1. Describe the beliefs of northern Christian humanists.
2. The author of Utopia, a satire on European government and society, was _______________________.
3. In his "philosophy of Christ," Erasmus emphasized ____________________________________.
4. The religious reformer who "laid the egg that Luther hatched" was ________________________.
5. Describe popular religion in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance.
6. The reforming religious organization of the late fifteenth century that included both clergy and laymen was _______________________________________________________
7. Luther's religious crisis came to a head over his growing belief of what?
8. The early fifteenth century religious reformer who was burned at the stake was ____________________.
9. For Luther, the only sure source of truth and the only reliable path of faith, other than justification, was __________________________________________________.
10. What event eventually led to Luther's break with the church?
11. What does Luther discuss in his pamphlet, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church?
12. What did the Edict of Worms do?
13. Luther's ideas were spread primarily through ____________________.
14. How did Luther feel about The Peasants' War of 1524-1525?
15. What did Luther believe concerning the sacraments of the Catholic Church?
16. At its outset, the Reformation in Germany was where?
17. Though Luther was condemned at the Diet of Worms, he survived because he was protected by ________________________________.
18. What were the central beliefs of Lutheranism?
19. Although Charles V had many adversaries, his chief concern during his reign was __________________.
20. In the eastern part of his empire, Charles V faced a threat to his power from the ___________________.
21. What ended the Schmalkaldic War in Germany in 1555?
22. What was the outcome of the Religious Peace of Augsburg?
23. Where were Luther's ideas most readily accepted?
24. Describe Switzerland political structure in the sixteenth century.
25. How did Zwingli's interpretation of the Lord's Supper differ from Luther's?
26. The Swiss religious reformer who established the Protestant Reformation in Zurich was _____________.
27. Describe the beliefs of the Anabaptists.
28. What was the cause of the Reformation in England under Henry VIII?
29. Define Millenarianism
30. England's break with the Roman church became official with the passage of the ___________________.
31. Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn ended when he executed her for _____________________________.
32. Mary I Tudor earned her nickname "bloody Mary" by persecuting _____________________________.
33. Describe England's Queen Elizabeth.
34. What are the chief characteristics of John Calvin's reform movement?
35. In Calvin's theology, leading a godly life would be evidence that you are _____________ to go to heaven.
36. Describe the Geneva of the Calvinists.
37. In what ways did the Reformation change conceptions of the family?
38. In what ways did the Reformation affect the development of education in Europe?
39. What changes did the Reformation bring to the lives of Europe's Protestant community?
40. Loyola was the founder of ___________________________________________________.
41. The Jesuit missionary who propagated Christianity in India, Malacca and the Moluccas, and Japan, and who died just before reaching China was ________________________________________.
42. The Catholic Reformation's ultimate refusal to compromise with Protestantism was exemplified by what?
43. Describe the Council of Trent.
44. In France, the Protestant minority was known as _______________________________.
45. Define/describe politiques.
46. Describe the Edict of Nantes.
47. The greatest advocate of militant Catholicism was ____________________________________.
48. Philip II and Spain was ultimately unable to defeat which people who won independence?
49. What was the effect of the importation of silver from the New World to Spain?