Complete the Following Sentences 1. Pierre Bayle’s famous attacked traditional practices and even assumptions about Biblical such as King .
2. Using the format of two Persian men visiting Europe, Montesquieu criticized the two main French institutions, the and the . In his Spirit of the Laws he praised British government for its and .
3. Voltaire, whose religious faith is termed , fought for religious tolerance and justice in the case of Protestant , who was executed for the of his .
4. Diederot’s multivolume contribution to Enlightenment thought, the , was attacked by censors for establishing “a spirit of and .”
5. Among the Physiocrats, Scotsman Adam Smith criticized the economic of this day, while Frenchmen Francois Quesney said was the greatest source of wealth.
6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s interests roamed from government in his book The to education in ; and he blamed for the inequality of human society.
7. The grace of Rococo is illustrated by Watteau’s lyrical portrayals of life and by Neumann’s Pilgrimage Church of the .
8. Music lovers today still celebrate the genius of Handel’s great oratorio, The , and Mozart’s “black comedy,” .
9. The writing of history during the Enlightenment was given stature by Voltaire’s study of the age of
and Gibbon’s study of the decline and fall of the .
10. Although the Jesuits gained great influence by directing the of young aristocrats, their image as an international network that threatened governments led to their expulsion from , , and .
Place the Following in Chronological Order and Give Dates 1. Publication of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations 1.
2. Publication of Rousseau’s Social Contract 2.
3. Publication of Montesquieu’s Persian Letters 3.
4. Publication of Condorcet’s Progress of the Human Mind 4.
5. Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire completed 5.
6. Diderot’s Encyclopedia begun 6.
7. Publication of Voltaire’s Philosophic Letters 7.
Questions for Critical Thought
List the major Enlightenment philosophes, and summarize the core elements of what each of them contributed to the movement. Identify the common themes and connections within their thought.
Discuss the degree to which the thought of the Enlightenment represented a unified consistent whole. Use specific examples from at least two of the following: (a) Voltaire (b) Montesquieu (c) Rousseau (d) Beccaria.
Describe the elements of the “New Science of Man” that arose during the Enlightenment. What were its roots, and what change did it represent in man’s idea of himself?
Discuss the influence of Isaac Newton’s scientific discoveries on the development of Enlightenment thought.
Describe innovations in art, music, and literature during the Enlightenment, How did Enlightenment philosophy encourage and mold these innovations?
Discuss the role women played during the Enlightenment and the responses to them. Assess the consistency of these responses with the overall whole of Enlightenment ideology.
Discuss the various means by which Enlightenment ideas were disseminated and analyze their impact among the various social classes of Europe.
It is a historical curiosity that Enlightenment thought blossomed in the nations in Europe which were least open to innovative thought and ideas. Speculate as to the factors that may have caused this phenomenon.
At the same time that the philosophes were working to change the world, what was going on among the masses? Describe “popular” culture during the Enlightenment.
Describe the effect that Enlightenment thought had on religious views and practices.
Describe popular religion—as opposed to institutional religion—during the eighteenth century. Why were the masses relatively unresponsive or hostile to the philosophes’ attacks on religion?