  • Future revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx who believed the capitalist middle class ruthless exploited the proletariat

  • I charge the English middle classes with mass murder, wholesale robbery, and all the other crimes in the calendar.”

  • His ideas influenced Marx and later socialists.

  • The issues of working conditions, wages, and quality of life led to struggles between labor and capital.

  • For workers and ordinary families, the long-term impact of the Industrial Revolution was more favorable than negative.

  • Significant advancement from pattern of pre-industrial life

  • Material prosperity in England increased due to availability of cheaper high-quality goods and because increased consumption led to more jobs.

  • Wages:

  • Between 1820 and 1850, real wages and consumption of the average worker rose by almost 50%.

  • Only 5% between 1780 and 1820.

  • Skilled British workers earned about twice that of unskilled workers in agriculture.

  • However, the average work week increased

  • Workers ate better and quality and quantity of clothing improved

  • Housing did not improve for working people and in fact, may have deteriorated somewhat.

  • Until 1850, workers as a whole did not share in the general wealth produced by the Industrial Revolution.

  • Economic conditions of European workers improved after 1850.

  • Luddites

  • A violent group of irate workers who blamed industrialism for threatening their jobs

  • Beginning in 1812 and continuing thereafter, attacked factories in northern England destroying new machines they believed were putting them out of work.

  • Union Movement

  • Certain leaders began organizing groups of workers to resist exploitation of the proletariat by business owners

  • Combination Acts (1799)

  • Parliament prohibited labor unions

  • Reaction to fear of radicalism in the French Revolution.

  • Widely disregarded by workers.

  • Repealed in 1824 and unions became more tolerated after 1825.

  • Robert Owen (1771-1858) in 1834, organized the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union.

  • Scottish industrialist who pioneered industrial relations by combining firm discipline with a concern for the health, safety, and work hours of workers.

  • After 1815, experimented with utopian cooperative/socialist communities

  • His and other unionization efforts failed and British labor movement moved once again after 1851 in the direction of craft unions.

  • Craft unions won benefits for their members.

  • Means were fairly conservative and became accepted part of industrial scene.

  • Chartists sought political democracy.

  • Organized in the face of Owen’s national trade union collapse.

  • Demanded that all men have the right to vote.

  • Sought to change what they saw as an oppressive economic system of exploitation.

  • Unions campaigned for 10 hour days and to permit duty-free imports of wheat into Britain to secure cheap bread (in response to the oppressive Corn Laws that were passed in 1815).

  • Union action, combined with general prosperity and a developing social conscience, led to improved working conditions, better wages, and reduced work hours.

  • Skilled labor benefited earlier and to a larger extent than unskilled labor.

  • Changes in working conditions

  • Factory work meant more discipline and lost personal freedom.

  • Work became impersonal

  • Cottage workers reluctant to work in factories even for decent wages because the environment was so different from what they were used to.

  • Early factories resembled English poorhouses, where destitute people went to live on welfare.

  • Some poorhouses were industrial prisons

  • Child labor exploitation.

  • Causes for increased child labor

  • More agricultural workers became weavers as they were paid relatively well.

  • English factories scared off many potential workers as they resembled the poorhouses.

  • Factory owners thus turned to child labor.

  • Abandoned children became a main source of labor from local parishes and orphanages.

  • Owners exercised authority over children much like slave-owners.

  • Work hours were very long and conditions were appalling.

  • Children worked as chimney sweeps, market girls, shoemakers, etc.

  • Child exploitation was not new, however.

  • Children were doing much of same work they did traditionally in the cottage industry.

  • Conditions in factories only appeared worse.

  • Child labor was actually coming to an end as the industrial revolution matured.

  • Children & parents typically worked 12 hour days

  • Many families were unwilling to allow their family members to be separated.

  • Families came as a unit to work the mills and mines.

  • Working together made working long hours more tolerable.

  • In cotton mills, children worked for mothers or fathers, collecting waste and “piecing” broken thread together.

  • In the mines, children sorted coal and worked ventilation equipment.

  • Mothers hauled coal in narrow tunnels to the surface.

  • Fathers mined the seam.

  • Adult workers not necessarily eager to limit minimum working age or hours of their children, as long as they worked together.

  • Yet, parents did protest inhumane treatment of their children

  • Parliament sought to limit child labor.

  • The Saddler Commission investigated working conditions helped initiate legislation to improve conditions in factories.

  • Factory Act of 1833:

  • Limited workday for children ages 9-13 to 8 hrs. per day

  • Limited hours of ages 14-18 to 12 hours.

  • Prohibited hiring children under age 9; children were to go to elementary schools factory owners were required to establish

  • Ironically, helped destroy the pattern of families working together.

  • Employment of children declined rapidly.

  • Mines Act of 1842:

  • prohibited all boys and girls under age 10 from working underground.


  • Social Effects of Industrialization

  • Urbanization was the most important sociological effect.

  • Largest population transfer in human history.

  • Birth of factory towns; cities grew into large industrial centers: e.g. Manchester

  • Prior to the industrial revolution, most people lived in the south of England.

  • Coal and iron located in the Midlands and north

  • 1785, only 3 cities with more than 50,000 people existed in England and Scotland.

  • By 1820, 31 British cities had 50,000 or more.

  • Role of the city changed in the 19th century from governmental and cultural centers, to industrial centers.

  • Although living conditions did not differ much from those on farms, the concentration of the population made them appear worse.

  • Workers began to unite for political action, to remedy their economic dissatisfaction.

  • Reformers sought to improve life in cities

  • Working class injustices, gender exploitation and standard-of-living issues became the 19th century’s great social and political dilemmas.

  • Family structure and gender roles within the family were altered.

  • Families as an economic unit were no longer the chief unit of both production and consumption

  • New wage economy meant that families were less closely bound together than in the past.

  • Productive work was taken out of the home

  • As factory wages for skilled adult males rose, women & children were separated from the workplace.

  • Gender-determined roles at home and domestic life emerged slowly.

  • Married women came to be associated with domestic duties, while men tended to be the sole wage earner.

  • Women were now expected to create a nurturing environment to which the family members returned after work.

  • Married women worked outside the home only when family needs, illness or death of a spouse required them to do so.

  • Single women and widows had much work available, but that work commanded low wages and low skills and provided no way to protect themselves from exploitation.

  • Irish workers increasingly came to Great Britain and became urban workers.

  • Many Irish were forced out of rural Ireland by population growth and increasingly poor economic conditions.

  • The Industrial Revolution may have stemmed human catastrophes resulting from population growth.

  • Overpopulation and rural poverty most severe in Ireland.

  • Ireland did not industrialize in 19th century and stands as an example of what may have occurred in other parts of Europe.

  • Irish Potato Famine

  • Most of the population was Irish Catholic peasants.

  • Rented land from a tiny minority of Anglicans, many of whom lived in England.

  • Most lived in abject poverty around 1800.

  • Protestant landlords did not improve agriculture in Ireland.

  • Disease in potato crop continued to increase along with accompanying fever epidemics.

  • In 1845 & 46 and again in 1848 & 1851, the potato crop failed in Ireland and much of Europe.

  • Higher food prices, widespread suffering, and social unrest ensued.

  • Result of the Great Famine

  • At least 1.5 million people died or went unborn.

  • 1 million fled Ireland between 1845 and 1851; 2 million left between 1840 and 1855.

  • Most went to U.S. or Britain.

  • By 1911, Irish population only 4.4 million compared with 8 million in 1845.

  • British government response to crisis inadequate.

  • Rapid population growth, as in Ireland, without industrialization may have led to similar results in other parts of Europe as in Irish potato famine.

  • e.g. Central Russia, western Germany, and southern Italy were vulnerable: overpopulation, acute poverty, and reliance on the potato.

  • A historical debate on the industrial revolution

  • Capitalists view it as a positive step toward fulfilling human wants and needs.

  • The Industrial Revolution provided power to replace back-breaking human labor.

  • Wealth available for human consumption increased.

  • Vast amounts of food, clothing and energy were produced and distributed to the workers of the world.

  • Luxuries were made commonplace.

  • Life-expectancy increased

  • Leisure time made more enjoyable.

  • Human catastrophe, like Ireland, was largely avoided in areas experiencing industrialization.

  • Socialists and communists view it as the further exploitation of the have-nots by the haves.

  • Workers did not begin to share in dramatic increase in standard of living until 2nd half of 19th century due to low wages, poor working conditions, etc.

  • During 1st century of industrialism the wealth created went almost exclusively to the entrepreneur and the owner of capital—the middle class.



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