Ap chapter 17 test bank

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1. The two most important influences on Enlightenment thought were toleration to all except

  1. Galileo and Copernicusl

  2. Newton and Copernicus

  3. Bacon and Descartes

  4. Locke and Newton

  5. Galileo and Locke

2.After 1688, Great Britain permitted religious toleration to all except

  1. Jews and Roman Catholics

  2. Lutherans and Unitarians

  3. Muslims and Jews

  4. Unitarians and Roman Catholics

  5. Lutherans and Jews

3.This nation was significantly freer that any other European nation at the beginning of the Enlightenment

  1. France

  2. Holland

  3. Spain

  4. England

4. An expanding literate public and the growing influence of secular printed materials created a new and increasing influential social force called

  1. Public opinion

  2. Societal drive

  3. Communal view

  4. The general will

  5. Social premise

5. All of the following can be said of the 18th century Enlightenment EXCEPT

  1. The Newtonian Revolution of the previous century set in motion

  2. It was based on the belief that unchangeable natural laws governed human society as well as the physical universe

  3. it supported the assumption that human reason could fathom the natural laws

  4. it reflected acceptance of social inequities and injustice as inevitable effects of natural law

  5. it was optimistic and progress oriented

6.The Enlightenment

  1. Was based upon the assumption that science and reason can explain all things

  2. Was dramatically opposed to the Newtoniam concept of natural law

  3. Was widely attacked by the royalty and nobility of Europe

  4. Regarded human progress as an impossibility “in this best of all possible worlds”

  5. Rejected the claims of modern science

7.“Liberty” in the 18th century thought, can best be described as

  1. Human rights and the sovereignty of the people

  2. Equality and opportunity

  3. An offshoot of the divine rights of kings

  4. Generally opposed by the intellectual elite

  5. Receiving widespread popular support before the French Revolution

8.The scientists, thinkers, and writers of the scientific revolution gave 18th century Europe a belief in

  1. Progress

  2. Natural law

  3. Hope of the future

  4. Education

  5. All of the above

9. Writers of the Enlightenment were primarily interested in

  1. changing the relationship between people and their government

  2. supporting the divine right theory

  3. debating the role of the church in society

  4. promoting increased power for European monarchs

10. The eighteenth-century philosophes believed that society could best achieve progress through

(A) prayer and contemplation

(B) intuition

(C) hard work and self-denial

(D) scientific empiricism

(E) analysis of Greek and Latin texts

11.“The salon was a weekly gathering held in the home of one of the dominant ladies of the society, at which dinner was usually served, cards usually played, but conversation led by the hostess predominated. A few salons were known as having the ideal mixture of leading intellectuals, open-minded nobles, and clever, elegant women.”
The passage above describes an important aspect of social life in which of the following?

(A) Geneva during the Reformation

(B) Florence during the Renaissance

(C) London during the Glorious Revolution

(D) Paris during the Enlightenment

(E) Berlin during the Kulturkampf

12.Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill both wrote

(A) critiques of the French Revolution

(B) tracts on liberty and the rights of women

(C) Utopian novels

(D) polemics against alcohol consumption

(E) satires of George III of England

13. Hobbes and Rousseau would have agreed that

(A) a monarch has absolute power

(B) the state is based on a social contract

(C) the state of nature is peaceful and harmonious

(D) political authority should be shared by the monarch and representatives of the people

(E) citizens have a right to revolt

14.The group most severely criticized in the works of Voltaire, the French philosophe, was the

(A) English people

(B) French middle class

(C) German peasantry

(D) Roman Catholic clergy

(E) Italian ruling class

15.The eighteenth-century Enlightenment philosophes were primarily concerned with

(A) the advancement of theological and metaphysical knowledge

(B) the setting of limits on the human ability to change

(C) pure skepticism and the negation of reason

(D) mystical sciences such as numerology and astrology

(E) critical and inquiring approaches to knowledge

16. Which of the following is most characteristic of Voltaire's ideas?

(A) Empiricism and religious toleration are to be celebrated.

(B) The branches of government should be balanced.

(C) Future progress is inevitable and limitless.

(D) The General Will is the ideal basis for good government.

(E) Sensory experience can never be verified
17. Jean-Jacques Rousseau differed significantly from other Enlightenment philosophes in his:

(A) emphasis on emotions and his admiration for the “noble savage”

(B) emphasis on the importance of science to social progress

(C) belief in traditional religious customs

(D) belief in determinism

(E) belief in the divine right of kings

18. Written by Voltaire in English and later translated to French, this book praised the virtues of the English, especially their religious liberty and implicitly criticized the abuses of French society

  1. Letter on the English

  2. Improvements on the Island

  3. Critiques and Criticisms of Modern French Society

  4. Faults of France

  5. The Spirit of the Law

19. Philosophes criticized the Christian church for all of the following EXCEPT

  1. Inciting wars

  2. Encouraging more concern with the afterlife than with life on earth

  3. Taking too limited a role in national politics

  4. Doctrinal disputes and intolerance

  5. Teaching that humans were fundamentally sinful

20. The philosophes used reason to address

A. British taxes.

B. social issues.

C. abusive rulers.

D. all of the above.
21.Which of the following is NOT true of the philosophes

  1. They used their positions as university professors to influence society

  2. They aimed to educate the public

  3. Their ultimate goal was a society governed by reason

  4. They wrote in many different genres

  5. They were often guests of and correspondents with the women who hosted salons

22. The style of the Enlightenment literature made famous by Voltaire was

  1. the philosophical treatise

  2. the satire

  3. the play

  4. the pamphlet

  5. the novel

23.Voltaire’s greatest concern was

  1. that governmental power be shared with the nobility

  2. for universal male suffrage

  3. for freedom of religion and the press

  4. the rights of the poor

  5. the advancement of the Encyclopedia

24.Voltaire’s Candide reveals that the Englightenment thought was not always

  1. Tolerant

  2. Clearly focused on philosophical matters

  3. Light-hearted

  4. Opposed to traditional ideas

e. Optimistic

25. “When popes and priest define their dogmas and discipline their followers, corruption is the rule and abuse is the result? Crush the infamous thing! The simple beauty of Christ’s message has been lost in ignorance and encrusted in superstition”.

The speaker above would probably adhere to the views of

  1. Bishop Bossuet

  2. Voltaire

  3. Montesquieu

  4. Baron Holbach

  5. Diderot

26. Many philosophes, such as Voltaire, believed that governmental reform would be accomplished by

  1. The introduction of democracy

  2. Benevolent absolutist monarchs

  3. Empowering the nobles at the expense of the kings

  4. Revolution

  5. Trusting the masses

27. Voltaire and Montesquieu had a similar outlook in their opinions about

  1. Who should rule

  2. The parlements

  3. Separation of powers

  4. England

  5. A social contract

28. The main purpose of the French salons was to

  1. Honor men like Voltaire and Rousseau

  2. Provide a forum where men of letters could exchange ideas

  3. Give aristocratic women an important societal role

  4. Give foreigners like Franklin and Jefferson opportunities to meet the French

  5. Avoid censorship in France

29. Which of the following was argued by John Locke in the Second Treatise of Government

  1. Peace requires an absolute ruler

  2. A government must follow the “general will” of the people

  3. Democracy is the only legitimate form of government

  4. The government must always protect the people’sright to property

e. Monarchy must always be opposed

30. The book System of Nature (1770), the Baron d’Hollbach, was one of the most radical texts of the Enlightenment because of its

  1. Advocacy of revolution

  2. Materialism

  3. Liberalism

  4. Support of the French Revolution

e. Advocacy of science

32.All of the following are examples of the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau EXCEPT

  1. Humans are essentially good

  2. The education of children should concentrate on developing the senses, sensibilities, and sentiments

  3. “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains”

  4. The proper role of government is to protect individual property

e. The virtuous citizen should be willing to subordinate his own self-interest to the general good of the community

33. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes said that government is a “contact”

  1. Between the ruler and those governed; those being ruled should turn over all authority to the ruler to ensure security and order

  2. Between the government and people to protect the rights to life, liberty and property

  3. Among the people, determined by the “general will”

  4. Between an elected parliament and a ruler for peace and justice

e. Among the nobility and the monarch to provide best for the kingdom

34. The philosophes were primarily

  1. Early scientific experiments

  2. Journalists and popularizers of the Enlightenment

  3. Philosophers of the Enlightenment

  4. Experimenters in new agricultural methods

  5. Astronomers such as Galileo and Kepler

35. According to John Locke, the purpose of government is to protect

  1. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

  2. Freedom of thought and religion

  3. Economic security

  4. Life, liberty and property

  5. An uncensored press

36. In his political commentary, the French philosopher Montesquieu most admired England for its

  1. Democratic institutions

  2. Freedom of the press

  3. Division of power

  4. Power of the monarchy

  5. Freedom of religion

37. Rousseau can be considered an early Romantic thinker primarily because he

  1. Saw the world as a machine

  2. Admired the peasant and, even more, the uncivilized

  3. Advocated reason over eomotion

  4. Directly encouraged revolutionary thought

  5. Had faith in an absolute monarch

38. Voltaire’s famous slogan “Crush the horrible thing” refers to

  1. nationalism

  2. reason

  3. conservatism

  4. absolute monarchy

  5. religion

39. Montequieu, in his Spirit of the Laws, was inspired by the system of government in

  1. Venice

  2. Russia

  3. Great Britain

  4. France

  5. The US

40. Voltaire’s famous slogan “Crush this horrible thing” refers to

  1. Nationalism

  2. Reason

  3. Absolute monarchy

  4. Religion

  5. rights of life, liberty, and protery

41. Whose Spirit of the Laws, in 1748, served as a basis for the American Constitution’s “separation of powers”.

  1. Montesquieu

  2. Voltaire

  3. Rousseau

  4. Diderot

e. Quesnay

42. Rousseageu’s Emile influenced the way people viewed child

  1. By emphasizing the need to teach emotional restraint

  2. By suggesting it as the time in which to install the benefits of a rational education

  3. By emphasizing that children were not merely small adults

  4. By positioning it as the critical focus for the family dynamic

e. By framing it as a mirror to adult behaviors

43. Which is the most accurate statement pertaining to the philosophes of the 18th century

  1. The were exclusively French

  2. They promoted radical revolution in the political sphere

  3. They were primarily reformers

  4. They were universally condemned by the monarchs of Europe

  5. They appealed only to the intellectual elite

44. Thomas Jefferson advocated which of the following ideas, which had its origins in the writing of John Locke, in the American Declaration of Independence?

  1. People have the right to own property

  2. The purpose of government is to protect individual rights

  3. The king was responsible for abuses of power

  4. Governments may curtail certain freedom in time of crisis

  5. People are entitled to pursue happiness

45. Which of the following presented the most radical challenge to the traditional ruling regimes of the 18th century .

  1. Locke’s notion that humans are born tabula rasa

  2. Hobbes notion that human nature requires a ruler with absolute power

  3. Beccaria’s notion that the goal of the legal system should be rehabilitation and reintegration of the criminal to society

  4. The concept of religious tolerance

  5. Rousseau’s notion that a lawful government must be continually responsible to the general will of the people

46. Which of the following is NOT part of Rousseau’s thought?

  1. Humans are born essentially good and virtuous but are easily corrupted by society

  2. The early years of a child’s education should be spent developing the senses, sensibilities, and sentiment

  3. “Man is born free; and everwhere he is in chains”

  4. All religion is based on “hope and fear”

47.Which of the following best expresses Voltaire's views concerning religion?


Catholics should obediently follow the dictates of the pope


Protestants should be excluded from French government service


Religious unity is fundamental to enlightened monarchies


Organized religion perpetuates superstition and ignorance


Criticism of religious doctrines and authorities should be condemned

48. Hobbes and Locke disagreed in their belief that

a. men are created equal

b. men tend to follow their own self interest

c. the natural state of men is one of war

d. a government’s power comes from the people

e. men are often ruled by passions

49. Locke argued that the primary aim of government is

a. to guarantee peace by putting the fear of death into its subjects

b. to follow and enact the general will of the people

c. to provide and protect democracy

d. to assure the right to property

e. to institute a constitutional monarchy

50. The two major points on the Deists’ creed were

  1. The belief in an afterlife dependent upon one’s earthly actions and the existence of a rational God

  2. The belief in the afterlife dependent upon one’s earthly actions and the existence of absolute principles

  3. The belief in the existence of a rational God and the existence of absolute principles

  4. The belief that God had not created human beings and that humans did not have a soul

  5. The belief in the existence of absolute principles and the illogical nature of God’s existence

51. Which of the following figures came closest to atheism in their religious thinking?

  1. Locke

  2. Toland

  3. Baron d’Holbach

  4. Voltaire

  5. Lessing

52. Which of the following best expresses Voltaire’s views concerning religion

a. Catholics should obediently follow the dictates of the pope

b. Protestants should be excluded from French government service

c. Religious unity is fundamental to enlightened monarchies

d. organized religion perpetuates superstition and ignorance

e. criticism of religious doctrines and authorities should be condemned

53. According to Ethics, the most famous of his works, this man closely identified God and nature, an idea for which his contemporaries condemned him

  1. Mendelsohn

  2. Hobbes

  3. Descartes

  4. Locke

  5. Spinoza

54. This 18th century philosopher was known as the “Jewish Socrates”

  1. Mendelsohn

  2. Descartes

  3. Spinoza

  4. Hobbes

  5. Lessing

55. Pascal and other critics saw this as an exceptionally carnal or sexually promiscuousreligion because of his teaching that heaven was a place of sensuous delights

  1. Judaism

  2. Hinduism

  3. Protestantism

  4. Islam

  5. Catholicism

56. The religious belief of the majority of the philosophes was

  1. Catholicism

  2. Lutherancottish philosopher Adam Smith, argued th

  3. Calvinism

  4. Deism

  5. Atheism

57. Which of the following holds that God is no longer active in the world

  1. Atheism

  2. Liberalism

  3. Conservatism

  4. Deism

  5. Calvinism

58. What was the “religion of the Enlightenment” ?

  1. Protestantism

  2. Agnosticism

  3. Atheism

  4. Rationalism

  5. Deism

59. The Enlightenment concept of a remote God who does not interfere in the operations of his creation is

  1. Theism

  2. Pantheism

  3. Deism

  4. Atheism

  5. Protestantism

60. Deists such as Voltaire believe that

  1. God reveals himself through miracles

  2. There is no God

  3. God created the universe but then plays no additional role in shaping the course of events

  4. A state church is necessary

  5. Limited religious toletation should be encouraged

61.The 18th century deists

  1. Were atheists

  2. Were part of the Great Awakening, and evangelical Christian movement

  3. Believed in a rational world that operated according to natural law

  4. Were reformers in the Church of England

  5. Were similar to the pietists of Germany

62. The Encyclopedia

  1. Was written in 1750, but was not published until 1789

  2. Secularized learning and spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe

  3. Sold about 1200 copies

  4. Was written entirely by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert

  5. Received official support

63. He published On Crimes and Punishments, in which he applied critical analysisto the problem of making punishments both effective and just

  1. Marquiz Cesare Beccaria

  2. Denis Diderot

  3. Montaigne

  4. John Toland

  5. Jean Le Rond d’ Alembert

64. The main purpose of the Encyclopedia was to

  1. Blast wat the philosophes saw as superstition in religion

  2. Spread the ideas and technology of the Enlgithenement and scientific revolution

  3. Collect articles from writers around the world

  4. Present information without offending French censors

  5. Do all of the above

65. The Encyclopedia of the late 18th century was considered radical because it

  1. Was printed in English rather than Latin

  2. Was the first multivolume publication

  3. Labeled anything not based on reason as superstitution

  4. Called for a revolution and overthrow of the monarchy

e. Was a Protestant encyclopedia

66. The main problem that Denis Diderot encountered in the compilation of his Encyclopedia was

  1. The huge investment that the multivolume work required

  2. Getting avariety of authors to contribe

  3. Dealing with various levels of censorship

  4. Finding purchases

  5. Printing illustrations

67. Adam Smith advocated

  1. The ending of England’s merchantile system

  2. And end to all taxes

  3. The elimination of England’s navy and army

  4. That government take no part in the economy

  5. A large role of government in the economy

68. According to Smith, government should provide

  1. Hospitals, armies, navies, and schools

  2. Armies , navies , roads, and parks

  3. Armies, navies,roads, and hospitals

  4. Armies, navies, markets, and banks

  5. Schools, armies, navies, and roads

69. According to Smith’s four-stage theory, human societies

  1. Can be religious, secular, scientific , or superstitious

  2. Move from barbarism to civilization

  3. Need four social groups to succeed

  4. Have nor real moral basis

  5. Can be classified as hunter-gatherer, pastoral, agricultural, or knowledge worker

70. The principles of laissez faire advocate that

  1. A country should have colonies for raw materials

  2. A country’s wealth is counted in its silver and gold

  3. All tariffs should be eliminated

  4. Countries should be self sufficient

  5. Governments should control wages and prices

Questions 71-72 refer to the following statement.

Self-interest drives people to action and the Invisible Hand of competition acts as an automatic regulator so that the market will generate wealth for the nation.
71. The author of this passage would have agreed with which of the following statements?
(A) Government regulation of the market helps to promote a healthy economy.

(B) People will produce according to their abilities and be compensated according to their needs.

(C) Individual self-interest, however enlightened, will destroy the market.

(D) Government must not interfere with the market mechanism if it is to perform properly.

(E) Wealth will be divided equally by the market mechanism.

72. Adam Smith maintained that

(A) workers real wages decrease in the long run

(B) population always tends to outstrip food supplies

(C) monopolies benefit the state

(D) competition is socially beneficial

(E) social revolution is inevitable

73.Adam Smith’s An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations advocated a system of

(A) imperialism

(B) free trade

(C) protective tariffs

(D) socialism

(E) mercantilism

74. Which of the following activities did Adam Smith believe was most appropriate for a national government?

(A) Granting monopolies

(B) Providing tax exemptions to infant industries

(C) Acquiring colonies

(D) Defending the state against foreign invasion

(E) Fixing wages and prices

75.The economic policy known as Laissez faire

  1. Advocates protectionist tariffs

  2. Is based on the notion that everyone has a right to do anything that they want

  3. Is based on the notion that human self-interest produces natural laws that govern economic behavior

  4. Argues that the government should act as an “invisible hand” to regulate the economy

  5. Was instituted by enlightened despots

76.The doctrine of laissez faire, often attributed to the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, argued that

  1. People should be able to do whatever they want

  2. Scotland should be free of English rule

  3. Governments should not try to interfere with the natural workings of an economy

  4. Welfare laws would retard the evolution of human society

  5. Imperial expansion was a necessary outcome of natural laws

77.An advocate of laissez-faire

  1. Advocates protectionist tariffs

  2. Argues that only natural laws are legitimate

  3. Argues that the government should refrain from trying to regulate the economy

  4. Argues that the government should act as an “invisible hand to regulate the economy

  5. Argues that a monarch rules by the command of God

78. The most important political thought of the Enlightenment occurred in

  1. France

  2. Holland

  3. Scotland

  4. England

79. He contended that the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature

  1. Voltaire

  2. Smith

  3. Descartes

  4. Montesquieu

  5. Rousseau

80. Based on his ideas and traditions, most 18th century political thinkers regarded human beings as individuals and society as a collection of individuals pursuing personal, selfish goals

  1. Bacon

  2. Descartes

  3. Locke

  4. Hobbes

  5. Rousseau

81. Most European thinkers associated with the Enlightenment

  1. Were members of the artisan class

  2. Favored social revolution

  3. Were proponents of democracy

  4. Favored the extension of European empires across the world

  5. Were atheists

82. Herder is famous for his early view concerning

  1. Cultural relativism

  2. Intellectual realism

  3. Social democracy

  4. Economic inequality

  5. Relative absolutism

83. In Crime and Punishment(1764), the Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria extended the Enlightenment line of thought by arguing that

  1. The purpose of punishment should be to rehabilitate and reintegrate the individual into society

  2. An all-powerful ruler is necessary to keep order and prevent crime

  3. The death penalty should be abolished

  4. The punishment for crimes should be standard in all kingdoms

  5. Society corrupts human nature, which is naturally good

84. He was a strong monarchist who in 1759 published a History of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great, which declared, “Peter was born, and Russia was formed”

  1. Voltaire

  2. Diderot

  3. Descartes

  4. Montesquieu

  5. Rousseau

85. Enlightened monarchs of the eighteenth century supported all of the following EXCEPT

(A) religious tolerance

(B) increased economic productivity

(C) pacifist foreign policy

(D) administrative reform

(E) secular and technical education
86.Which of the following pairs of European rulers is generally identified as “enlightened” monarchs?

(A) Anne of England and Louis XV

(B) Joseph II and Catherine the Great

(C) Frederick William I and George III

(D) Elizabeth I and Mary Stuart

(E) Peter the Great and Catherine de Médicis


87. The painting above depicts the Austrian Emperor Joseph II (1780-1790) as:

(A) a democratic representative of the common people

(B) a ruler surveying conquered territories

(C) an Enlightened monarch interested in methods of improving productivity

(D) the "first servant of the state" who encouraged Enlightenment philosophes

(E) an advocate of the reeducation of the aristocracy through forced agricultural labor

88. Monarchs such as Joseph II and Catherine II made “ enlightened” reform as part of their drive to

  1. Do away with the nobility in their realms

  2. Begin the process of moving forward constitutional monarchy

  3. Give commoners more political power

  4. Begin the process of moving away from monarchy

  5. Increase revenues and gain political support

89. This monarch embodies enlightened enlightened absolutism more than any other . He/she forged a state that commanded the loyalty of the military, the junker nobility, the Lutheran clergy , and a growing bureaucracy

  1. Joseph II

  2. Catherine II

  3. Maria Theresa

  4. Peter the Great

  5. Frederick the Great

90. Monarchs associated with enlightened with enlightened absolutism included all of the following EXCEPT

  1. Louis XIV

  2. Joseph II

  3. Maria Theresa

  4. Frederick the Great

  5. Catherine II

91. Of all the rising states of the 18th century, this state what the most diverse in its people and problems

  1. France

  2. Prussia

  3. Russia

  4. Britain

  5. Austria

92. Maria Theresa of Austria did all of the following EXCEPT

  1. Expanded primary education

  2. Created central councils to deal with political problems

  3. Limited the amount of labor the nobility could demand form peasants

  4. Created regional legislative councils to give ordinary people a say in politics

  5. Established a very efficient tax system

93. Joseph II of Austria

  1. Extended freedom of worship to Muslims

  2. Increased the tax burden on the peasantry

  3. Built many Catholic seminaries and allowed the church total autonomy

  4. Sought to improve the productivity and social conditions of the peasantry

  5. Reduced the serfs to slaves

94. Catherine the Great of Russia

  1. Abandoned the ideals of absolutism

  2. Built a strong alliance with the nobility

  3. Made an alliance with Poland

  4. Replaced the nobles with loyal government bureaucrats

  5. Freed Russian serfs

95. As part of her territorial aspirations, Catherine the Great painlessly annexed this newly independent state in 1783

  1. Estonia

  2. Livonia

  3. Crimea

  4. Finland

  5. Romania

96. The most important reason absolute monarchs like Catherine II and Frederick II attempted reform was

  1. Because they believed in the Enlightenment

  2. To strengthen their states

  3. To improve the lot of their serfs

  4. To gain the respect of the philosophes

  5. Because they wanted to show off their power to other monarchs

97. Joseph II of Austria(1780-1790) has been called the “ideal Enlightened Despot” for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

  1. He abolished serfdom

  2. He fostered freedom of the press

  3. He granted religious freedom to most Christian sects and to Jews

  4. He abolished the secret police

  5. He suppressed the influence of the Roman Catholic Church

98. Catherine the Great was somewhat limited in the enlightenment reforms she could initiate mainly because

  1. She was female

  2. She was fearful after the violence of Pugachev’s Rebellion

  3. Russia was a large, backward country

  4. She was more interested in conquest

  5. Russian law was cumbersome and difficult

99. A fact that was true of both Frederick the Great of Prussia and Joseph II of Austria was that

  1. Both decreed total religious toleration

  2. Both closed monasteries dedicated to prayer and meditation

  3. Both freed serfs

  4. Neither imporved education

  5. Neither trained a successor

100. Which best characterized Enlightened Despotism

  1. The monarch is an educated person who exercises absolute authority solely as he sees fit

  2. The monarch encourages the spread of Deism and rationalism

  3. The monarch supports and fosters the growth of democracy

  4. The monarch rules with absolute authority for the good of the people

  5. The monarch believes in the people’s ultimate right to, and capacity for, self-rule

101. Which of the following was generally not considered an Enlightened Despot

  1. Frederick the Great of Prussia

  2. Peter the Great of Russia

  3. Catherine the Great of Russian

  4. Maria Theresa of Austria

  5. Alexander the Great of Russia

102. Frederick II of Prussia proved himself an enlightened monarch in all of the following ways EXCEPT

  1. Introducing new crops and scientific agriculture

  2. Hosting Voltaire at Potsdam

  3. Composing music for the flute

  4. Establishing total religious toleration

  5. Eliminating torture and establishing appellate courts

103. Any ambition that Catherine the Great may have had to reform serfdom in Russia fell by the wayside after

  1. Didierot visited her in Russia

  2. Pugachev staged his rebellion in 1773-1774

  3. She met with delegated to consider codifying Russian law

  4. She got involved with the partitions of Poland

  5. She was preoccupied with her various lovers

104. Which of the following statements is most accurate for those rulers in the 18th century who are labeled Enlightened Despots

  1. They under cut the basis of monarchical authority

  2. They did not under stand many of the nuances of Englightenment Absolutists

  3. They implemented serious reforms that had long-term consequences for their countries

  4. Their toyed with the ideas of reform but refused to put limits on their royal prerogatives

  5. The made their nations into more rational constitutional monarchies

105. The philosophes generally

  1. Said little about women

  2. Advocated fundamental changes in the social condition of women

  3. Saw women as the intellectual equals of men

  4. Believed women to be socially equal but not politically equal to men

  5. Were not avid feminists

106. He maintained that women were not naturally inferior to men and that women should have a wider role in society. He was also sympathetic in his observations concerning the value placed on women’s appearance and the predjudice women met as they aged

  1. Roussueau

  2. Descartes

  3. Voltaire

  4. Smith

  5. Montesquieu

107. Mary Wollenstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Women(1792) was the first book published in Great Britain to

  1. Demand that women should be educated

  2. Insist on the moral supremacy of women

  3. Demand that women should have full political rights

  4. Speculate on the advent of a political party for women

  5. Demand that the monarchy should pass to the eldest child, regardless of whether they are male or female

108. Women played their most prominent role during the Enlightenment by

  1. Serving as a major topic for the philosophes

  2. Writng books and political tracts

  3. Declining to participate in any social events

  4. Sponsoring salons

  5. Rejecting enlightened ideals

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