Ap european History Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages Outline



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Mr. Dunbar

AP European History



Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages Outline

Chapter Overview: War, Plague, and Schism

  • Barbara Tuchman, a prominent historian, describes the late Middle Ages as The Calamitous Fourteenth Century. Western Civilization was assaulted on several fronts including:

    • The Black Death (1348-1352)

    • The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) between France and England

    • Schism in the Catholic Church (1378-1417)

    • Invasions by the Turks

  • Amidst this mayhem, scholars began to criticize medieval assumptions about the nature of God, humankind, and society.

Section One: The Black Death

  • Section Overview:

    • Keep in mind that the plague struck Europe at a moment of vulnerability as the continent was overpopulated and malnourished.

  • Preconditions and Causes of the Plague

    • From 1000-1300, Europe’s population doubled

      • Population growth strained the food supply

      • Population growth led to high unemployment and low wages

      • Crop failures between 1315 and 1317 exacerbated the food shortage crisis

    • Black Death followed trade routes from Asia

      • Plague moved from south to north along major trade routes

  • Popular Remedies

    • Corruption in the atmosphere was believed to be the cause of the plague

      • some blamed poisonous fumes from earthquakes

    • Remedies

      • many wore “aromatic” amulets

      • lifestyle changes

        • some thought moderate and temperate living would save them from the plague

        • some indulged in excess (sexual promiscuity ran high in infected areas)

        • others chose to flee the plague or remain in seclusion

      • religious fanatacism

        • flagellants

        • Jews as scapegoats

          • Pogroms occurred in several cities

  • Social and Economic Consequences

    • Farms decline

      • Supply and demand (fewer laborers, higher wages; less demand for food, lower prices for agricultural products)

      • many serfs demanded money payments and some pursued the more lucrative skilled craft industries in cities; the price of luxury and manufactured goods rose

      • Noble landholders lost power as they were forced to pay more for finished products and for farm labor, while receiving a smaller return on their agricultural produce

    • Peasants Revolt

      • England

        • To recover losses, landholders instituted oppressive laws that forced peasants to stay on their farms while freezing their wages at low levels.

          • ie. English Parliament passed a Statute of Laborers which set low prices for farm laborers and limited their mobility

        • English Peasants’ Revolt in 1381

      • France

        • Increase over the taille rate (mandatory tax on peasants) led to the Jacquiere (peasants’ revolt)

    • Cities Rebound

      • Omnipresence of death demand for luxury items (silks, furs, jewelry, furniture) prosperous cities

        • cities expanded legal autonomy from nobles and kings they had enjoyed prior to the plague and expanded their influence to surrounding areas.

        • Skilled artisans fought to retain the right to limit the number of people in their industries

      • Impact of the plague on Church

        • Suffered as a landowner and was politically weakened

        • Some increased revenue due to volume of religious services and donations in honor of the dead

  • New Conflicts and Opportunities

    • Guilds gained political power in local governments

      • Guild masters and journeymen came into conflict as the former wanted to restrict the number of masters while the latter wanted to become a master

      • Merchant and patrician classes could no longer bully the artisans

    • Kings expanded their power and fostered nationalism as the influence of the nobility and the church waned

      • Hundred Years’ War showed the military superiority of paid professional soldiers over that of the traditional noble cavalry

Section Two: The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment

  • Section Overview

    • Throughout the fourteenth century, the monarchies of England and France demanded greater loyalty from their lords which, in turn, broke down regionalism and led to the rise of national consciousness

    • Nationalist sentiments festered, giving way to the Hundred Years’ War

  • The Causes of the War

    • Dynastic struggle

      • English king Edward III, the grandson of Philip the Fair of France, made a claim to the French throne after the French king Charles IV, the last of Philip’s surviving sons, died without a male heir.

      • The French nobles named the first cousin of Charles IV, Philip VI of Valois, king and his dynasty would rule into the sixteenth century.

    • Relationship between England and France

      • King of England was technically a vassal of the king of France, as English monarchs possessed sizeable French territories dating back to the Norman conquest

        • French kings and nobles found it repugnant that England’s king owned land in France

      • England and France quarreled over control of Flanders

      • General animosity between England and France

    • French Weakness

      • Internal disunity as French monarchy was still undergoing centralization campaign

      • Economic troubles

      • Inferior military (English archers gave England a clear advantage)

      • Mediocre leadership from the French monarchs (England’s kings were shrewd)

  • The Progress of the War

    • Three major stages

      • Stage One: The Conflict during the reign of Edward III

        • Edward embargoed English wool to Flanders which inspired rebellions by merchants and trade guilds against the French monarchy in Flemish cities (Jacob van Artevelde, a rich merchant, organized the revolts)

          • The Flemish cities entered an alliance with the English and recognized Edward III as their king

        • English naval victory in the Bay of Sluys was first major battle of the war

        • Battle of Crecy (1340)

          • English victory in Normandy that led to the seizure of the French port of Calais

        • pause in action during the plague years

        • Battle of Poitiers (1356)

          • Stunning English victory over the French noble cavalry

          • French King John II taken hostage by the English

            • French Estates General took power in France and used the opportunity to gain rights like those achieved by England’s nobles in the Magna Carta

        • French nobles increase the taille to repair damages from war and the peasants revolt in what is known as the Jacquerie (1358)

          • Revolt was quickly stamped out

        • Peace of Bretigny-Calais (1360)

          • Ended English monarchs vassalage to the French king and affirmed England’s king sovereignty over Gascony, Guyenne, Poitou, and Calais.

          • France paid a ransom of 3 million gold crowns for King John II

      • Stage Two: French Defeat and the Treaty of Troyes

        • After Edward III died in 1377, England experience domestic issues during the reign of Richard II

          • English Peasants’ Revolt (1381)

            • John Ball and Wat Tyler led the revolt

            • peasants and artisans joined together to demand privileges

        • England resumed the war under Henry V

          • Battle of Agincourt (1415)

            • English victory that left a large percentage of the French nobility dead

            • France powerless against England

          • Treaty of Troyes (1420)

            • named Henry V the successor to the French king, Charles VI

              • when Henry V and Charles VI died within months of each other, the infant Henry VI of England was proclaimed in Paris to be the king of both France and England

            • son of Chalres VII was acknowledges as king by most of the French people and this raised the sense of nationalism in France

      • Stage Three: Joan of Arc and the War’s Conclusion

        • Joan of Arc and the siege of Orleans

          • Peasant from Lorraine in eastern France who visited Charles VII and claimed that God had called her to expel the English from the province of Orleans

          • Although skeptical, Charles was desperate and put her in command of an army

          • Joan successfully ousted the English from Orleans and France experienced a wave of victories

        • The capture of Joan of Arc

          • The Burgundians, who were allies of the English, captured and turned Joan of Arc over to the Inquisition in England

          • She was executed as a heretic on May 30, 1431

          • Charles VII declared her innocent 25 years later

          • The Roman Catholic Church canonized her as a saint in 1920.

        • The duke of Burgundy made peace with the French king in 1435, allowing France to push the English back

        • By 1453, when the war ended, England maintained control of only Calais

      • Implications of the Hundred Years’ War

        • Awakened French nationalism and called for the transition to a centralized state

        • Burgundy became a major European power

        • England developed its own clothing industry and foreign markets as they could not rely on the Netherlands during the conflict due to its see-sawing allegiance throughout the war

        • English and French peasants faced high taxation to pay for the cost of war

Section Three: Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival—The Late Medieval Church

  • Section Overview

    • By the latter thirteenth-century, the Roman Catholic Church appeared to be extremely powerful.

      • Threat of Holy Roman Empire to Rome vanquished

      • The French king, Louis IX, was an enthusiastic supporter of the Church

      • Council of Lyons (1274) declared a reunion of the Eastern Church with Rome after the pope sent forces to defend the Byzantine Empire against the Turks (the reunion only lasted seven years)

  • The Thirteenth-Century Papacy

    • Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216) and the height of papal power

      • Innocent enacted the doctrine of plentitude of power which enabled him to:

        • declare saints

        • dispose benefices

        • create a centralized papal monarchy with a clear political mission

      • secularization of the Church during Innocent’s reign as pope ignited the criticisms that would last until the Protestant Reformation

    • Pope Urban IV (r. 1261-1264)

      • Urban IV established the Rota Romana, the papacy’s own court of law

    • Other power grabs made by the church in the thirteenth-century

      • popes claimed the right to determine appointments to many church offices

      • expansion of the church’s bureaucracy

      • made clerical taxes instituted to raise money for the Crusades permanent

    • Impact of these reforms

      • Rome’s interest, not local needs, came to control church policies and the church in Rome slowly began to lost popular support

      • heretical groups like the Cathars and Waldensians advocated apostolic piety

    • political fragmentation

      • During the centuries that the Holy Roman Emperor intervened and threatened Italy, the city-states and the papacy stood united. When the Holy Roman Emperor became irrelevant on the Italian Peninsula, the pope and College of Cardinals became the targeted by their former allies.

        • Charles of Anjou, the French king of Naples and Sicily, used his influence to create a French-Sicilian faction within the college of cardinals

        • Rules for a conclave

        • Pope Celestine V

          • devout, but inept, hermit who was elected pope in 1294

          • forced to resign under suspicious circumstances

          • died under suspicious circumstances

          • Pope Boniface VIII, a nobleman and skilled politician (the antithesis of Celestine V), elected pope

  • Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair

    • Historical background

      • Boniface became pope at the same time as England and France were maturing nation-states.

        • Edward I promoted unity in England by organizing formal meetings with the newly formed Parliament

        • Philip IV centralized the monarchy in France and was determined to end England’s landholdings in France, control wealthy Flanders, and establish French hegemony in the Holy Roman Empire.

      • Essentially, the pope was no longer a match for the budding nation-states of western Europe

    • Royal Challenge to Papal Authority

      • Conflict between King Edward I and Pope Boniface VIII over the king’s right to tax the clergy in England.

        • Edward I taxed clergy for a “crusade” to help finance England’s mobilization effort

        • Innocent issues a papal bull Clericos Iaicos

          • forbade lay taxation of the clergy without papal approval

        • Edward I retaliated by denying the clergy the right to be heard in royal courts, thus denying them the king’s protection in legal matters

      • Conflict between Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII

        • Philip prohibited the export of money from France to Rome, which bankrupted the Church

        • Boniface responded by giving the king of France the right to tax the clergy in France “during an emergency”

      • Conflict between Boniface and the Colonnas (noble family)

        • Colonnas were radical followers of St. Francis and accused Boniface of heresy, the murder to Celestine V, and simony.

      • Another conflict between Boniface and Edward I

        • Boniface encouraged and supported Scottish resistance to English rule

      • Another conflict between Boniface and Philip IV

        • Philip arrested Boniface’s Parisian legate (a diplomat), Bernard Saisset (who was also a powerful secular lord and potential rival to the king’s power)

        • Boniface issues Ausculta fili, “Listen, My Son” which states, “God has set popes over kings and kingdoms

    • Unam Sanctum

      • Boniface VIII’s declaration that the temporal authority was subject to the spiritual power of the Church

      • Philip reacted aggressively to Unam Sanctum

        • Pope Boniface VIII was declared a heretic in France

        • Philip’s army captured and beat up the pope before a crown rescued Boniface and returned him to Rome; the pope died shortly thereafter

      • Pope Clement V (r. 1305-1314) succeeds Boniface and is subservient to the French king

        • Clement declared that Unam Sanctum does not diminish the power of the French monarchy

        • Clement moved the papal court to Avignon, a city on the southeastern border of France, where it remained from 1311-1377.

  • The Avignon Papacy

    • Papacy under strong French influence while in Avignon

    • Clement V in need of revenue

      • Started the practice of collect annates, the first year’s income of a new benefice

      • Started the practice of selling indulgences, pardons for unrepented sins.

        • Not surprisingly, the church marketed the idea of purgatory during this same period

    • Avignon papacy gained a reputation for materialism and corruption

    • Pope John XXII (1316-1334)

      • Pope John XXII tried to restore papal independence and return to Italy and created several enemies in the process

        • the Visconti, the ruling family in Milan, did not want to see the papacy return to Rome

        • Pope John XXII instigated a feud with Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV when he refused to accept his candidacy for the imperial title

          • Louis IV, in retaliation, declared an antipope

          • Louis also recruited two scholars, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham, to support his cause

      • Marsilius of Padua, Defender of Peace (1324)

        • stressed the independence of secular rulers

        • piety expected of clergy and duties confined to spiritual activities, not ruling

        • pope depicted as a subordinate member of society over which the emperor ruled supreme

    • National Opposition to the Avignon Papacy

      • England opposed the Avignon Papacy as they saw it intimately attached to France, England’s enemy in the Hundred Years’ War

      • Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438)

        • agreement that recognized the right of the French Church to elect its own clergy without papal interference

        • prohibited the payment of annates to Rome

        • limited the right of appeals from French courts to the Curia in Rome

  • Wycliffe and Hus

    • Wycliffe and the Lollards

      • Wycliffe and his issues

        • Oxford theologian and a philosopher of high standing

        • he became a major spokesperson against the secularism of the papacy

        • advocated apostolic piety

        • anticipated Protestant criticisms of the medieval church by challenging papal infallibility, the sale of indulgences, and the dogma of transubstantiation

      • The Lollards (Wycliffe’s followers)

        • preached in vernacular, distributed translations of the Bible, and advocated clerical piety

        • Lollards were popular with the nobility and gentry who could potentially gain from a weakening Catholic Church

      • After the English Peasants’ Revolt in 1381, an uprising filled with egalitarian principles that could find support in Wycliffe’s teaching, Lollardy became a capital offense in England by 1401.

    • John Hus

      • Czech reformer and professor at the University of Prague

      • supported vernacular translations of the Bible and criticized several aspects of the sacrament of Eucharist

      • he was excommunicated in 1410 and Prague was placed under the interdict

      • Council of Constance

        • Hus declared a heretic and executed in 1415

      • Hussites revolted following Hus’s execution and gained significant religious reforms and control over the Bohemian church



  • The Great Schism (1378-1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449

    • Section overview

      • Pope Gregory XI (1370-1378) reestablished the papacy in Rome in January 1377, ending what had become known as the “Babylonian Captivity” of the Church in Avignon.

      • The return to Rome proved to be short lived.

    • Urban VI and Clement VII

      • When Gregory XI died, the cardinals elected an Italian archbishop as Pope Urban VI

        • Urban VI wanted to reform the Curia

        • French cardinals called for the return of the papacy to Avignon

        • French King, Charles V, supported what came to be known as the Great Schism

      • French cardinals formed a conclave and elected Pope Clement VII, a cousin of the French king

        • The French cardinals claimed they had only voted for Urban VI out of fear

      • Allegiances to the two popes

        • Urban VI (Italian pope in Rome)

          • supported by England and its allies including the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland)

        • Clement VII

          • supported by France and its allies including Naples, Scotland, Castile, and Aragon

    • Conciliar Theory of Church Government

      • conciliar theory

        • technically, since a pope is infallible, a council could not depose him

        • church scholars debated for thirty years whether or not a council of church leaders could regulate the actions of a pope

        • ‘conciliarists’ defined the church as a body, of which the pope was one member

        • Eventually, it was determined that cardinals representing both popes would convene at a council

    • Council of Pisa (1409-1410)

      • Cardinals convened and deposed both popes and elected a new pope, Alexander V

      • Although most of western Europe accepted Alexander V a the legitimate pope, neither Urban VI nor Clement VII agreed to step down

    • The Council of Constance (1414-1417)

      • Three competing popes

        • John XXIII succeeded Alexander V as the consensus pope

        • Gregory XII succeeded Urban VI as the Italian pope

        • Clement VII was still the French pope

      • Emperor Sigismund demanded that John XXIII call a council in Constance which made a declaration entitled Sacrosancta which:

        • elected a new pope, Martin V (the three other popes were forced to resign)

        • asserted the supremacy of church councils over individual pope

        • demanded that regular meetings of church councils

    • The Council of Basel (1431-1449)

      • Church council negotiated directly with the Hussites, a group formerly identified as heretics

      • Four Articles of Prague presented to council by Hussites

        • give laity the Eucharist with the cup as well as bread

        • free, itinerant preaching

        • exclusion of clergy from holding secular offices and owning property

        • just punishment of clergy who commit mortal sins

      • Council of Basel showed dominance over the papacy but Pope Pius II (r. 1458-1464) issued a papal bull Execrabilis which condemned appeals to councils and made them completely void.

    • Consequences

      • Without effective papal authority and leadership, secular control of national or territorial churches increased

        • Kings asserted their power over the church in England and France

        • German, Swiss, and Italian magistrates and city councils reformed and regulated religious life

Section Four: Medieval Russia

  • Section Overview

    • Prince Vladimir (r. 980-1015) of Kiev (Russia’s dominant city at the time) chose to make Greek Orthodox the religion in Russia and thereby established close ties with the Byzantines.

  • Politics and Society

    • Yaroslav the Wise succeeded Ladimir and developed Kiev into a magnificent cultural and political center

    • Following Yaroslav’s death, princes divided Russia into three cultural groups: the Great Russians, the White Russians, and the Little Russians (Ukranians)

    • Government

      • Prince, council of nobles, popular assembly of all free adult males

    • Social division

      • freemen (clergy, army officers, boyars, townspeople, and peasants)

      • slaves (prisoners of war)

  • Mongol Rule

    • In the thirteenth century steppe peoples known as Mongols swept through China, the Islamic world, and Russia.

    • Ghengis Khan

      • notorious Mongol leader who invaded Russia in 1223

      • established a Mongol Empire known as the Golden Horde

    • Russia was forced to pay tribute to their Mongol overlords and to fight in the Mongol army

    • Russian culture fused with that of the Mongols, who had adopted Islam as their faith

    • In 1380, Grand Duke Dimitri of Moscow defeated the Mongols at Kulikov Meadow, and Mongol influence in Russia slowly withered away.

    • Ivan III (d. 1505) would eventually bring all of northern Russia under Moscow’s control and officially ended Mongol occupation.

      • Moscow replaced Kiev as political and religious center of Russia

Directory: cms -> lib9 -> PA01000218 -> Centricity -> Domain -> 293
293 -> Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism
293 -> Section One: Renewed Religious Struggle
293 -> Ap european History Chapter 25: imperialism, Alliances, and War
293 -> Chapter 23: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I outline
293 -> Ap european History Chapter 24: The Birth of Modern European Thought
293 -> Mr. Dunbar ap european History Chapter 10 Outline: Renaissance and Discovery Section One: The Renaissance in Italy
293 -> Ap european History Chapter 22: The Age of Nation States
293 -> Chapter 29: The Cold War Era and the Emergence of a New Europe
293 -> Ap european History Chapter 28: World War II outline
293 -> Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century Outline

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