14. The chart above depicts the process of urbanization in:
b. Great Britain
e. Spain and Portugal
15. All of the following statements regarding changes that occurred in religious life of Western Europe between 1870 and 1914 are true EXCEPT:
a. Many Protestant groups became divided between fundamentalists and modernists.
b. The Roman Catholic Church was slower to adapt to cultural change than were Protestant groups.
c. Most Jewish communities rejected urbanization and assimilation.
d. The status of religion generally in Western Europe was undermined by growing materialism.
e. Churches' traditional role in education and social welfare was being taken over by the state.
16. Which of the following best describes an important trend in typical family size in Western Europe after 1870?
a. It increased in urban areas due to improvements in public health and housing for workers.
b. It decreased in working-class families due to legislation limiting child labor.
c. It decreased sharply because of chronic food shortages.
d. It decreased initially in the middle classes because of the increased costs of rearing children.
e. It remained unchanged because of massive emigration overseas.
"Where liberal parties, now liberal only in name, remained in power, they embraced protectionism and imperialism, undertook social regulation, and retained from the old liberal creed only opposition to the extension of the franchise and to the church."
17. In what era did the developments described in the passage most probably take place?
e. 1880-1905 18. Which of the following factors best explains the transformation and decline of liberalism described in the above passage?
a. The continued deference of peasants to aristocratic influence
b. The rise of industrial society and of mass political movements
c. The general decline in literacy rates
d. The inability of laissez-faire economics to uproot traditional communal agriculture and guilds
e. A strong popular reaction against liberal anti-clericalism
19. Which of the following ideas did Darwin draw on in developing his theories of evolution?
a. The Romantics' ideas about the importance of heroic individuals
b. The scientific view that species are eternal and unchanging
c. The Biblical account of creation in Genesis
d. Nineteenth-century theories of racial superiority
e. The population theories of Thomas Malthus 20. The immediate cause of the 1905 Russian Revolution was social strain resulting from:
a. the agitation of the Russian Social Democratic party
b. the mass emigration of skilled workers to the New World
c. attempts by the government to reform the Russian Orthodox Church
d. the demands of ethnic groups for political autonomy
e. Russian losses in the Russo-Japanese War 21. When Sigmund Freud remarked that "in mental life nothing which has once been formed can perish," he meant that:
a. human beings are rational creatures
b. human beings can remember and recall all experiences at will
c. all mental acts are conscious mental acts
d. the unconscious preserves unpleasant as well as pleasant thoughts
e. The creation of the Duma 40. Which of the following advocated an evolutionary, as opposed to a revolutionary, theory of Marxism?
a. Eduard Bernstein
b. V.I. Lenin
c. Rosa Luxembourg
d. Joseph Stalin
e. Karl Marx
41. The revolution in understanding the nature, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases was largely due to the discoveries of:
a. Darwin, Huxley, and Wallace
b. Herder, Chateaubriand, and de Stael
c. Weber, Lombroso, and Nietzsche
d. Durkheim, Pavlov, and Mendel
e. Jenner, Lister, and Pasteur 42. “I accuse the war office of having led a vile campaign in the press in order to misdirect public opinion and over up its sins. I accuse the first court-martial of having violated all human rights in condemning a prisoner on testimony kept secret from him.” This quotation above by Emile Zola was written to:
a. protest against the trials of the Jacobin government during the Reign of Terror
b. defend Napoleon III after defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
c. protect the reputation of General Boulanger
d. challenge the tactics of the French army in colonial campaigns
e. attack the actions of the French military during the Dreyfus Affair 43. In the period between 1871 and 1914, European governments regarded public education for the masses as important primarily because it would:
a. discourage emigration to the New World
b. ensure that children received comprehensive religious instruction
c. ensure that laborers were informed participants in the union movement
d. provide society with well-informed and responsible citizens
e. lead to female suffrage
44. The major reason for the pattern shown in the graph above is:
a. parents’ decision to have smaller families
b. a declining standard of prenatal care for pregnant women
e. The right to civil marriage ceremonies
51. The first European country to develop a state social welfare system was:
a. Great Britain
e. Germany 52. All of the following concepts are associated with Sigmund Freud’s theories of psychoanalysis EXCEPT:
b. early sexuality
c. collective unconscious
d. Oedipus complex
53. "His scientific discoveries relating to disease in the nineteenth century led to the first antiseptics, food purification, and ultimately a higher life expectancy in the twentieth century." Who is the scientist being described?
a. Joseph Lister
b. Marie Curie
c. Louis Pasteur
d. Albert Einstein
e. Gregor Mendel
54. Which of the following is the best characterization of urban life in second half of the nineteenth century in western Europe?
a. standards of living and sanitation rapidly declined as cities grew
b. governments quickly moved in to provide public housing to meet shortages
c. neighborhoods became more divided on the basis of class
d. problems such as prostitution and violence were eliminated through grassroots reform
e. continual working-class riots led to declining economic productivity
55. All of the following represent significant changes in urban life in the period 1870-1914 EXCEPT:
a. municipal provision of public parks and recreation areas
b. the creation of sewage and sanitation systems
c. the destruction of medieval walls and creation of boulevards
d. municipal provision of cultural amenities, such as opera houses and museums
e. government guarantees of public housing for the poor and homeless
56. Which of the following statements best reflects the ideas of Karl Marx?
a. Population grows in geometric progression.
b. Humans share a common ancestry with apes.
c. The market is governed by the invisible hand.
d. A classless society will emerge at the end of the dialectical process.
e. Happiness results from the greatest good for the greatest number.
57. Which of the following statements best describes Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution?
a. Changes in species result from periodic catastrophic geological events that alter the environment.
b. All creatures living today descended from a single common ancestor in an inevitable process.
d. Species tend to reproduce geometrically but their subsistence grows arithmetically.
e. New species emerge after gradually accumulating new modifications. 58. The Dreyfus Affair in late nineteenth-century France resulted in which of the following?
a. The fall of the Third Republic
b. The deepening of political divisions
c. The establishment of universal suffrage
d. War with Germany
e. Reform of the monetary system
59. The artistic technique depicted above is associated with which of the following periods?
a. Italian Renaissance
b. Eighteenth-century Rococo
c. Nineteenth-century Romanticism
d. Nineteenth-century Realism
e. German Expressionism
60. Two of the leaders in the nineteenth-century development of the germ theory of disease were:
a. Marie Curie and Max Planck
b. Gregor Mendel and Auguste Comte
c. John Dalton and Michael Faraday
d. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch
e. Jonas Salk and Francis Crick
61. Which of the following is most closely associated with Friedrich Nietzsche?
a. Creation of Israel as a religious state
b. Protective legislation concerning child labor
c. The elimination of all trade barriers and tariffs
d. The right of women to own property
e. The rejection of bourgeois morality 62. Which of the following is an accurate description of the outcome of the Paris Commune?
a. The Commune overthrew Napoleon III.
b. The Commune successfully defended Paris against the Prussian army.
c. The Commune successfully established a liberal democratic government in France.
d. The Commune was crushed by the French army.
e. The Commune promoted a reconciliation between French Catholics and socialists.
“O highest and most marvelous felicity of man! To him it was granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.”
63. The excerpt above is representative of the ideas of
a. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract
b. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
c. Pico della Mirandola, On the Dignity of Man
d. Martin Luther, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
e. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto
“The whole history of society up to now has been the history of class struggles. Our period, however, the bourgeois period, is distinguished by the fact that it has simplified class antagonisms. All society is splitting more and more into two great hostile camps, into two large classes opposing each other directly: bourgeoisie and proletariat.”
64. Which of the following wrote the passage above?
a. Prince von Metternich and Viscount Castlereagh
b. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
c. John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
d. Beatrice and Sydney Webb
e. Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone
65. Which of the following is accurate about late-nineteenth-century Socialist parties in western and central Europe?
a. They generally supported imperialist expansion.
b. They included members who emphasized electoral success and participation in
c. They were effectively controlled by the First International.
d. They publicly repudiated Marxism.
e. They repudiated labor unions as supportive of a labor aristocracy and not of the mass of working
66. Of the following, nineteenth-century European women were relatively more numerous and made the most
influential contributions as
a. popular novelists and writers
b. developers of the new biological sciences
c. classical musicians
d. members of parliaments
e. architects and engineers
67. Which of the following was true of contraception in nineteenth-century Europe?
a. It appeared first among working-class families.
b. It initially had the support of the Roman Catholic Church.
c. It reduced the size of rural families much more than that of urban families.
d. It was practiced by middle-class parents seeking a higher standard of living for their
e. It became popular as a result of the development of the birth control pill.
68. Before the First World War, European feminists such as the Pankhursts had all of the following goals
a. eliminating poll taxes
b. opening up more professions to women
c. liberalizing marriage and divorce laws
d. broadening the franchise to include women
e. establishing colleges for women
69. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the information depicted on the graph above?
a. Mortality rates varied considerably from year to year, and show no long-term trends.
b. Mortality rates in industrial towns were higher than mortality rates in rural areas.
c. Mortality rates in Victorian England were higher than in Edwardian times.
d. Considerable fluctuations occurred within an overall downward trend in mortality.
e. Improved medical practices such as antibiotic treatment led to the lowering of mortality rates.