5858 For a sufficient account of the infamous history here alluded to and the extravagant grief of Hadrian, and the servility of the people, see Smith’s Dictionary of Biography: “Antinous.” [Note, “all were prompt, through fear,” etc. Thus we may measure the defiant intrepidity of this stinging sarcasm addressed to the “philosophers,” with whose sounding titles this Apology begins.]
5959 Some attribute this blunder in chronology to Justin, others to his transcribers: it was Eleazer the high priest to whom Ptolemy applied.
6060 Gen. xlix. 10.
6161 Grabe would here read, not sperma, but pneuma, the spirit; but the Benedictine, Otto, and Trollope all think that no change should be made.
6262 Isa. xi. 1.
6363 Isa. vii. 14.
6464 Luke i. 32; Matt. i. 21.
6565 qeoforountai, lit. are borne by a god—a word used of those who were supposed to be wholly under the influence of a deity.
6666 Micah v. 2.
6767 These predictions have so little reference to the point Justin intends to make out, that some editors have supposed that a passage has here been lost. Others think the irrelevancy an insufficient ground for such a supposition. [See below, cap. xl.]
6868 Isa. ix. 6.
6969 Isa. lxv. 2, lviii. 2.
7070 Ps. xxii. 16.
7171 aktwn. These Acts of Pontius Pilate, or regular accounts of his procedure sent by Pilate to the Emporer Tiberius, are supposed to have been destroyed at an early period, possibly in consequence of the unanswerable appeals which the Christians constantly made to them. There exists a forgery in imitation of these Acts. See Trollope.
7272 The reader will notice that these are not the words of Zephaniah, but of Zechariah (ix. 9), to whom also Justin himself refers them in the Dial. Tryph, c. 53. [Might be corrected in the text, therefore, as a clerical slip of the pen.]
7373 Zech. ix. 9.
7474 Isa. i. 3. This quotation varies only in one word from that of the LXX.
7575 Isa. lxvi. 1.
7676 Isa. i. 14, xviii. 6.
7777 Isa. lxv. 2.
7878 Isa. l. 6.
7979 Ps. xxii. 18, iii. 5.
8080 Ps. xxii. 7.
8181 Comp. Matt. xxvii. 39.
8282 Isa. ii. 3.
8383 Eurip., Hipp., 608.
8484 Ps. xix. 2, etc. [Note how J. excuses himself for the apparent irrelevancy of some of his citations (cap. xxxv., note), though quite in the manner of Plato himself. These Scriptures were of novel interest, and was stimulating his readers to study the Scriptures.]
8585 Ps. i., ii.
8686 Ps. xcvi. 1, etc. This last clause, which is not extant in our copies, either of the LXX, or of the Hebrew, Justin charged the Jews with erasing. See Dial. Tryph., c. 73. [Concerning the eighteen Jewish alterations, see Pearson on the Creed, art. iv. p. 335. Ed. London, 1824.]
8787 A chronological error, whether of the copyist or of Justin himself cannot be known.
8888 Or, “but were made so.” The words are, alla touto genomeno" and the meaning of Justin is sufficiently clear.
8989 Deut. xxx. 15, 19.
9090 Isa. i. 16, etc.
9191 Plato, Rep. x. [On this remarkable passage refer to Biog. Note above. See, also, brilliant note of the sophist De Maistre, OeOeuvres, ii. p. 105. Ed. Paris, 1853.]
9292 [On the Orphica and Sibyllina, see Bull, Works, vol. vi. pp. 291–298.]
9393 So, Thirlby, Otto, and Trollope seem all to understand the word katecein; yet it seems worth considering whether Justin has not borrowed both the sense and the word from 2 Thess. ii. 6, 7.
9494 Or, “before the morning star.”
9595 Ps. cx. 1, etc.
9696 meta logou, “with reason,” or “the Word.” [This remarkable passage on the salvability and accountability of the heathen is noteworthy. See, on St. Matt. xxv. 32, Morsels of Criticism by the eccentric but thoughtful Ed. King, p. 341. London, 1788].
9797 Isa. lxiv. 10–12.
9898 Isa. i. 7.
9999 [ad hominem, referring to the cruel decree of Hadrian, which the philosophic Antonines did not annul.]
100100 Isa. xxxv. 6.
101101 Isa. lvii. 1.
102102 Isa. lxv. 1–3.
103103 Isa. v. 20.
104104 Isa. lii. 13–15, liii. 1–8.
105105 Isa. liii. 8–12.
106106 Ps. xxiv. 7.
107107 This prophecy occurs not in Jeremiah, but in Dan. vii. 13.
108108 Dan. vii. 13.
109109 Ezek. xxxvii. 7, 8; Isa. xlv. 24.
110110 Isa. lxvi. 24.
111111 Zech. xii. 3–14; Isa. lxiii. 17, lxiv. 11.
112112 Isa. liv. 1.
113113 Isa. i. 9.
114114 The following words are found, not in Isaiah, but in Jer. ix. 26.
115115 Gen. xlix. 10.
116116 In the ms. the reading is oinon (wine); but as Justin’s argument seems to require onon (an ass), Sylburg inserted this latter word in his edition; and this reading is approved by Grabe and Thirlby, and adopted by Otto and Trollope. It may be added, that anagrafousi is much more suitable to onon than to oinon.
117117 Ps. xix. 5.
118118 From Lam. iv. 20 (Sept.).
119119 [The Orientals delight in such refinements, but the “scandal of the cross” led the early Christians thus to retort upon the heathen; and the Labarum may have been the fruit of this very suggestion.]
120120 [See cap. xxvi. above, and note p. 187, below.]
121121 Comp. Deut. xxxii. 22.
122122 Literally, “that which is treated physiologically.”
123123 He impressed him as a ciasma, i.e., in the form of the letter c upon the universe. Plato is speaking of the soul of the universe. [Timaeus, Opp., vol. ix. p. 314. And see note of Langus (p. 37) on p. 113 of Grabe. Here crops out the Platonic philosopher speaking after the fashion of his contemporaries, perhaps to conciliate his sovereign. See Professor Jowett’s Introduction to the Timaeus, which will aid the students.]
124124 Num. xxi. 8.
125125 Ta de trita peri ton triton.
126126 Deut. xxxii. 22.
127127 John iii. 5.
128128 Chap. xliv.
129129 Isa. i. 16–20.
130130 Thirlby conjectures that Justin here confused in his mind the histories of Moses and Jacob.
131131 Isa. i. 3.
132132 Matt. xi. 27.
133133 Luke x. 16.
134134 Ex. iii. 6.
135135 Isa. i. 3.
136136 Matt. xi. 27.
137137 [Rather, “of your empire.”]
138138 Ex. iii. 6.
139139 Chap. lix.
140140 And therefore caused her to preside over the waters, as above.
141141 The kiss of charity, the kiss of peace, or “the peace” (h eirhnh), was enjoined by the Apostle Paul in his Epistles to the Corinthians , Thessalonians, and Romans, and thence passed inato a common Christian usage. It was continued in the Western Church, under regulations to prevent its abuse, until the thirteenth century. Stanley remarks (Corinthians, i. 414), “It is still continued in the worship of the Coptic Church.”
142142 tw proestwti twn adelfwn. This expression may quite legitimately be translated, “to that one of the brethren who was presiding.”
143143 Literally, thanksgiving. See Matt. xxvi. 27.
144144 This passage is claimed alike by Calvinists, Lutherans, and Romanists; and, indeed, the language is so inexact, that each party may plausibly maintain that their own opinion is advocated by it.[But the same might be said of the words of our Lord himself; and, if such widely separated Christians can all adopt this passage, who can be sorry?] The expression, “the prayer of His word,” or of the word we have from Him, seems to signify the prayer pronounced over the elements, in imitation of our Lord’s thanksgiving before breaking the bread. [I must dissent from the opinion that the language is “inexact:” he expresses himself naturally as one who believes it is bread, but yet not “common bread.” So Gelasius, Bishop of Rome (A.D. 490), “By the sacraments we are made partakers of the divine nature, and yet the substance and nature of bread and wine do not cease to be in them,” etc. [See original in Bingham’s Antiquities, book xv. cap. 5. See Chryost., Epist. ad. Caesrium, tom. iii. p. 753. Ed. Migne.) Those desirous to pursue this inquiry will find the Patristic authorities in Historia Transubstantionis Papalis, etc., Edidit F. Meyrick, Oxford, 1858.The famous tractate of Ratranin (A. D. 840) was published at Oxford, 1838, with the homily of Aelfric (A. D. 960) in a cheap edition.]
145145 Luke xxii. 19.
146146 th tou Hliou legomenh hmera.
147147 osh dunami" autw.—a phrase over which there has been much contention, but which seems to admit of no other meaning than that given above. [No need of any “contention.” Langus renders, Pro virili sud, and Grabe illustrates by reference to Apost. Const., lib. viii. cap. 12. Our own learned translators render the same phrase (cap. xiii., above) “to the utmost of our power.” Some say this favours extemporary prayers, and others object. Oh! what matter either way? We all sing hymns, “according to our ability.”]
148148 Or, of the eucharistic elements.
149149 Addressed to Minucius Fundanus. [Generally credited as genuine.]
150150 [Regarded as spurious.]
151151 That is, if any one accuses a Christian merely on the ground of his being a Christian.
152152 [Spurious, no doubt; but the literature of the subject is very rich. See text and notes, Milman’s Gibbon, vol. ii. 46.]
153153 Literally, “fiery.”[Note I. (See capp. xxvi. and lvi.)In 1851 I recognised this stone in the Vatican, and read it with emotion. I copied it, as follows:
Sex. Pompeius. S. P. F. Col. Mussianvs.
Quinquennalis Decur Bidentalis Donum DEdit.”The explanation is possibly this: Simon Magus was actually recognised as the God Semo, just as Barnabas and Paul were supposed to be Zeus and Hermes (Acts xiv. 12.), and were offered divine honours accordingly. Or the Samaritans may so have informed Justin on their understanding of this inscription, and with pride in the success of their countryman (Acts viii. 10.), whom they had recognised “as the great power of God.” See Orelli (No. 1860), Insc., vol. i. 337.Note II. (The Thundering Legion.)The bas-relief on the column of Antonine, in Rome, is a very striking complement of the story, but an answer to prayer is not a miracle. I simply transcribe from the American Translation of Alzog’s Universal Church History the references there given to the Legio Fulminatrix: “Tertull., Apol., cap. 5; Ad Scap., cap. 4; Euseb., v. 5; Greg. Nyss. Or., II in Martyr.; Oros., vii. 15; Dio. Cass. Epit.: Xiphilin., lib. lxxi. cap. 8; Jul. Capitol, in Marc. Antonin., cap. 24.”]
11 Literally, “both yesterday and the day before.”
22 [See Grabe’s note on the conjecture of Valesius that this prefect was Lollius Urbicus, the historian (vol. i. p. 1. and notes, p. 1).]
33 [He has addressed them as “Romans,” because in this they gloried together,—emporer, senate, soldiers, and citizens.]
44 akolastainonti, which word includes unchastity, as well as the other forms of intemperance. [As we say, dissolute.]
55 repoudion, i.e., “repudium,” a bill of repudiation.
66 [Rather, “to thee, autocrat:” a very bold apostrophe, like that of Huss to the Emporer Sigismund, which crimsoned his forehead with a blush of shame.]
77 i.e., Ptolemaeus.
88 On this passage, see Donaldson’s Critical History, etc., vol. ii. p. 79.
99 Words resembling “philosopher” in sound, viz. filoyofou kai filokompou. [This passage is found elsewhere. See note, cap. viii., in the text preferred by Grabe.]
1010 filodoxo", which may mean a lover of vainglory.
1111 See Plato, Rep., p. 595.
1212 This is Dr. Donaldson’s rendering of a clause on which the editors differ both as to reading and rendering.
1313 Literally, “becoming (ginouenon) both through the parts and through the whole in every wickedness.”
1414 [Here, in Grabe’s text, comes in the passage about Crescens.]
1515 These words can be taken of the Logos as well as of the right reason diffused among men by Him.
1616 Plato, Rep., x. c. i. p. 595.
1717 Plat., Timaeus, p. 28, C. (but “possible,” and not “safe,” is the word used by Plato).
1818 [Certainly the author of this chapter, and others like it, cannot be accused of a feeble rhetoric.]
1919 Another reading is pro" ta" ouei", referring to the eyes of the beholder; and which may be rendered, “speedily fascinating to the sight.”
2020 Kai feuktou qanatou may also be rendered, “even of death which men flee from.”
2121 Alluding to the common accusation against the Christians.
2222 Literally, “with a tragic voice,”—the loud voice in which the Greek tragedies were recited through the mask [persona].
2323 The word disseminated among men. [St. James i. 21.]
2424 Literally, dimly seen at a distance.
2525 [Simon Magus appears to be one with whom Justin is perfectly familiar, and hence we are not to conclude rashly that he blundered as to the divine honours rendered to him as the Sabine God.]
2626 [Another apostrophe, and a home thrust for “Pius the philosopher” and the emporer.]
11 This Xystus, on the authority of Euseb. (iv. 18), was at Ephesus. There, Philostratus mentions, Appolonius was wont to have disputations.—Otto.
22 Euseb. (iv. 11): “Justin, in philosopher’s garb, preached the word of God.”
33 In jest, no doubt, because quoting a line from Homer, Il., vi. 123. ti" de su essi, fereste, kataqrwpwn.
44 [i.e., “A Hebrew of the Hebrews” (Phil. iii. 5).]
55 The war instigated by Bar Cochba.
66 The opinions of Stoics.—Otto.
77 The Platonists.
88 w some omit, and put qew of prev. cl. in this cl., reading so: “Philosophy is the greatest possession, and most honourable, and introduces us to God,” etc.
99 Maranus things that those who are different from the masters of practical philosophy are called Theoretics. I do not know whether they may be better designated Sceptics or Pyrrhonists.—Otto.
1010 Julian, Orat., vi., says: “Let no one divide our philosophy into many parts, or cut it into many parts, and especially let him not make many out of one: for as truth is one, so also is philosophy.”
1111 Either Flavia Neapolis is indicated, or Ephesus.—Otto.
1212 Narrating his progress in the study of Platonic philosophy, he elegantly employs this trite phrase of Plato’s.—Otto.
1313 Philology, used here to denote the exercise of reason.
1414 Philology, used her to denote the exercise of speech. The two-fold use of logo"—oratio and ratio—ought to be kept in view. The old man uses it in the former, Justin in the latter, sense.
1616 Otto says: If the old man begins to speak here, then ecei must be read tor ecein. The received text makes it appear that Justin continues a quotation, or the substance of it, from Plato.
1717 According to one interpretation, this clause is applied to God: “If you believe in God, seeing He is not indifferent to the matter,” etc. Maranus says that it means: A Jew who reads so much of Christ in the Old Testament, cannot be indifferent to the things which pertain to Him.
1818 Literally: having become perfect. Some refer the words to perfection of character; some initiation by baptism.
1919 Latin version, “beloved Pompeius.”
2020 According to another reading, “I did not leave.”
2121 Editors suppose that Justin inserts a long parenthesis here, from “for” to “Egypt.” It is more natural to take this as an anacoluthon. Justin was going to say, “But now we trust through Christ,” but feels that such a statement requires preliminary explanation.
2222 According to the LXX, Isa. li. 4, 5.
2323 Jer. xxxi. 31, 32.
2424 Isa. lv. 3 ff. according to LXX.
2525 Not in Jeremiah; some would insert, in place of Jeremiah, Isaiah or John. [St. John xii. 40; Isa. vi. 10; where see full references in the English margin. But comp. Jeremiah vii. 24, 26, xi. 8, and xvii. 23.]
2626 1 Cor. x. 4. Otto reads: which he mentioned and which was for those who repented.
2727 Three times in Justin, not in LXX.
2828 Deviating slightly from LXX., omitting a clause.