Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem kilenc tudományágában
PhD, Catholic University in Ružomberok
Who has the right to live in Singer´s preference utilitarianism? The conference paper primarily deals with preference utilitarianism presented by Australian philosopher Peter Singer who is known for his controversial ideas in the field of practical ethics. These ideas mostly rail against dogmas “the sanctity of human life” or absolute “reverence for human life”. The main aim of the conference paper is to present the fundamental assertions of preference utilitarianism in the book Practical Ethics. The author also would like to analyze the argumentation connected with the questions of moral status of human embryos and handicapped infants. The central question of the conference paper is- who has the right to live in Singer´s preference utilitarianism? And it is really morally defensible to protect the nonhuman animals (e.g. chimpanzees, dogs, and cats) when on the other hand, infants and foetuses and humans in a persistent vegetative state have to die? The author works with the critics mentioned by Dale Jamieson in the book Singer and His Critics and Susan Lufkin Kranz Refuting Peter Singer's Ethical Theory: The Importance of Human Dignity and many others.
PhD, University of Barcelona
European Energy Market Integration: Efficiency improvements in Electricity producing and distribution firms From the last few decades the energy sector in almost all countries, and particularly in Europe, has experienced a group of reforms, these reforms try to cope with mainly three aspects of the energy producing firms: the security of supply of raw materials, the control of shocks in prices and the efficiency improvements of firms in the energy sector. In this paper we try to explore the last one. We first identify the main factors that may lead to efficiency improvements in the energy sector; secondly, we propose measures for each factor and; finally speak about of the efficiency improvements that might be directly related to the integration of Energy Markets in Europe. While efficiency improvements have been pointed as one of the main objectives in the design, development and deployment of European reforms in this sector, we believe that the greatest part of improvements can be identified with different causes like technological improvements or new energy generation methods. A better identification of factors and their consequences it’s crucial to cope better with further reforms and policy design.
PhD, Ukrainian Catholic University, Lviv
The problems of the relationship between theology and natural (physical–mathematical) sciences based on modern investigation This paper analyzes the relationship of theology and natural sciences, particularly physico-mathematical. The development and contemporary issues in this direction of investigated.
The mode of correlation of science and theology according to Michal Gellerhas are presented. The existence of some interaction between physical theories and theological or philosophical doctrines that under certain circumstances provides the appearance of interrelated or equivalent theoretical principles and conclusions in various fields is shown. The significance of the Geller concept of interaction for a theologian prevailing scientific image of the world is proven.
Based on the most famous naturalists and scientists on issues of interdisciplinary studies it have been shown the value of the relationship of modern physics and theology, in particular, the scientific and religious point view on the issues of the origin of the Universe and the conditions of existence of life on Earth are highlights.
Actuality of collaboration of faith and science is presented. On concrete examples it is proved the efficiency of interaction in a dialogue between precise and philosophical - theological sciences. A way of development such interaction through the formation of interdisciplinary working groups is recommended.
PhD, Jagiellonian University, Kraków
Origins of the Notion of Free Will in Classical Philosphy The paper presents a history of the notion of free will. The evolution and elaboration of the relevant terminology and the theory of this concept is traced from its prehistory in the Sophists and in Plato to St. Augustine and John of Damascus.
The paper shows that a fundamental distinction in concepts of the will, which gives rise in Scholastic philosophy to two major ethical theories, those of voluntarism and rationalism, originates from two opposing moral psychologies, these being Sophistic relativism and Socratic intellectualism. It is further shown that these two competing notions have given rise to two traditions in ethical thinking in ancient (Stoics vs. Neoplatonism) and early medieval thought (St. Augustine vs. John of Damascus).
It is shown how this notion of will is developed in the philosophy of Plato, prominently in Republic IV. This is subsequently compared with a further development in Aristotle (Eudemian Ethics I), where a fundamental set of concepts is developed (boulesis and proairesis), which will later be adopted by Scholastic ethics.
Next the development of these concepts is outlined, from early Hellenistic philosophy (Stoics), through crucial Roman influence (introduction of the concepts voluntas and voluntarius), to theories of the will in the early Christian era (Epictetus, Origen, Plotinus). It is shown that a fundamental opposition between stoic and neoplatonist ethical systems reflect the original contention between the relativism and intellectualism of the Sophists and Socrates.
The paper ends with a presentation of two developed theories of the will, those of St. Augustine and John of Damascus. It is shown how these diverging theories emerged from earlier thought, as well as how they influenced later thought, and became the basis for two types of ethical systems, rationalistic and voluntaristic. The difference between them hinges on different treatments of the primacy of reason and will in moral action. In conclusion it is demonstrated that as this distinction derives from competing Augustinian and Aristotelian influences in Scholastic thought, it should be traced to the analogous dispute in Ancient philosophies, and ultimately to the contention between the Sophists and Socrates.
Annika Christine Brandt
MSc, Radboud University Nijmegen
Happiness – Does Attention Make the Difference? Research revealed that an important difference between happy and unhappy individuals is their manner of construing the world. In particular, happier people tend to interpret their environment more positively than their less happy peers. We suggest that differences in attention underlie these results. We investigated the effect of happiness on attention and subsequent recognition for pictorial stimuli that varied on the dimensions of valence, and, for more exploratory reasons, relevance. We hypothesized that happy people should pay more attention to positive information, whereas unhappy people should focus more on negative information. In addition, we investigated whether the above effects were moderated by relevance. In order to test these hypotheses, participants’ gaze patterns were assessed while they watched pictorial stimuli as an indication of attention. Afterwards, participants were asked to complete a recognition task to investigate to what extent attentional processes are related to subsequent memory.
PhD, The Catholic University in Ružomberok
Slovak Press in the Second Half of the 19th Century In this article we will discuss Slovak periodicals, which were published in the second half of the 19th century. In the introduction the methodology of processing of historical newspapers will be briefly depicted. We will also point out at their ability to have validity as relevant historical sources. The most important prints will be described. Newspapers are divided into several groups according to their content and focus. The attention is paid to periodicals such as National newspapers, Catholic newspapers as well as to journals for entertainment for instance: Černokažník and Rarášek.
We will also have a closer look at publishers that printed out the above mentioned periodicals. The article will focus on national centers as Martin and Karol Salva Publishing company in Ružomberok. On the other hand the conditions and the publishing codes, which limited the publishing of national press in the Austro-Hungarian empire are portrayed.
The perspective of Hungarian authorities and their approach to Slovak newspapers is mentioned in the article as well as closer look is given to the quality of Slovak newspapers in terms of formal and content arrangements. In the content arrangements significant contributors, currency and objectivity of press but also accuracy and range of foreign news are highlighted. In the end we will look at the affordability of public press of Slovak people. The significant role played factors as numbers of subscribers and readers but also the problems with the distribution.
MA, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Normative turn in political science In a number of methodological concepts emphasizes the difference between normative and empirical approaches to politics. The empirical political science excludes normativity understood as an aspect of ethical standards: recommendations, duties, as well as axiological: values, value judgments. The central question of this paper is: Is it possible political science without aspect of the normative? Is it empowered dichotomy, empirical - normative? In this paper I want to show that the opposition empirical - normative is groundless? In political science empiricism and normativity are in coalition. Empirical political science devoid of normativity is losing its essential purpose and object of the research is becoming impoverished.
PhD, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
The City of Social Practices The city is not only a material or spatial structure but it consists of countless and diverse human interactions, relations and activities above all. Such social practices form both the substance of urban space as our perception of it. The urban space undergoes constant adjustments to specific needs and actions of particular individual and collective human actors. As a result, given places and spaces are somehow subjects of social interpretation and reinterpretation – construction and reconstruction of some specific, culturally influenced, senses or contexts. My aim will be to give examples and discuss some of the impacts of day-to-day human actions on the visible substance of the city.
Paweł Tomasz Czerniak
PhD, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
English as a Lingua Franca: Phonological Intelligibility English has gained a status of an international language. The knowledge of English has become almost indispensible in the 21st century world. It is widely learnt as a foreign language and used as a second language by a number of bilingual speakers. Due to the enormous number of (first, second and foreign language) speakers of English, it has developed a considerable variety of styles and registers as well as regional dialects and vernaculars, which inevitably leads to social and linguistic dilemmas: Which variety to teach at schools? Should we learn the “local English”, the “British English”or the “American English”? The notion “English as a Lingua Franca” emerged from such dilemmas – we should acquire English not as a flawless system used by an ideal native speaker but as a flexible language used for the purpose of communication. Since we are not native speakers of English, we should not pretend to be ones. This, in turn, raises a paramount concern: to what extent can we “domesticate” the pronunciation of English? This presentation deals with the problem of foreign pronunciations of English and the extent to which speakers from different language environments can substitute it with their own phonologies and remain intelligible.
The Image of Man in Historiographic Metafictions by John Banvile: The Historiographic Typically, historiographic metafictions would question the way in which we reconstruct history by prominent self-consciousness of the text. Works such as Doctor Copernicus or Kepler by John Banville seemingly fail to comply with the criteria defining works written in this genre. History, as presented in the texts, does not appear to pose too many problems as far as the writing of it is concerned. This claim finds confirmation in the fact that many events which are mentioned in the novels turn out to be true to historical record, which proves that even though the writing of history may be complicated, it is manageable after all. Similarly, the self-consciousness of the text, at a first glance, is not particularly prominent here. For instance, only rarely is the narrator’s language auto-referential and even less frequently the narrator draws the readers’ attention to the fact that what they are dealing with is fiction. An illustrative example may be Rheticus’s narration but that seems to be the only case of this strategy in the two books in question. As the following paper will prove, though, there are many arguments why the readers should categorize these two novels as historiographic metafiction.
Agnieszka Bożena Czusz
PhD, John Paul II Catholic University in Lublin
How current moral development theories could act as a frame for the education of the intellectually disabled?
Abstract: to be confirmed
MA, Glasgow University
Title and Abstract: to be confirmed
PhD, Catholic University in Ružomberok
Communication of Church: Recent Challenges Presentation discusses the chances and opportunities of Church communication in media and its influence on public meaning. Using the example from Slovakia, it shows what can be done in the field of Church and media. Presentation underlines the necessity of this communication process between Church and public on the grounds of Church documents on media.
Jeroen Johannes Michaël Dera
PhD, Radboud University, Nijmegen
Institutional identity: the case of online book reviewing in the Netherlands and Flanders Although the emergence of the Internet has caused major changes within (national and global) media landscapes, the public discourse on literature is mainly centralised in traditional media such as newspapers and magazines. Online evaluations of new works of literature are widespread, but these examples of digital literary reviewing are still not acknowledged as authoritative forms of criticism. In my lecture, I will analyse the image building of Dutch-language online literary criticism by applying Gwyneth Jackaway’s concept of institutional identity to the case of, respectively, Jeroen Mettes’ critical poetry weblog and the Dutch-Belgian review site De Reactor. Focusing on the reception of these digital projects, I will argue that traditional media (published on paper) impede the symbolic growth of digital literary media by constructing a discourse in which online criticism is connected to shallowness, ad hominem arguments and the private sphere.
The word-catcher: A creative writing experiment Literary works enchant with stories, ideas, characters ultimately created out of words, phrases, sentences – structures intensely scrutinized and specially selected out of a plethora of possibilities during the critical, creative imaginative process. So much depends upon the right wording. Original, attractive imagery built on precise, powerful blocks of words creates worlds of fantasy, reality or absurdity. But how does a writer make these worlds credible, believable to the point of self-identification? How to rid yourself of clichés? How is writing taught? Can it be taught? How to make a literary work work? We’ll be writing, and talking about writing, and thinking about writing.
MA, The Catholic University in Ruzomberok
Kerygma in Television Broadcasting This study summarizes the results of work being done to announce the kerygma through television. It defines the meaning of the kerygma and the content that it covers. It illustrates the various different forms of the kerygmatic message and of their effects. It covers both the verbal and the visual aspects of television broadcasting. It examines the development of this medium and of its effects in both Catholic and Protestant churches. It concludes by summarizing the latest findings of research on television audiences.
PhD, The Catholic University in Ruzomberok
The Role of Convention in Language The basic idea that language is at least partially conventional seems admissible at first glance. However, it is not clear at all to which extent conventions should play role in philosophical explanation of language. On the one hand we can identify proponents of the thesis that conventions are at the very core of the language and because of this, conventions should play the crucial role especially in the explanation of communication. On the other hand, there are opponents who believe that we can identify much more important features for the sufficient explanation of language and communication and conventions play just minor role. The subject of this paper is to summarize assumptions and main arguments of two influential authors of this discussion – David Lewis and Donald Davidson. The aim of the paper is to point out potential difficulties and problematic questions which can arise from both perspectives.
MA, Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Young adults’ attachment tendencies in light of parental divorce In my BA thesis I examined attachment tendencies among young adults, depending on their parents are divorced or not.
My research is based on John Bowlby’s attachment theory (1969), which is the fundamental model of attachment relationships, and Mary Ainswoth’s attachment types. Based on their common work began to prosper the research of adult attachment, therefore I reviewed Hazan and Shaver’s (1987) and Bartholomew and Horovitz’s (1990) researches.
In my thesis a projective drawing test (Bird’s Nest Drawing, Kaiser, 1996) was used to explore the representations of familiar and attachment aspect of parental divorce, and I also examined the image of family structure with Attachment Style Questionnaire (Feeney et al, 1994) and Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al, 1979).
Results have demonstrated fundamental differences between broken and biparental families in the familiar system of relations and in parental roles.
My MA thesis is in progress now, in which I enlarge my previous research with higher sample, but now I examine a more specific age-group, and use more specific statistics.
MA, Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Differences between cohorts in gender identity and stereotypes My research explores women’s gender identity. Gender identity is strongly associated with distortions of the own group and the other, and plays an important role in the use of biases and stereotypes. My main focus was women’s explicit and implicit biases and stereotypes of their own group.
Subjects were selected from two cohorts matched in socio-economic status and education; the first cohort included adult women between ages of 45-55; the second cohort included young adults, between ages of 20-30.
Materials included the Sexual Social Identity Scale, the Gender and Carrier/Family version of the Implicit Association Test (developed by this research), the Swim’s Sexism Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Scale, and a one item sexism scale.
Results showed that benevolent sexism manifested strongly in the older cohort, however, members of this cohort preferred modern gender roles. In contrast, the younger cohort showed a preference for traditional gender roles in the explicit, and also in the implicit measure.
Results were explained by using Erikson’s theory of identity development, and with the specifics of Hungarian history. Overall, explicit measurements showed the participants’ preference for modern gender roles, while the implicit measurement resulted in a more traditional view of gender roles.
PhD, Pázmány Péter Catholic University
The Use of Colours in a Present Day Hungarian Performance of Othello Shakespeare’s Othello is based on the contrast of black and white – though some other colours occur in the play as well. I would like to analyse a Hungarian performance (directed by Eszenyi Enikő, Vígszínház 2009) on the bases of the use of colours. Since colours have an effect on the reading of the play I find it important to see how a present day direction keeps the original colours or how much it modifies them.
MA, Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Constitutional Dilemmas Concerning the Status of Minorities in Pakistan after Zia ul-Haq In 1947, Pakistan was created as a Muslim nation state, and as such, the status of religious minorities has been a complex question ever since. Among religious minority groups, it is the Ahmadiyya community that is perhaps the most challenged among all: however declaring itself as a Muslim sect, it was constitutionally declared as a non-Muslim minority group in 1974.
First, I seek to trace the concepts concerning the status of religious minorities in the Pakistani society through a legal aspect. I analyze the founding father Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s views and the actual legal steps made concerning the status of minorities after his death – with special emphasis on the constitutions and the Islamization process of Zia ul-Haq. Then I seek to analyze the special status of the Ahmadiyya community and explore how the Islamization of the law affected their position in the Pakistani society. Lastly, it is the question of the meaning of Pakistani citizenship to the Ahmadis that forms the scope of my paper.
Elvira Gyorgyovichné Koltay
PhD, Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Gated Communities and their Non-profit Organisations in Hungary In private urban governance voting rigths depend on property. In local government you have voting rights, because you live there. That is why private urban governance fundamentally different from local governance. In my view, nonprofit organisations in gated communities are examples for private urban governments. So, my first question is: What position does gated communities and their private urban governance have in local community?
My second question is justified by the fact, that these private urban governments in gated communities work in nonprofit organization form. Nonprofit organization’s activities ought to be of public utility. Is this also true in gated communities? How can they be of public utility in communities which gated themselves from the others outside?
With my research I would like to show up more information about the Hungarian gated communities. I think they are indicators of polarization in our society. That’s why we have to know more about them, and their occupant’s motivations. More information can also help local government’s decisions.