Ap chapter 21 test bank

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1. Which inventor created a more efficient steam engine?

A. Edison.

B. Bell.

C. Morse.

D. Watt.
2. How did the steam engine affect industrial growth?

A. Goods could be transported to new markets.

B. It offered a more efficient source of power.

C. Rail transport came to replace sea transport.

D. It reduced pollution from oil and coal.
3. The first nation to industrialize on the continent was

  1. Prussia

  2. France

  3. Belgium

  4. Russia

  5. Denmark

4. All of the following were results of the Industrial Revolution EXCEPT

  1. It created two new social classes

  2. It displaced the landed aristocracy as the dominant social class

  3. I brought great wealth to factory owners

  4. It subjected workers and their families to low wages, long working days, and oppressive

  5. It created poverty much worse than that in the countryside

5.Which of the following was an advantage enjoyed by Great Britain that helps explain why the Second Industrial Revolution originated there?

  1. An extensive river system

  2. The lack of internal trade tariffs

  3. A well-developed commercial economy

  4. Natural resources

  5. All of the above

6. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, the country that held the lead in innovation and industrial production was

  1. Russia

  2. France

  3. Germany

  4. Great Britain

  5. Holland

7.In general , the Second Industrial Revolution in Europe

  1. Began n the Continent and spread in all directions

  2. Took place in Great Britain

  3. Took place more slowly in Eastern Europe

  4. Was stimulated by government investment in Western Europe

  5. Took place later but more rapidly in Eastern Europe

8.All of the following are characteristics of the Industrial Revolution (1780-1830) EXCEPT

  1. That it replaced hand manufacture with machine production

  2. That it concentrated the working force in factories

  3. That it was aperiod of dramatic advancement

  4. That it took place in France

  5. That it transformed European society

9. In what ways were railroads an improvement over canals?

A. Railroads could connect two rivers.

B. Railroads could connect an inland town to a coastal port.

C. Railroads did not have to follow the course of a river.

D. Railroads were the only form of

. overland transportation
10. All the following were results of the Irish potato blight in the 1840s EXCEPT

  1. Reforms to benefit the Irish peasants

  2. Starvation and disease

  3. Irish immigration, mainly to the United States

  4. Repeal of the Corn Laws

  5. Continued severe poverty in Ireland

11. The railway boom of the 1830s and 1840s

  1. Increased demand for steel but decreased demand for coal

  2. Did not effect the demand for steel

  3. Increased demand for both steel and coal

  4. Increased demand for coal but decreased demand for steel

  5. Did not affect the demand for coal

















12. The chart above provides population estimateds for selected European countries in the years 1800-1900. Which of the following is the most valid interpretation of the statistics?

  1. The population doubled in each of the countries identified

  2. The population of Italy and Germany doubled because of national unification

  3. The population growth reflects the degree to which each of the nations industrialized

  4. The population of England grew at a faster rate than any other nations identified

  5. Colonialism caused the indigenous population of England to increased fourfold


13. The chart above depicts the process of urbanization in

(A) Austria- Hungary

(B) England and Wales

(C) France

(D) Germany

(E) Spain and Portugal

14. What historical trend was most responsible for the change in Birmingham’s population shown above?

A. Immigration from the colonies.

B. Industrial growth.

C. Improvements in urban health care.

D. Famine in rural areas.

Left side of graph should read “Population (in millions)”, the first number is 1700 not 700

15. All of the following statements about Europe’s population in the eighteenth century can be inferred from the graph above EXCEPT:
(A) For most of the century, France had the largest population of any European power.

(B) The population of Eastern Europe outstripped that of Western Europe in size.

(C) Russia experienced the largest increase in rate of population growth.

(D) The population of the British Isles grew throughout the century.

(E) Rates of population growth increased after 1750.

Births per 1000 of Total Population


England and Wales


























17.What information can be concluded from the preceding table?

  1. Better nutrition in Scotland led to a higher birthrate

  2. The number of illegitimate births declined during the wars

  3. There was a long-term decline in the birthrate in Great Britain dating back to the 19th century

  4. There was a post-war rise in the birthrate

  5. Because women worked in factories during the war, the birthrate declined


18. The graph above depicts the lengths, from longest to shortest, of the railway systems of

(A) the United Kingdom, the Italian states, France

(B) the United Kingdom, the German states, France

(C) The German states, the United Kingdom, the Italian states

(D) France, the German states, the Italian states

(E) France, the United Kingdom, the German states


19. The graph above best supports which of the following statements?

(A) The Industrial Revolution destroyed the standard of living of the working classes.

(B) The ideas associated with the Renaissance and the Reformation encouraged the English to have large families.

(C) During the eighteenth century, the English population suffered substantially from periodic famines.

(D) The English population increased in the seventeenth century despite civil wars and revolution.

(E) During the late eighteenth century, the English population grew faster than it had from 1450 to 1600
20. As a result of the Second Industrial Revolution, the majority of skilled artisans and craftsman

  1. Prospered

  2. Became managers in factories

  3. Lost their livelihoods

  4. Moved to towns and cities

  5. Were women

21. The Chartist movement in England advocated all the following EXCEPT

  1. Universal suffrage

  2. Salaries for members of Parliament

  3. Minimum wage

  4. More equality among voting districts

  5. Voting by secret ballot

22. A major goal of English Chartists in the 1840’s was

  1. equal distribution of wealth

  2. protective tariffs for farm products

  3. war with France

  4. abolition of the monarchy

  5. the vote for all men

23. All of the goals of the Chartist movement were eventually achieved in Great Britain EXCEPT

  1. The secret ballot

  2. Annual parliaments

  3. Equal electoral districts

  4. Abolition of property requirements for Members of Parliament

  5. Salaries for Members of Parliament

24.The primary purpose of the Chartist movement of the 1840s was to

  1. Get working men an eight-hour day

  2. Convince working men to unionize

  3. Get the House of Commons to pass the Six Act of the People’s Charter

  4. Form a political party that would challenge the Whig and Tory political dominance

  5. Tap into the revolutionary potential of the English working class

25. The Chartist movement (1837-1842) in Britain demonstrated

  1. The power of the monarchy

  2. The degree to which the lower-middle and working classes desired further reform

  3. The strength of nationalism

  4. Opposition to monarchy

  5. The degree to which working people were opposed to the mechanization of industry

26. Much of the agenda of the 19th century Chartist movement in England involved voting reform. The Chartist wanted

  1. Numerically balanced electoral districts

  2. Female suffrage

  3. Elimination of the House of Lords

  4. Reduction of the voting age to 18

  5. All of the above

27. All of the following were reforms demanded by the program of Chartism EXCEPT

  1. Payment of salaries to member of the House of Commons

  2. Universal male suffrage

  3. The secret ballot

  4. Annual elections in the House of Commons

  5. The maintenance of the property requirement for members of the House of Commons

28. After the passage of the English Factory Act in 1833

  1. There was a marked decreased in productivity

  2. More children were exploited in the workplace

  3. Many British working class laborers demanded shorter workdays for adults

  4. The workday for adult and older teenagers was shortened

  5. Working-class parents became more involved in the education of their children

29. Which of the following best characterizes women in the new service work force of the late 19th century

  1. They were unmarried and young

  2. They were young, married, and middle class

  3. They were young, married and mothers of children

  4. They were middle-aged

  5. They were independently wealthy

30. Police forces in the early 18th century were

  1. Staffed by community volunteers

  2. Politically appointed

  3. Paid and professionally trained

  4. A special branch of the local government

  5. Funded by local aristocrats concerned with falling property rights

31. Which of the following were aspects of the 19th century prison reform EXCEPT

  1. Grouping men, women, and children together in “family” units

  2. The complete separation of prisoners at all times

  3. The separation of prisoners during the nights

  4. An individual cell for each prisoner

  5. Long periods of silence among prisoners

32. The 19th century attempts to create new police forces and reform prisons are reflective of which growing political sentiment?

  1. Reactionary conservatism

  2. A need to impose order in a growing and migrating population

  3. The end of Enlishtenment influence

  4. An intolerance of the lower classes

  5. New attitudes of social benevolence and welfare

33. An advocate of laissez faire

  1. Advocates protectionist tariffs

  2. Argues that the government should refrain from trying to regulate the economy

  3. argues that only natural laws are legitimate

  4. agrues that the government should act as an “invisible hand” to regulate the economy

  5. argues that a monarch rules by the command of God

34. The principles of laissez-faire advocate that

  1. A country should have colonies for raw materials

  2. A country’s wealth is counted in it gold and silver

  3. All tariffs should be eliminated

  4. Countries should be self-sufficient

  5. Governments should control wages and prices

35. Which of the following was a strong advocate of laissez faire

a. Karl Marx

b. Thomas Malthus

c. Adam Smith

d. Robert Owen

e. Jeremy Bentham
36. He believed that charity and medicine made matters worse because he saw the central human problem as one of population versus production

  1. Thomas Malthus

  2. David Ricardo

  3. Adam Smith

  4. Karl Marx

  5. Jeremy Bentham

37. According to Ricardo’s Iron Law of Wages

  1. Workers in pig iron production must earn subsistence wages

  2. Population will outrun the food supply

  3. A ten-hour workday was most productive

  4. Variations in the supply and demand of labor will lead to eventual mass starvation

  5. Poverty will end only with the public ownership of the means of production

38. David Ricardo has a pessimistic outlook toward the English factory workers. He believed

  1. Overpopulation was about to doom the working class

  2. Laissez faire policies were necessary to expand trade

  3. Paying workers more would only encourage larger families, who would consume the excess

  4. Education wasn’t necessary for the poor

  5. All of the above

39. The 1834 Zollverein (Prussian customs union) was designed to do which of the following?

(A) Create a common currency

(B) Achieve national unification

(C) Promote European colonial expansion

(D) Create an enlarged trading area

(E) Slow the construction of railroads

40. Utilitarians differed form other kinds of liberals in their

  1. Support of tradition

  2. Emphasis on individual liberty

  3. Tendency to be more supportive of government intervention

  4. Call for the abolition of private property

  5. Advocacy of violence

41. “The greatest happiness for the greatest number” was the explicit goal of which of the following movements?

(A) Romanticism

(B) Utilitarianism

(C) Pietism

(D) Anarchism

(E) Jansenism

42.Utilitarians differed from other liberals by

  1. Supporting government regulation of working conditions in factories

  2. Calling for the abolition of many traditional institutions

  3. Believing in the existence of natural laws that govern human behavior

  4. Calling for the abolition of private property

  5. Regarding many religious practices as mere superstitions

43. Which if the following 19th century ideologies stressed both individual freedom and government regulation?

  1. Socialism

  2. Utilitarianism

  3. Liberalism

  4. Conservatism

  5. Anarchism

44.Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism

  1. Promoted the view that population grew geometrically while food supplies grew arithmetically

  2. Demanded workers’ cooperatives be created in place of a market economy

  3. Argued that human happiness though the “greatest happiness of the greatest number”.

  4. Asserted that wages would stabilize at the subsistence level

  5. Stated that class identity should be associated with the means of production

45. Working and middle class individuals were united in opposition to

  1. The Factory Act

  2. Chartism

  3. The Reform Bill of 1867

  4. The Great Reform Bill of 1832

  5. The Corn Laws

46. The end of the Corn Laws in Great Britain in 1846 was an indication that

  1. a.The government was fully responsive to the needs of workers

  2. b.The industrial revolution was beginning to slow down

  3. c.Grain was now available in abundance

  4. d.The role of the monarchy was in decline

  5. e.The old landed classes no longer fully dominated politics

47. The repeal of the British Corn Laws in 1846 was most strongly opposed by


factory owners


wage laborers


wealthy landowners


religious dissenters

48. A factor accelerating the British government’s repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was the

(A) South Sea Bubble scandal

(B) American Revolution

(C) Irish potato famine

(D) development of relatively inexpensive ocean transport

(E) worldwide mechanization of grain farming
49. Industrial socialism

  1. Advocated the abolition of private property

  2. Sought to create to profitable industrial enterprise without exploiting workers

  3. Called for the creation of phalansteries

  4. Advocated a return to small-scale production by skilled artisans

e.Advocated government regulation of working conditions
50. Which of the following was a common theme among nineteenth-century Utopian socialists?


Support of organized religion


Rejection of the institution of marriage


Advocacy of social and economic planning


Revolutionary overthrow of the existing order


Promotion of mass political parties
51. The Utopian Socialists were labeled as such by Marx mainly because

  1. He could not imagine how such plans could be funded

  2. He hated their plans for agricultural communities

  3. He thought that they were primarily anarchists

  4. He believed that their ideas were unsystematic and unscientific

  5. He viewed with disdain any ideas that failed to account for bourgeois advarice

52. Anarchists believed that inidividuals would be free only when

  1. The state is geared toward better meeting the needs of workers

  2. The individual accepted that freedom is in the mind and not possible in a physical sense

  3. The state is abolished

  4. The teaching of Marx are accepted

  5. The individual is free to return to the simple rural life

53. Early 19th century Luddites were known for

  1. Political liberalism

  2. Chartism

  3. Organizing the first British Labor unions

  4. Breaking machinery

  5. Republicanism

54. "By the charter granted by our late sovereign the framework knitters are empowered to break and destroy all frames and engines that fabricate articles in a fraudulent and deceitful manner."

The quotation above is a formulation of the ideas of which of the following groups?

(A) Benthamites

(B) Anarchists

(C) Socialists

(D) Luddites

(E) Methodists

55. Which of the following was most closely associated with anarchism?

(A) The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

(B) The execution of Tsar Nicholas 11 and his family

(C) The split between the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks

(D) The formation of the Fabian Society

(E) The growth of the syndicalist movement
56. 19th century anarchists were most active in

  1. Britain

  2. France

  3. Russia

  4. Italy

  5. Germany

57. Writers and activitists of the 1840s who rejected both industry and the domination of government are known as

  1. Marxists

  2. Communists

  3. Owenists

  4. Anarchists

  5. Socialists

58. Which of the following was a result of the expansion of literacy in the late 19th century?

  1. A decline in the production of visual art

  2. A strengthened love of democracy among most literary activists

  3. An explosion in the number of cheap newspapers published

  4. A weakened spirit of nationalism

  5. An instant improvement in the overall quality of literature available

59. In The Communist Manifesto (1848), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels asserted that


technology was evil and would bring more suffering than benefits to the working class


capitalism was a necessary stage of economic and social development


a socialist revolution was most likely to occur in Russia


the goals of nationalism and socialism were inseparable


the working class was so oppressed that it was unable to help itself

60. “The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles.”

The quotation above is from the writings of
(A) Robespierre and Danton

(B) Saint-Simon

(C) Marx and Engels

(D) Malthus

(E) Bismarck
61. Which of the following statements best reflects the ideas of Karl Marx?

(A) Population grows in geometric progression.

(B) Humans share a common ancestry with apes.

(C) The market is governed by an invisible hand.

(D) A classless society will emerge at the end of the dialectical process.

(E) Happiness results from the greatest good for the greatest number.

62. Which of the following ideas is common to the works of both Karl Marx and the classical economists?

(A) The overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the revolutionary proletariat is inevitable.

(B) Class struggle is the mechanism of historical progress.

(C) The free exchange of wages for labor ensures social harmony.

(D) The value of a product is largely determined by the value of the labor used to produce it.

(E) The triumph of the proletariat will bring about a classless society

63. “In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonism, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.”
These words express the ideas of
(A) Alexis de Tocqueville

(B) John Locke

(C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau

(D) Edmund Burke

(E) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
64. One of the major tenets of Karl Marx’s work was that

(A) peasants and artisans would combine with factory workers to lead the forthcoming socialist revolution

(B) by increasing social interaction, capitalism improved the quality of human relationships

(C) the Industrial Revolution was a social disaster which had to be undone to restore the humane preindustrial society

(D) history moves inevitably through a series of stages culminating in socialism

(E) the historical function of government has been to protect the weak from exploitation by the powerful

65.The Communist Manifesto of 1848

  1. Helped bring about the revolution of 1848

  2. Urged the middle class to unite against the nobility

  3. Claimed that events in history happened erratically by chance

  4. Was written for the Communist Party

  5. Had no influence on the revolutions of 1848

66. “As historians from Karl Marx through Georges Lefebvre and Albert Soboul have argued, the main accomplishment of the French Revoluton was to abolish feudalism in France and to clear the ground for capitalist economic expansion and the rule of the bourgeoisie.”

Which of the following views is consistent with the interpretation above?

(A) The Revolution strengthened the domination of landed proprietors in France

(B) The Revolution eliminated guilds, seigneurial rights, and other obstacles to French agricultural and industrial advance

(C) The long-term transition from feudalism to capitalism occurred over many centuries, not between 1789 and 1794

(D) The Revolution abolished private property in France and thus created a modern democratic society

(E) Both before and after the Revolution, France was ruled by leaders drawn from the ranks of the nobility and bourgeouisie

67. Both the French and Industrial Revolutions gave rise to a number of conflicting doctrines, or “isms”. Which of th following was expounded and popularized decades after the others?

  1. Marxism

  2. Liberlaism

  3. Radicalism

  4. Conservatism

  5. Socialism

68. All of the following are features of Marxist theory EXCEPT

  1. Hegelian dialiectic

  2. Dialectical materialism

  3. The Class Struggle

  4. Natural selection

  5. Inevitable revolution

69. Which statement best reflects the theories in The Communist Manifesto written by: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels?

A. Workers will experience an improved standard of living as capitalism matures.

B. Owners of businesses will eventually realize that conditions for workers must be improved.

C. Workers can expect that working conditions will improve as a result of government legislation.

D. Workers will change working conditions by revolutionary means.

70. The Condition of the Working Class in England was written by

  1. Adam Smith

  2. Friedrich Engels

  3. Karl Marx

  4. David Ricardo

  5. Thomas Malthus

71. 19th century proletarianism was characterized by

  1. Patronage of workers by the owner of a factory

  2. The gradual control of workers in setting the wages and working conditions for a factory

  3. The gradual loss of workers’ ownership of the means of producton and of control over their own trades

  1. The gradual lowering of the cultural level of society due to the influx of the poor into urban areas

  2. The use of local artisans in factories to restore craftsmanship to the engines of mass production

72. At the Congress of Vienna, a principle that guided the deliberations of the diplomats was:

(A) balance of power

(B) utilitarianism

(C) imperialism

(D) self-determination

(E) liberalism

73. In the 19th century, conservatives

a. argued that governments should not interfere with the natural tendencies of the economy

b. emphasized the development of sentiment and emotion

c. favored constitutional monarchy

d. supported the privileges of the aristocracy and clergy

e. expoused utilitarianism
74. What of the following best characterizes the aims of the Concert of Europe

  1. It sought to prevent nations form gaining colonial empires

  2. It sought to prevent member nations form entering into non-aggression treaties with other member nations

  3. It sought to maintain international peace and prevent member nations from taking major actions in international affairs with member consent

  4. It sought to extend principles of conservative government throughout Europe

  5. It sought to hold member nations financially responsible for damage incurred in international conflicts

75. Which of the following best explains reasons for the growing tension between the aristocracy and the middle class in Europe in the 19th century

  1. The middle class sympathized with impoverished peasants

  2. The middle class sympathized with impoverished peasants

  3. The aristocracy refused to share its power and access to political influence

  4. The middle class had little opportunity for social mobility or change in lifestyle

76. Elected by a landslide after the failed Revolution of 1848, he founded the Second French Empire

  1. Louis XVIII

  2. Louis Philliipe

  3. Louis Napoleon

  4. Louis Blanc

77. The “Second Republic” in France was headed by

  1. Charles X

  2. Louis Napolean Bonaparte

  3. Louis XVIII

  4. Otto Von Bismark

  5. Napolean II

78. During the 1848 revolution in France, liberals and radicals differed over

  1. Whether to establish a republic

  2. Allowing Louis Napolean to return to France

  3. Whether political changes or social and economic changes should take priority

  4. What to do concerning Louis Philippe and his family

  5. Universal male suffrage

79. In French political history the years 1814, 1830, and 1848 are known, respectively, for the

(A) execution of Louis XVI, the restoration of the Bourbons, and the establishment of

the Paris Commune

(B) restoration of the Bourbons, the election of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as president and the establishment of the Paris Commune

(C) July Revolution of Louis Philippe, the restoration of the Bourbons, and the founding of the Second Republic

(D) restoration of the Bourbons, the July Revolution of Louis Philippe, and the

founding of the Second Republic

(E) restoration of the Bourbons, the July Revolution of Louis Philippe, and the coronation of Napoleon Ill as French emperor

80. Other minorities in Hungary became alarmed by Louis Kossuth, and his pro-Magyar movement when

  1. Magyar became the official language of Hungary

  2. The Magyars moved the capital to Budapest

  3. Kossuth made fiery nationalistic speeches in the Hungarian diet

  4. The Austrian emperor abdicated and fled

  5. The Russian army invaded Hungary

81. The political leadership of Austria in 1848 did not allow Ferdinand, the emperor who had fled, to return to his position mainly because

  1. It was attracted to the youthful energy of his nephew Francis Joseph

  2. The old emperor had antagonized Bohemia and Hungary

  3. Of pressure from rebellious minorities

  4. Of pressure from Nicholas I of Russia

  5. With Ferdinand gone, the government would not have to honor promises he had made

82. In 1849, the new Austrian emperor, Franz Joseph, restored order in Hungary by

  1. Employing the Croatian leader Jellachich

  2. Following the advise of Metternich

  3. Discrediting Louis Kossuth, the Magyar leader

  4. Giving in to Hungarian demands

  5. Getting military aid from Nicholas II of Russia

83. Which of the following facilitated the counter-revolutionary triumph within the Hapsburg Empire in 1849?

(A) The adoption of a new constitution that provided for regional autonomy

(B) The loyalty of the Slavs and the Germans to the monarchy

(C) The neutrality of Serbia

(D) The military intervention by the Ottoman Empire

(E) The lack of cooperation among nationalities in the Hapsburg Empire
84. After the failure of the revolutions of 1848, many Italian Liberals looked to Piedmont for political leadership because

  1. It maintained the liberal constitution that has been granted in 1848

  2. The King of Piedmont was respected for his leadership abilities

  3. Pope Pius IX encouraged them to turn to Piedmont

  4. Piedmont promised Italian nationalists that they would lead the fight for a united Italy

  5. Piedmont had a long tradition as a reform minded state

85. Late 19th and early 20th century Italian politics were hindered by all of the following EXCEPT

  1. Meddling by the church

  2. Lack of a two party system

  3. Corruption

  4. Continued economic division between north and south

  5. Lack of democratic institutions

86. The failure of the Frankfurt Conference in 1848 to unify what nation encourage the growth of authoritarianism and militarism

  1. France

  2. Germany

  3. Italy

  4. Austria

  5. Russia

87. The Frankfurt Assembly’ decision in 1848 to offer the Frederick William IV of Prussian the crown for a united Germany illustrates

  1. the power of parliamentary traditions in Germany

  2. the weakness of the Germany monarchy

  3. the role of liberalism in the unification of Germany

  4. the tension between liberalism and nationalism in mid 19th century Europe

  5. the charisma of Frederick William IV

88. Frederick William IV rejected the constitution written by the Frankfurt Assembly for a unified

  1. He looked with disdain on submitting to constitutional monarchy

  2. He feared opposition from Austria

  3. His Junker support was not interested in German unity

  4. The was nothing legal or binding about the actions of the Frankfurt Assembly

  5. All of the above

89. The original goal of the Frankfurt Assembly (1848-1849) was to

  1. Design and implement a constitutional government for a unified Germany

  2. Consolidate Germany under Austrian Habsburg leadership

  3. Unify the northern states of Germany under Prussia

  4. Create a united Germany for Germans only

  5. Convince Prussia to unite Germany by force

90.The Frankfurt Parliament of 1848 marked an attempt to

  1. Respond to Prussian aggression

  2. Establish a German republic

  3. Create the Zollverein, or customs union

  4. Create a unified German state

  5. Tie all independent German cities into a confederation

91. In 1849 the crown of the new Germany created at the Frankfurt Parliament was offered to which European ruler?

  1. Lajos Kossuth

  2. Frederick William IV of Prussia

  3. Friedrich Herder

  4. Franz Josef I of Austria

  5. Louis Napolean

92. The Frankfort Assembly’s decision in 1848 to offer the Fredrick William IV of Prussia the crown of a united Germany illustrates

  1. The power of parliamentary traditions in Germany

  2. The weakness of the German monarchy

  3. The role of liberalism in the unification of Germany

  4. The tension between liberalism and nationalism in mid-nineteenth century Europe

  5. The charisma of Fredrick William IV

93. Fredrick William IV rejected the constitution written by the Frankfurt Assembly for a unified Germany because

  1. He looked with disdain on submitting to constitutional monarchy

  2. He feared opposition from Austria

  3. His Junker support was not interested in German unity

  4. There was nothing legal or binding about the actions of the Frankfurt Assembly

e. All of the above
94. The Frankfurt Assembly of 1848-49 failed to unite Germany for all the following reasons EXCEPT

  1. The Assembly did not have the support of the military

  2. It did not have the support of the peasants

  3. The delegates could not agree on a Constitution

d. Fredrick William IV would not accept a position as a constitutional monarch

95. The revolutions of 1848 are best understood as

  1. The result of tension between liberal and nationalist aspirations of the people of Europe and the determined conservatism of their aristocratic masters

  2. Independence movements

  3. Large-scale attempts to redistribute wealth in European society

  4. Precursors to the French Revolution

  5. Democratic revolutions

96. The Revolutions of 1848

  1. Overthrew the governments of France, Germany, and Russia

  2. Erupted in England as well as on the continent

  3. Marked the decline of the political influence of the proletariat

  4. Gave rise to Communism and realpolitik

  5. Dissipated the nationalistic urges of the peoples of Eastern Europe

97.Which of the following was NOT a contributing factor in the revolutions of 1848?

  1. Italian nationalism

  2. Discontent among ethnic minorities in Eastern Europe

  3. The Communist Manifesto

  4. The heavy handed policies of Louis Philippe of France

e.The liberal tendencies of the Berlin Assembly
98. All of the following cities experienced major uprisings in 1848 EXCEPT




99. Which of the following was the immediate cause of the revolutions that occurred in several major European cities in 1848?

(A) Metternich's flight from Vienna

(B) The worker demonstrations in St. Petersburg against the tsar

(C) The dissolution of the Prussian assembly by Otto von Bismarck

(D) Food shortages in Great Britain resulting from the Corn Laws

(E) The overthrow of Louis-Philippe of France
100. Which is the most accurate appraisal of the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848?

  1. they established democratic republics in both Britain and France

  2. they overthrew the conservative regimes of central Europe

  3. they were largely unsuccessful

  4. they brought about German unification

  5. they established parliaments in both Russia and Austria

101. The most significant, long term result of the revoultions of 1848 was

  1. The large scale abandonment of liberalism by the masses

  2. Hungarian independence

  3. The rise of communism

  4. The unificiation of Italy

  5. The triumph of democratic reform

102. The revolutions of 1848 are best understood as

  1. The result of tension between liberal and nationalist aspirations of the people of Europe and the determined conservatism of their aristocratic masters

  2. Independence movements

  3. Large-scale attempts to redistribute wealth in European society

  4. Precursors to the French Revolution

Democratic revolutions
103. Which is the most accurate appraisal of the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848?

  1. they established democratic republics in both Britain and France

  2. they overthrew the conservative regimes of central Europe

  3. they were largely unsuccessful

  4. they brought about German unification

  5. they established parliaments in both Russia and Austria

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