1. Which of the following had the greatest effect in moving the United States toward participation in the First World War?
A. The German disregard of treaty obligations in violating Belgian neutrality.
B. Germany’s declaration of its intent to wage unrestricted submarine warfare.
C. A German offer to reward Mexico with U.S. territory should it join Germany in a war against the United States.
D. The beginning of the Russian Revolution
E. The rapidly deteriorating situation of the Allies.
2. The “Zimmerman Papers” were infamous because they
A. Exposed German atrocities against the Jews and other prisoners of war and contributed directly to the U.S. entry into World War I.
B. Exposed a German plot to enlist Mexico into an alliance with Germany in a war against the United States
C. Exposed corruption in the U.S. Justice Department leading to a total reorganization of the department and the formation of the FBI.
D. Exposed a British plot to disguise their warships as American merchant ships, encouraging German submarines to attack any ship flying the American flag, hopefully luring the United States into World War I.
E. Revealed the existence of Communist spies in the highest levels of American government, following World War I, and led to the “Red Scare” in which hundreds of innocent people were victimized in witch hunts trying to weed out Communists.
3. Industrial committees which helped mobilize the country’s war efforts during World War I were
A. Instrumental in preventing corruption and labor dissension from crippling the mobilization campaign.
B. So dominated by greedy businessmen cashing in on the war they were disbanded and replaced by the War Industries Board.
C. The key to an efficient war effort following the collapse of the War Industries Board.
D. Ruled unconstitutional by the conservative Supreme Court and were forced to reorganize as unfunded private consulting groups.
E. Not formed until so late in the war effort that they had little impact other than to streamline the process for the transfer of men and equipment from the United States to France.
4. The primary function of the Food Administration during the First World War was to
A. Keep farm prices high by limiting the amount of food produced on American farms.
B. Insure an adequate supply of food for American needs by arranging for imports from America’s British and French allies.
C. Oversee the production and allocation of foodstuffs to assure adequate supplies for the army and the Allies.
D. Monitor the purity and wholesomeness of all food items shipped to France to feed the American Army there.
E. Create and operate large-scale government-owned farms.
5. The primary function of the war boards during the First World War was to
A. increase cooperation among business, labor, and government.
B. encourage the breakup of monopolies.
C. nationalize the banking industry.
D. limit the influence of social scientists on government policy.
E. minimize the tax burden on the lower classes.
6. During the First World War, the Committee on Public Information issued propaganda to persuade the American people of all the following EXCEPT
A. The United States was fighting for freedom and democracy
B. The United States was fighting against a barbarous nation
C. Buying bonds was important to support he war effort
D. A German invasion of the United States was a possibility
12. In the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Versailles, Woodrow Wilson was willing to sacrifice other portions of his Fourteen Points in order to gain Allied approval of
A. A ban on secret diplomacy
B. A strengthening of the Austrian Empire in order to restore the balance of power
C. A union of Germany and Austria in accordance with the right of self-determination of peoples
D. New rules of blockade that would provide more complete freedom of the seas
E. A League of Nations
13. What was the reaction in the U.S. Senate to the terms of the 1918 Treaty of Versailles?
A. The Senate overwhelmingly supported the major provisions of the treaty and only demanded a few minor adjustments before ratifying it
B. The Senate felt that in many ways the treaty was too harsh on Germany, but that overall it was a good plan for postwar peace
C. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations, but felt that the treaty was too important to be destroyed by partisan politics. As a result, the Senate narrowly passed the ratification measure making the treaty official.
D. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and had trouble with several treaty articles. As a result, the Senate didn’t ratify the treaty until the second time Wilson sent it to them. Even then, the Senate refused to ratify the provisions calling for U.S. membership in a League of Nations
E. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and for the treaty that the peace conference produced. Wilson refused to compromise on various treaty provisions and the Senate rejected the treaty both times it was sent to them.
14. The rejection of the Versailles Treaty by the United States Senate signaled what future for American foreign policy?
A. The United States retreated into isolationism and backed away from a world leadership role.
B. The United States rejected playing a secondary role to the European powers and took a more aggressive role in dominating world politics.
C. The United States began taking an active part in promoting internationalism through its leadership in the League of Nations.
D. The United States formed a defensive alliance with Britain and France to protect against any further abuses by the Germans.
E. The United States launched an aggressive campaign to force all the European powers to relinquish their colonial holdings to American control and eventual independence.
15. "Article X says that every member of the League and that means every great fighting power in the world . . . , solemnly engages to respect and preserve . . . the territorial integrity and existing political independence of the other members of the League. If you do that, you have absolutely stopped ambitious and aggressive war."
Woodrow Wilson's statement above was made in justification of his
A. decision to send troops to northern Russia and Siberia after the Bolshevik Revolution.
B. refusal to award Fiume to the Italians.
C insistence on "open treaties, openly arrived at"
D. opposition to the resolution on racial equality put forward at the Paris peace negotiations by the Japanese delegation.
E. refusal to accept the "reservations" proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge in the Senate debate over ratification of the Treaty of Versailles.
16. The Palmer Raids of 1919 were conducted against
A. suspected communists and anarchists
B. Republicans bitterly opposed to the Wilson administration
C. alleged financial backers of Marcus Garvey
D. labor organizers for the American Federation of Labor.
E. White racist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan.
17. Which of the following statements about American cities between 1890 and 1930 is correct?
A. Area of residence increasingly became an indicator of social class
B. Poor people moved to the outskirts of cities
C. Industries shifted from the cities to the suburbs
D. Widespread racial integration of communities occurred
E. Neighborhoods losts their ethnic identification.
18. The case of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Venzetti in the 1920s illustrated
A. America’s “Return to Normalcy”
B. The lack of compassion toward immigrants
C. The treatment of Indians
D. The reckless vigilante spirit that existed in the Southern states
E. The extent of the “Red Scare”
19. Which of the following accurately describes the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s?
A. Its activities were limited to the South.
B. It favored immigration restriction as well as White supremacy.
C. It repudiated fundamentalist Protestantism.
D. Many of its members were elected to Congress.
E. It appeared for the first time during this decade.
20. Which of the following celebrated trials best illustrates the cultural conflict in the 1920s between fundamentalism and modernism?
A. The Scottsboro trial
B. The Leopold-Loeb Trial
C. The John T. Scopes Trial
D. The Albert B. Fall trial.
E. The Sacco-Vanzetti Trial.
21. A number of changes took place in the intellectual life of college-educated Americans between about 1880 and 1930. Which of the following changes was LEAST characteristic of this group in this period?
A. Growth in influence of religious fundamentalism
B. Rise of pluralistic and relativistic world views