Ap european History Exam, Unit 8

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AP European History

Exam, Unit 8

1. "Society is like a plant; it cannot be made and remade by proclamations on pieces of paper. We should not tear down that which has usefully served its purpose for so long. Individual man is foolish but the species is wise." Who would be most likely to make this statement?

a. Brothers Grimm

b. Giuseppe Mazzini

c. Edmund Burke

d. John Stuart Mill

e. Charles Fourier
2. English economic expansion was threatened in the eighteenth century by a rapidly diminishing supply of:

a. peat

b. wood

c. coal

d. oil

e. water power

3. Which of the following would be considered the most radical response to the Industrial Revolution?

a. laissez-faire

b. trade unionism

c. Chartism

d. Factory Acts

e. Marxism
4. A key difference in the industrialization of the European continent compared to that of Great Britain in the nineteenth century was:

a. the importance of technological innovation

b. the lack of population growth

c. the slow pace of growth

d. the decisive role played by government

e. the near-absence of corresponding social problems

5. What economic institution played a major role in the first half of the nineteenth century in laying the groundwork for future German political unity.

a. trade unions

b. Zollverein

c. the German Confederation

d. the Burschenschaften

e. The Rhineland Industrial Union

6. Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill both wrote:

a. critiques of the French Revolution

b. tracts on liberty and the rights of women

c. Utopian novels

d. polemics against alcohol consumption

e. satires of George III of England

7. The best explanation for the emergence of professional police forces in the nineteenth century is:

a. a humanitarian impulse to provide for the security of urban workers

b. a need to find jobs for unemployed coal miners

c. a fear by the middle classes of proletarian upheaval

d. a desire by states to subvert revolutionary violence through spies

e. new employment opportunities for nobles who had lost their titles

8. The graph above depicts the lengths, from longest to shortest, of the railway systems of:

a. the United Kingdom, the Italian states, France

b. the United Kingdom, the German states, France

c. the German states, the United Kingdom, the Italian states

d. France, the German states, the Italian states

e. France, the United Kingdom, the German states

9. Which set of technological developments were the focus of the First Industrial Revolution?

a. textiles and banks

b. railroads, steel, and mineral power

c. cottage industry, water power, and coal

d. iron, dyes, and chemicals

e. steam engine, textiles, and chemicals
10. Disturbances in Belgium, France, Germany, and Italy between 1830 and 1832 can best be explained as manifestations of:

a. religious revivalism in the face of materialism and secularism

b. a communist offensive against the capitalists

c. a crusade by romantic intellectuals to overthrow classicism

d. student campaigns for access to higher education and the professions

e. liberal and nationalist dissatisfaction with the Restoration political order
11. Which of the following is true of the Romantic movement in early nineteenth-century Europe?

a. It opposed emotional exuberance and excess.

b. It shunned the study and writing of history

c. It was, in part, a reaction to the classicism of an earlier period.

d. Among the arts, its influence was felt almost exclusively in music.

e. It emphasized adherence to universally accepted standards in the arts.
12. Which of the following facilitated the counter-revolutionary triumph within the Hapsburg Empire in 1849?

a. The adoption of a new constitution that provided for regional autonomy.

b. The loyalty of the Slavs and the Germans to the monarchy.

c. The neutrality of Serbia.

d. The military intervention of the Ottoman Empire.

e. The lack of cooperation among nationalities in the Hapsburg Empire.
13. The Second French Republic was founded in 1848 but was gone by 1852. What explains its short life?

a. a major economic depression that led to urban riots

b. the weak rule of President Louis Napoleon

c. an invasion by Prussian troops

d. a coup d'etat by radicals who preached the ideals of "'93"

e. ideological divisions within the nation and a fear of renewed disorder
14. The Industrial Revolution was responsible for all of the following developments in Great Britain EXCEPT:

a. an increase in the mobility of the work force

b. the improvement of the transportation network

c. increased emigration to the colonies

d. an increase in annual national income

e. an increase in the number of small landowners
15. Which of the following early nineteenth-century political figures was most closely identified with the concept of "the concert of Europe"?

a. Castlereagh

b. Napoleon I

c. Talleyrand

d. Alexander I

e. Metternich
16. A factor accelerating the British government's repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was the:

a. South Sea Bubble scandal

b. American Revolution

c. Irish potato famine

d. development of relatively inexpensive ocean transport

e. worldwide mechanization of grain farming
17. "In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonism, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all." These words express the ideas of:

a. Alexis de Tocqueville

b. John Locke

c. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

d. Edmund Burke

e. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
18. A major result of the revolutions of 1848 was:

a. the creation of a group of independent yet cooperative nation-states

b. the fulfillment of worker goals of socialism

c. a turn toward conservative nation-building

d. a validation of the Romantic outlook

e. the establishment of a constitution for Russia

19. Prince Klemens von Metternich used the German Confederation to:

a. oppose liberalism and nationalism in Central Europe

b. encourage the penetration of France into the German states

c. prevent British military domination of the European continent

d. aid the spread of radicalism in the German states

e. make Prussia the dominant power among the German states

20. What distinguishes Marxian socialism from utopian socialism?

a. the advocacy of violent revolution

b. opposition to capitalist competition

c. the influence of French revolutionary principles

d. the belief in women's equality

e. the need for class consciousness
21. Which of the following was a major social effect of the early Industrial Revolution?

a. New rhythms of work and leisure

b. Increase of the average age of first marriage

c. Rapid improvement in workers' wages

d. Decline in children's employment opportunities

e. Extensive government efforts to provide public housing
22. He is generally considered to have revolutionized classical music and begun the Romantic movement in music.

a. Beethoven

b. Mozart

c. Berlioz

d. Chopin

e. Haydn
23. Which of the following sets of ideas is most closely associated with Liberalism in the mid nineteenth century?

a. free trade, universal male suffrage, and rule by the bourgeoisie

b. equality of property, republican government, limited suffrage

c. laissez faire, limited suffrage, religious toleration

d. limited suffrage, opposition to organized religion, equality of property

e. state churches, rule by bourgeoisie, limited suffrage
24. Important prerequisites for Great Britain's industrialization in the mid-eighteenth century included which of the following?

a. innovations in agricultural techniques and increases in food production

b. dramatic improvements in workers' housing in the cities

c. a rapid increase in the amount of gold imported from New World colonies

d. rapid growth of a national system of rail transport

e. strong monarchical leadership and a centralized government bureaucracy
25. Which of the following European countries experienced the greatest degree of political instability in the nineteenth century?

a. Austria

b. France

c. Netherlands

d. Prussia

e. Russia

26. All of the following occurred as a result of the settlements reached at the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) EXCEPT:

a. A balance of power was established.

b. Belgium was united with the Netherlands under the House of Orange.

c. The neutrality of Switzerland was recognized.

d. Italy was unified under Sardinian leadership.

e. A personal union between Sweden and Norway was created.

27. In the mid-nineteenth century, industrial growth in Western Europe was significantly stimulated by the:

a. revolutionary movements

b. introduction of assembly-line production

c. investment of United States capital

d. expansion of transportation systems

e. expansion of labor unions


30. The nineteenth-century English cartoon above depicts:

a. the weakening of Great Britain caused by emigration

b. Charles Dickens' David Copperfield

c. the pollution resulting from industrialization

d. British naval losses

e. criminals lurking around British waterways
31.”The young workers seemed to be always cheerful and alert, taking pleasure in the light play of their muscles--enjoying the mobility natural to their age. The scene of industry, so far from exciting sad emotion in my mind, was always exhilarating. It was delightful to observe the nimbleness with which they fixed the broken ends. The work of these lively elves in the factory seemed to resemble sport.” The above passage was most likely written by a:

a. factory worker

b. factory owner

c. factory inspector

d. socialist

e. peasant

32. Which of the following best describes the spirit of the Congress of Vienna?

a. grudging acceptance of the terms submitted by the Girondins

b. reassertion of royal legitimacy and rejection of republicanism

c. concerned only about the preservation of the Holy Roman Empire

d. exacting a ferocious vengeance

e. acceptance of the British ideal of representative government

33. ”Generally speaking, there is no one who knows what is for your interest so well as yourself--no one who is disposed with so much ardor and constancy to pursue it.” The author of the above passage would support which of the following?

a. laissez faire

b. selection taxation to promote industry

c. navigation acts

d. government price supports

e. high tariffs
34. Railways made many significant changes in daily life. These included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. standardized times throughout Europe

b. suburban development

c. regular vacations

d. national newspapers

e. increased taxation
35. The most important sector of the early industrial revolution was:

a. shipbuilding

b. textiles

c. chemicals

d. railways

e. appliances

36. Which of the following cities was unaffected by the revolutions of 1848?

a. Paris

b. London

c. Budapest

d. Berlin

e. Rome

37. The artist of the above painting tried to convey what feeling?

a. the romantic image of lost religious spirit

b. landscape after trench warfare

c. intellectual appreciation for architectural design

d. hope for a glorious future

e. support for Henry VIIIs dissolution of monasteries
38. Nineteenth-century liberalism was most likely to be supported by:

a. monarchs

b. nobles

c. factory workers

d. peasants

e. middle class
39. The main purpose of Metternich’s Concert of Europe was to:

a. support Romantic intellectuals

b. prevent British superiority

c. counter Russian influence

d. provide stability

e. dominate Germany

40. In French political history the years 1814, 1830, and 1848 are known, respectively for the:

a. execution of Louis XVI, the restoration of Bourbons, establishment of the Paris Commune

b. restoration of Bourbons, election of Louis Napoleon as president, establishment of Paris Commune

c. July Revolution of Louis-Philippe, restoration of the Bourbons, founding of the Second Republic

d. restoration of Bourbons, July Revolution of Louis-Philippe, founding of the Second Republic

e. restoration of Bourbons, July Revolution of Louis-Philippe, coronation of Louis Napoleon as emperor

41. Which of the following describes the Carbonari?

a. Members of a union of coal miners

b. Members of a secret revolutionary society

c. A group of tax collectors on the Rhine

d. Members of the Italian Communist Party

e. A select force of the Turkish cavalry

42. Which of the following statements best describes the writers of the Romantic school?

a. They stressed emotion rather than reason.

b. They continued the traditions of the Enlightenment.

c. They were advocates of increased political rights for women.

d. They modeled their work on the classics of Greece and Rome.

e. They based their writing on scientific and mathematical models.
43. “The greatest happiness for the greatest number” was the explicit goal of which of the following movements?

a. Romanticism

b. Utilitarianism

c. Nationalism

d. Anarchism

e. Conservatism

44. The disease most common in industrialized areas of nineteenth-century Europe was:

a. bubonic plague

b. tuberculosis

c. smallpox

d. malaria

e. leprosy

45. Important prerequisites for Great Britain’s industrialization in the mid-eighteenth century included which of the following?

a. Innovations in agricultural techniques and increases in food production

b. Dramatic improvements in workers’ housing in the cities

c. A rapid increase in the amount of gold

d. Rapid growth of a national system of rail transport

e. Strong monarchical leadership and centralized government bureaucracy
46. Which of the following was a common theme among nineteenth-century utopian socialists?

a. support of organized religion

b. rejection of the institution of marriage

c. advocacy of economic and social planning

d. revolutionary overthrow of the existing order

e. promotion of mass political parties
47. In the Communist Manifesto (1848), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels asserted that:

a. technology was evil and would bring more suffering than benefits to the working class

b. capitalism was a necessary stage of economic and social development

c. a socialist revolution was most likely to occur in Russia

d. the goals of nationalism and socialism were inseparable

e. the working class was so oppressed that it was unable to help itself

48. The repeal of the British Corn Laws in 1846 was most strongly opposed by:

a. factory owners

b. wage laborers

c. wealthy landowners

d. religious dissenters

e. shopkeepers

49. The Crystal Palace, shown above, was built in 1851 in London primarily as a:

a. private summer residence for the royal family

b. memorial to those who fought in the Crimean War

c. celebration of British technological and industrial dominance

d. performance hall for musicals and opera

e. museum for artifacts from Africa and Asia
50. “These writers extolled, often in an exaggerated form, the expression of human emotion and the search for the realization of one’s own identity.” The writers described above were associated with which of the following?

a. the Renaissance

b. realism

c. classical Liberalism

d. nationalism

e. Romanticism
51. In early modern Europe, which of the following most directly undermined the guild system?

a. Entrepreneurial expansion of manufacturing into the countryside

b. The increased demand for products from the Far East and the New World, such as spices and silk

c. The imposition of high tariffs on imported goods

d. The use of credit in business transactions

e. The expansion in the supply of precious metals
52. Prior to the expansion of the factory system during the Industrial Revolution, which of the following contributed to the increase in production of manufactured goods?

a. Importation of silk and cotton cloth from the Far East

b. Expansion of the guild system in urban areas

c. Expansion of cottage industries in the countryside

d. Cultivation of formerly fallow lands

e. The completion of railway systems

53. Metternich would have been most in sympathy with the political philosophy of:

a. John Locke

b. Robert Owen

c. Charles Fourier

d. Edmund Burke

e. Giuseppe Mazzini

54. The 1834 Zollverein (Prussian customs union) was designed to do which of the following?

a. Create a common currency

b. Achieve national unification

c. Promote European colonial expansion

d. Create an enlarged trading area

e. Slow the construction of railroads

The Game Laws;

Or, the sacrifice of the peasant to the hare.
55. Which of the following best summarizes the point of this 1842 cartoon about Great Britain’s game laws?

a. The game laws should be enforced only by the king.

b. The punishment for violating the game laws should be enforced more rigorously.

c. The game laws are unjust and reflect outdates social distinctions.

d. Enforcement of the game laws protects animals from overhunting.

e. Poaching game in violation of the law is wrong.
56. A major goal of the English Chartists in the 1840s was:

a. equal distribution of wealth

b. protective tariffs for farm products

c. war with France

d. abolition of the monarchy

e. the vote for all men
57. The Romantic movement in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century Europe was characterized by:

a. reaction against the principles of the Enlightenment

b. contempt for organized religion

c. an interest in science and technology

d. a view of the natural world as a “machine”

e. important discoveries of planetary motion
58. The incentive for the development of large factories associated with England’s early Industrial Revolution was primarily connected with which of the following?

a. The establishment of railroads

b. The increasing demand for weaponry due to imperial warfare

c. The discovery of new methods of iron production

d. The mechanization of the spinning process in textiles

e. The expansion of the canal system

59. The Concert of Europe, which existed between the Congress of Vienna and the outbreak of the Crimean War, operated as a:

a. commonwealth system that sought to promote an economic union of European nations

b. supranational institution that governed the continent of Europe

c. multilateral agency to control territories in the Middle East and Africa

d. loose forum to achieve consensus among the major powers on foreign policy questions

e. cultural exchange program among Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain

60. A major social impact of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain up to 1830 was:

a. the decline of the family as a unit of production

b. the elimination of child labor

c. an improvement in sanitation and living conditions

d. the decline in importance of cities

e. a recognition by governments of the right of workers to strike

61. A major result of the revolutions of 1848 was:

a. the creation of a group of independent yet cooperative nation-states

b. the fulfillment of worker goals of socialism

c. a turn toward conservative nation-building

d. a validation of the Romantic outlook

e. the establishment of a constitution for Russia
62. Which of the following statements is true regarding family life in the period 1750-1850 in Western Europe?

a. there was a significant decline in out-of-wedlock births due to Enlightenment reforms

b. the birthrate increased significantly due to government social welfare programs

c. life expectancy declined due to problems associated with industrialization

d. there was an increased importance placed on child-rearing among the upper classes

e. most nations repealed laws that enforced the legal and economic inferiority of women

63. Which of the following nations experienced a decline in its population in the nineteenth century due to famine, lack of economic development, and massive emigration?

a. Russia

b. Poland

c. Ireland

d. Spain

e. Sweden

64. The above painting of Napoleon Bonaparte by Jacques Louis David can best be described as an example of which of the following styles:

a. Renaissance

b. Baroque

c. Rococo

d. Romantic

e. Realist

65. Which of the following is the best characterization of the impact of industrialization on the family in the first half of the nineteenth century?

a. Working-class wives generally became the primary wage-earners.

b. Class differences in family structures narrowed.

c. For the first time children played a role in household production.

d. The sexual division of labor tended to increase.

e. Protective legislation improved working conditions for women in the home.

“Sir, living as we do in the densely populated manufacturing districts of Lancashire, and most of us of that class of females who earn their bread either directly or indirectly by factories, we have looked with no little anxiety on your proposed Factory Bill. You are doing away with our services in factories altogether. So much the better if you had pointed out any other more eligible and practical employment for the female surplus labor…”
66. The quotation above illustrates what issue created by industrialization in nineteenth-century Great Britain?

a. unhealthy living and working conditions

b. the decline of families as working units

c. unequal wages for men and women

d. the exploitation of child labor

e. the formation of labor unions

67. The graph above best supports which of the following statements?

a. The Industrial Revolution destroyed the standard of living of the working classes.

b. The ideas associated with the Renaissance and the Reformation encouraged the English to have large families.

c. During the eighteenth century, the English population suffered substantially from periodic famines.

d. The English population increased in the seventeenth century despite civil wars and revolution.

e. During the late eighteenth century, the English population grew faster than it had from 1450 to 1600.
“By the charter granted by our late sovereign the framework knitters are empowered to break and destroy all frames and engines that fabricate articles in a fraudulent and deceitful manner.”
68. The quotation above is a formulation of the ideas of which of the following groups?

a. Benthamites

b. Anarchists

c. Socialists

d. Luddites

e. Methodists

69. Which of the following was the immediate cause of the revolutions that occurred in several major European cities in 1848?

a. Metternich’s flight from Vienna

b. The worker demonstrations in St. Petersburg against the tsar

c. The dissolution of the Prussian assembly by Otto von Bismarck

d. Food shortages in Great Britain resulting from the Corn Laws

e. The overthrow of Louis-Philippe of France

“The landed interest, the church, the law, the monied interest—all of these have engrossed, as it were, the House of Commons into their own hands, but the interests of industry and trade have scarcely any representatives at all?” --Petition to the English House of Commons, 1816

70. The excerpt above most probably refers to the lack of representation in the House of Commons of which of the following?

a. Women

b. Yeoman farmers

c. The working class

d. The landed aristocracy

e. The upper middle class

71. Caspar David Friedrich’s painting The Wanderer Above the Mists shown above does which of the following?

a. Foreshadows the calamities of twentieth-century warfare.

b. Portrays intellectual detachment in an era of revolutions.

c. Expresses loneliness characteristic of Neoclassical style.

d. Pays tribute to a famous explorer.

e. Typifies Romantic contemplation of nature.
72. Which of the following statements is true regarding western European family life in the period 1750-1850?

a. There was an increased importance placed on child-rearing among the upper classes.

b. There was a significant decline in out-of-wedlock births due to Enlightenment reforms.

c. Life expectancy declined due to the hazards associated with industrialization.

d. The birth rate increased significantly due to government social welfare programs.

e. Most nations repealed laws that enforced the legal and economic inferiority of women.
73. At the Congress of Vienna, a principle that guided the deliberations of the diplomats was:

a. balance of power

b. utilitarianism

c. imperialism

d. self-determination

e. liberalism
74. In the first half of the nineteenth century, which of the following was a field of employment that was exclusively male?

a. Agriculture

b. Teaching

c. The legal profession

d. Domestic service

e. Factory work
75. The system of cottage manufacture (or the “putting-out” system) originated, in part, as a way for entrepreneurs to avoid:

a. capitalism

b. guild regulations

c. church tithes

d. child labor laws

e. mercantilistic export restrictions

76. Which of the following was most central to the development of the early Industrial Revolution?

a. The replacement of iron by steel

b. The shift from human and animal power to mechanical power

c. The substitution of unionized for independent labor

d. The decline of individual enterprise in favor of cooperative efforts

e. The shift from coal to oil-fired forges

77. Which of the following was an important factor leading to the recognition of Greek independence in 1830?

a. Ottoman support of Greek nationalism

b. The decline of the Russian Empire

c. The Serbian revolt

d. Greek dominance of Mediterranean maritime trade

e. European popular opinion inspired by a classical revival
“Up! Up! my Friend and quit your books;

Let nature be your teacher.

One impulse from a vernal wood

May teach you more of man,

Of moral evil and of good

Than all the sages can.

Enough of Science and of Art;

Come forth, and bring with you a heart.”

78. The poem above reflects which of the following?

a. Futurism

b. Existentialism

c. Romanticism

d. Deism

e. Pragmatism
79. The French Le Chapelier Law (1791) and the English Combination Acts (1799-1800) did which of the following?

a. Raised customs taxes on imports

b. Made workers’ organizations illegal

c. Restricted child labor

d. Provided state health care to railway employees

e. Mandated a minimum wage

80. Which of the following escaped the revolutionary outburst of 1848?

a. France

b. Prussia

c. Sweden

d. Rome

e. Austria
81. The British Great Reform Act of 1832 did which of the following?

a. Gave women the right to vote.

b. Granted universal male suffrage.

c. Limited the power of the monarchy.

d. Abolished the right of the House of Lords to veto legislation.

e. Increased the voting power of the middle classes.
82. Urban life in the major European cities during the Industrial Revolution was characterized by

a. rapid social mobility among recent migrants from the countryside

b. overcrowded living conditions and unsafe working conditions for the working poor

c. the adoption of laissez-faire attitudes by industrial workers

d. government control of major industrial companies

e. an increase in the nobility’s power over the urban population

83. One of the first economic unions in modern European history, founded in 1834 by a group of German states, was known as the

a. Kulturkampf

b. League of Augsburg

c. Zollverein

d. Confederation of the Rhine

e. Concert of Europe
84. European liberals in the first half of the nineteenth century typically supported

a. women’s suffrage

b. accident and unemployment insurance

c. the right of workers to unionize and strike

d. a written constitution and wider suffrage

e. the establishment of overseas colonies to improve conditions at home

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