425425 Matt. xxiii. 27, 23, 24. [Note the examples he gives of the rabbinical expositions. He consents to their principle, but gives nobler analogies.]
426426 According to the LXX. Sara was altered to Sarra, and Abram to Abraam.
427427 Or, “resurrection of the saints.”
428428 Justin seems to mean that the renewal of heaven and earth dates from the incarnation of Christ. [St. Matt. xix. 28.]
429429 Isa. liii. 7.
430430 Isa. lxv. 2.
431431 Isa. liii. 1.
432432 Ps. viii. 3.
433433 Literally, “the operation of His words.” Editors have changed twn logwn into ton logon or tou logou: but there is no need of change.
434434 Jer. ii. 13.
435435 Omitted by Justin in this place.
436436 Zech. ii. 10–13, iii. 1, 2.
437437 The reading suggested by Maranus, ei men hn.
438438 [Noteworthy as to prophetic vision.]
439439 Maranus changed apospa into apospan, an emendation adopted in our translation. Otto retains the reading of the ms. “out of which Jesus the Son of God again snatches us. He promised that He would clothe us with,” etc.
440440 Justin either confuses Joshua son of Josedech with Hosea the prophet, or he refers to the Jewish tradition that “filthy garments” signified either an illicit marriage, or sins of the people, or the squalor of captivity.
441441 [Isaiah lxvi. 21; Rom. xv. 15, 16, 17 (Greek); 1 Pet. ii. 9.]
442442 Mal. i. 10–12.
443443 Or, “God of God.”
444444 [Note this testimony to the catholicity of the Church in the second century. And see Kaye (compare with Gibbon), cap. vi. 112.]
445445 eita de for eidote".
446446 Ps. cx. 4.
447447 Isa. liii. 8.
448448 2 Sam. vii. 14f.
449449 Ezek. xliv. 3.
450450 The mss. read “them.” Otto has changed it to “Him.”
451451 Isa. lii. 15, liii. 1.
452452 [Let this apology be noted.]
453453 Literally, “in the time of Moses.”
454454 Deut. xxxii. 16–23.
455455 Zech. ii. 11.
456456 See chap. cx.
457457 Isa. lxii. 12.
458458 Isa. lxv. 1.
459459 Gen. xxvi. 4.
460460 Gen. xxviii. 14.
461461 Gen. xlix. 10.
462462 [Note this important point. He forbears to cite the New Testament.]
463463 Matt. viii. 11 f.
464464 The Apology, i. chap. xxvi.; ii. chap. xv.
465465 Ps. lxxii. 17.
466466 So Justin concludes from Deut. iv. 19; comp. chap. lv. [The explanation is not very difficult (see Rom. i. 28), but the language of Justin is unguarded.]
467467 Zech. vi. 12.
468468 Zech. xii. 12.
469469 Isa. xlix. 6.
470470 Yhora or Yeiora. Found in LXX., Ex. xii. 19 and Isa. xiv. 1.
471471 Matt. xxiii. 15.
472472 Isa. xlii. 16, xliii. 10.
473473 Isa. xlii. 6.
474474 Isa. xlix. 8.
475475 Ps. ii. 7 f.
476476 Isa. xiv. 1.
477477 Literally, “a native of the land.”
478478 Deut. xxxii. 20; Isa. xlii. 19 f.
479479 Isa. xxix. 14.
480480 Jer. xxxi. 27.
481481 Isa. xix. 24 f.
482482 Ezek. xxxvi. 12.
483483 [I cannot forbear to note this “Americanism” in the text.]
484484 LXX. analamyei, as above. The reading of the text is analhyei.
485485 Isa. xlii. 1–4.
486486 Ps. lxxxii.
487487 In the text there is certainly no distinction given. But if we read w" anqrwpo" (sdaB
), “as a man,” in the first quotation we shall be able to follow Justin’s argument.
488488 The reading here is epistamai auto", which is generally abandoned for apatan eautou".
492492 [By Isaiah. “Counsellor” in English version.]
493493 Ex. vi. 2 ff.
494494 Gen. xxxii. 24, 30.
495495 Gen. xviii. 2.
496496 Gen. xviii. 13. f.
497497 Gen. xviii. 16.
498498 Gen. xviii. 17.
499499 Num. xi. 23.
500500 Deut. xxxi. 2 f.
501501 otau pon instead of otan mou.
502502 Gen. xviii. 22.
503503 Ex. vi. 29.
504504 Gen. xi. 5.
505505 Gen. vii. 16.
506506 Gen. xix. 24.
507507 Ps. xxiv. 7.
508508 Ps. cx. 1.
509509 Gen. iii. 22.
510510 Prov. viii. 22 ff.
511511 Deut. xxxii. 43.
512512 Isa. lxvi. 24.
513513 The reading is, “and calls them by the same name.” But the whole argument shows that the Jews and Gentiles are distinguished by name. [But that Gentiles are also called (Israel) by the same name is the point here.]
514514 Deut. xxxii. 7 ff.
515515 [Another Americanism. Greek, qeasasqai.]
516516 The anacolouthon is in the original.
517517 See 1 Sam. v.
518518 Or, “by the power of the name.” [2 Sam. vi. 14. Joshua in English version.]
519519 Isa. iii. 9–15.
520520 Literally, “provoked.”
521521 Literally, “turned away.”
522522 Isa. v. 18–25.
523523 Isa. xliii. 15.
524524 Isa. xlii. 1–4.
525525 Isa. lxv. 9–12.
526526 Isa. ii. 5 f.
527527 Isa. lxv. 8 f.
528528 Isa. iii. 9.
529529 Zech. ii. 8.
530530 [Justin’s varied quotations of the same text seem to have been of purpose. But consult Kaye’s most useful note as to the text of the LXX., in answer to objections of Wetstein, p. 20. ff.]
531531 Isa. iii. 9.
532532 Isa. liv. 9 comes nearer to these words than any other passage; but still the exact quotation is not in Isaiah, or in any other part of Scripture. [It is quite probable that Isa. liv. 9 was thus misunderstood by the Jews, as Trypho seems to acquiesce.]
533533 [But Justin goes on to show that it was prophetic foresight only: the curse cleaves only to wicked descendants, the authors of idolatry. It was removed by Christ. St. Matt. xv. 22–28.]
534534 Gen. ix. 24–27.
535535 Jer. ii. 13.
536536 Isa. xxix. 13.
537537 Isa. i. 9.
538538 Ezek. xiv. 18, 20.
539539 Ezek. xviii. 20.
540540 Literally, “limbs.”
541541 Isa. lxvi. 24.
542542 Matt. viii. 11 f.
543543 Chap. lxxxviii. cii.
544544 Ps. xxxii. 2.
545545 The last sentence is very dubious. For panti anqrwpinon noun read panti anqrwpw ton noun. For poihshte read pisteushte. And lastly, for to hmwn read ton Ihsoun.[But there is no doubt about the touching beauty of this close; and truly Trypho seems “not far from the kingdom of God.” Note the marvellous knowledge of the Old Testament Scriptures, which Justin had acquired, and which he could use in conversation. His quotations from the Psalms, memoriter, are more accurate than others. See Kaye, p. 141.]
546546 Potter would here read liparou, “elegant” [ironically for effeminate]; but the above reading is defended by Sylburg, on the ground that shepherds were so greatly despised, that this is not too hard an epithet to apply to Paris.
547547 Of the many attempts to amend this clause, there seems to be none satisfactory.
548548 Or, won the reputation of the virtue of wisdom by the vice of deceit.
549549 That is, the manner in which he did it, stopping his companions’ ears with wax, and having himself bound to the mast of his ship.
550550 Or, Saturn son of Heaven.
551551 In the mysteries of Eleusis, the return of Proserpine from the lower world was celebrated.
552552 Apollo accidentally killed Hyacinthus by striking him on the head with a quoit.
553553 Triesperon, so called, as some think, [from his origin: “ex concubitu trium noctium.”]
554554 Thyestes seduced the wife of his brother Atreus, whence the tragic career of the family.
555555 There is no apodosis in the Greek.
556556 Not, as the editors dispute, either the tongue of the buckle with which he put out his eyes, nor the awl with which his heels were bored through, but the goad with which he killed his father.
557557 Auto" gar hmwn.
558558 [He seems to quote Gal. iv. 12.][N. B.—It should be stated that modern critics consider this work as not improbably by another author.]
11 Literally, “former.”
22 Iliad, xiv. 302.
33 Iliad, xix. 224.
44 That is, Venus, who, after Paris had sworn that the war should be decided by single combat between himself and Menekaus, carried him off, and induced him, though defeated, to refuse performance of the articles agreed upon.
55 Iliad, xvi. 433. Sarpedon was a son of Zeus.
66 Iliad, xxii. 168.
77 Iliad, i. 399, etc.
88 Iliad, xiv. 315. (The passage is here given in full from Cowper’s translation. In Justin’s quotation one or two lines are omitted.)
99 Iliad, v. 382 (from Lord Derby’s translation).
1010 Iliad, xx. 66 (from Lord Derby’s translation).
1111 i.e., these teachers.
1212 Literally, “those who knew.”
1313 monavda kai; th;n a[riston duavda. One, or unity, was considered by Pythagoras as the essence of number, and also as God. Two, or the indefinite binary, was the equivalent of evil. So Plutarch, De placit. philosoph., c 7; from which treatise the above opinions of the various sects are quoted, generally verbatim.
1515 Or, accord and discord, attraction and repulsion.
1616 Or, “is of a fiery nature.”
1717 See the Republic, x.2. By the Platonic doctrine, the ideas of things in the mind of God were the realities; the things themselves, as seen by us, were the images of these realities; and poetry, therefore, describing the images of realities, was only at the third remove from nature. As Plato puts it briefly in this same passage, “the painter, the bed-maker, God—these three are the masters of three species of beds.”
1818 Iliad, xv. 192.
1919 i.e., from Homer; using Homer’s words as suggestive and confirmatory of his doctrine.
2020 Iliad, xiv. 246.
2121 to logikon, to qumikon, to epiqumhtikon,—corresponding to what we roughly speak of as reason, the heart, and the appetites.
2222 enteleceia,—the completion or actuality to which each thing, by virtue of its peculiar nature (or potentiality, dunami"), can arrive.
2323 Literally, “unbegotten.”
2424 Or, “liable to destruction.”
2525 Literally, “the art of words.”
2626 Literally, “clean,” free from other influences.
2727 [The diversities of Christian theology are to be regretted; but Justin here shows the harmony and order of truths, such as are everywhere received by Christians, to be an inestimable advantage.]
2828 The incongruity in this sentence is Justin’s.
2929 [Authochthones]. That is, sprung from the soil; and hence the oldest inhabitants, the aborigines.
3030 Literally, archaeology.
3131 Unfortunately, Justin here mistook Menes for Moses. [But he may have so read the name in his copy. See Grabe’s note on Diodorus, and the quotation following in another note.]
3232 This sentence must be so completed from the context in Diodorus. See the note of Maranus.
3333 [Consult the ponderous learning of Warburton’s Divine Legation, passim.]
3434 Literally, “without,” not belonging to the true faith.
3535 C. 3.
3636 [Doubtless Justin relates the tradition as he received it. Consult Dr. Selwyn’s full account of the fables concerning the LXX., in Smith’s Dict. of the Bible, iii. p. 1203 ff.]
3737 Iliad, ix. 445.
3838 Iliad, ii. 204.
3939 Has no fellow.
4040 Or, “uncreated.”
4141 o wn, “He who is; the Being.”
4242 Isa. xliv. 6.
4343 Literally, “with the not-beings.”
4444 Literally, “between the God being and not-beings.”