264264 Or, “the persons of the saints.” Cod. Sin. omits this clause, but it is added by the corrector.
265265 The text is here confused in all the editions; we have followed that of Dressel. Cod. Sin. is defective. Hilgenfeld’s text reads, “Thou shalt seek out every day the faces of the saints, either labouring by word and going to exhort them, and meditating to save a soul by the word, or by thy hands thou shalt labour for the redemption of thy sins”—almost identical with that given above.
266266 Cod. Sin. omits this quotation from Matt. v. 42. or Luke vi. 30, but it is added by a corrector.
267267 Cod. Sin. has, “hate evil.”
268268 Cod. Sin. inserts “and.”
269269 Cod. Sin. omits this clause: it is inserted by a corrector.
270270 Literally, “of the Black One.”
271271 Cod. Sin. joins “eternal” with way, instead of death.
272272 Cod. Sin. reads “transgressions.”
273273 Cod. Sin. omits “magic, avarice.”
274274 Cod. Sin. omits “therefore.”
275275 The things condemned in the previous chapter.
276276 Cod. Sin. has “resurrections,” but is corrected as above.
277277 Cod. Sin. has, “lawgivers of good things.”
278278 Cod. Sin. omits the preposition.
279279 Cod. Sin. omits this.
280280 Cod. Sin. reads, “that ye may be found in the day of judgment,” which Hilgenfeld adopts.
281281 Literally, “While yet the good vessel is with you,” i.e., as long as you are in the body.
282282 Cod. sin. reads, “fail not in any one of yourselves,” which is adopted by Hilgenfeld.
283283 Corrected in Cod. Sin. to, “it is worthy.”
284284 Cod. Sin. omits this clause, but it is inserted by the corrector.
285285 Cod. Sin. omits “Amen,” and adds at the close, “Epistle of Barnabas.”
286286 See Amyot’s translation, and a more modern one by De Maistre (Euvres, vol. ii. Paris, 1833). An edition of The Delays (the original, with notes by Professor Hackett) has appeared in America (Andover, circ., 1842), and is praised by Tayler Lewis.
287287 He quotes Plato’s reference, e.g., to the X.; but the Orientals delighted in such conceits. compare the Hebrew critics on the h
(in Gen. i. 4), on which see Nordheimer, Gram., vol. i. p. 7, New York, 1838.
288288 It survives in the pulpits of Christendom—Greek, Latin, Anglican, Lutheran, etc.—to this day, in slightly different forms.
11 This fragment is found in Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. iii. 39.
22 Literally, “the things of faith.”
33 Papias states that he will give an exact account of what the elders said; and that, in addition to this, he will accompany this account with an explanation of the meaning and import of the statements.
44 Literally, “commandments belonging to others,” and therefore strange and novel to the followers of Christ.
55 Given to faith has been variously understood. Either not stated in direct language, but like parables given in figures, so that only the faithful could undestand; or entrusted to faith, that is, to those who were possessed of faith, the faithful.
66 Which things: this is usually translated, “what Aristion and John say;” and the translation is admissible. But the words more naturally mean, that John and Aristion, even at the time of his writing, were telling him some of the sayings of the Lord.
77 This fragment is found in the Scholia of Maximus on the works of Dionysius the Areopagite.
88 Literally, “a guilelessness according to God.”
99 This fragment is found in Oecumenius.
1010 Literally, “great.”
1111 Literally, “were emptied out.” Theophylact, after quoting this passage, adds other particulars, as if they were derived from Papias. [But see Routh, i. pp. 26, 27.] He says that Judas’s eyes were so swollen that they could not be seen, even by the optical instruments of physicians; and that the rest of his body was covered with runnings and worms. He further states, that he died in a solitary spot, which was left desolate until his time; and no one could pass the place without stopping up his nose with his hands.
1212 From Irenaeus, Haer., v. 32. [Heresay at second-hand, and handed about among many, amounts to nothing as evidence. Note the reports of sermons, also, as they appear in our daily Journals. Whose reputation can survive if such be credited?]
1313 [See Grabe, apud Routh, 1. 29.]
1414 This fragment is found in Irenaeus, Haer., v. 36; but it is a mere guess that the saying of the presbyters is taken from the work of Papias.
1515 In the future state.
1616 The new Jerusalem on earth.
1717 John xiv. 2.
1818 Commentators suppose that the reference here is to Matt. xx. 23.
1919 Matt. xxii. 10.
2020 1 Cor. xv. 25, 26.
2121 1 Cor. xv. 27, 28.
2222 From Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., iii. 39.
2323 [A certain presbyter, of whom see Apost. Constitutions, vii. 46, where he is said to have been ordained by St. John, the Evangelist.]
2424 “In this day” may mean “in the days of Papias,” or “in the days of Philip.” As the narrative came from the daughters of Philip, it is more likely that Philip’s days are meant.
2525 [Again, note the reduplicated hearsay. Not even Irenaeus, much less Eusebius, should be accepted, otherwise than as retailing vague reports.]
2626 Rufinus supposes this story to be the same as that now found in the textus receptus of John’s Gospel, viii. 1–11,—the woman taken in adultery.
2727 This extract is made from Andreas Caesariensis, [Bishop of Caesarea in Cappodocia, circiter, A.D. 500].
2828 That is, that government of the world’s affairs was a failure. An ancient writer takes taxi" to mean the arraying of the evil angels in battle against God.
2929 This also is taken from Andreas Caesariensis. [See Lardner, vol. v. 77.]
3030 This fragment, or rather reference, is taken from Anastasius Sinaitia. Routh gives, as another fragment, the repetition of the same statement by Anastasius.
3131 This fragment was found by Grabe in a ms. of the Bodleian Library, with the inscription on the margin, “Papia.” Westcott states that it forms part of a dictionary written by “a mediaeval Papias. [He seems to have added the words, “Maria is called Illuminatrix, or Star of the Sea,” etc, a middle-age device.] The dictionary exists in ms. both at Oxford and Cambridge.”
11 [See Cave, Lives of the Fathers, i. 243. Epiphanius, by fixing the martyrdom under the prefecture of Rusticus, seems to identify this history; but, then, he also connects it with the reign of Hadrian. Ed. Oöhler, tom. ii. 709. Berlin, 1859.]
11 Literally, “the opinions of the ancients.”
22 Thirbly regarded the clause in brackets as an interpolation. There is considerable variety of opinion as to the exact meaning of the words amongst those who regard them as genuine.
33 Plat. Rep., v. 18.
44 That is to say, if the Christians refused or neglected to make their real opinions and practices known, they would share the guilt of those whom they thus kept in darkness.
55 Justin avails himself here of the similarity in sound of the words Cristo" (Christ) and crhsto" (good, worthy, excellent). The play upon these words is kept up throughout this paragraph, and cannot be always represented to the English reader. [But Justin was merely quoting and using, ad hominem, the popular blunder of which Suetonius (Life of Claudius, cap. 25) gives us an example, “impulsore Chresto.” It will be observed again in others of these Fathers.]
66 [1 Cor. x. 20. Milton’s admirable economy in working this truth into his great poem (i. 378) affords a sublime exposition of the mind of the Fathers on the origin of mythologies.]
77 The word daimwn means in Greek a god, but the Christians used the word to signify an evil spirit. Justin uses the same word here for god and demon. The connection which Justin and other Christian writers supposed to exist between evil spirits and the gods of the heathens will be apparent from Justin’s own statements. The word diabolo", devil, is not applied to these demons. There is but one devil, but many demons.
88 The word daimwn means in Greek a god, but the Christians used the word to signify an evil spirit. Justin uses the same word here for god and demon. The connection which Justin and other Christian writers supposed to exist between evil spirits and the gods of the heathens will be apparent from Justin’s own statements. The word diabolo", devil, is not applied to these demons. There is but one devil, but many demons.
99 This is the literal and obvious translation of Justin’s words. But from C. 13, 16, and 61, it is evident that he did not desire to inculcate the worship of angels. We are therefore driven to adopt another translation of this passage, even though it be somewhat harsh. Two such translations have been proposed: the first connecting “us” and “the host of the other good angels” as the common object of the verb “taught;” the second connecting “these things” with “the host of,” etc., and making these two together the subject taught. In the first case the translation would stand, “taught these things to us and to the host,” etc.; in the second case the translation would be, “taught us about these things, and about the host of the others who follow Him, viz. the good angels.” [I have ventured to insert parenthetic marks in the text, an obvious and simple resource to suggest the manifest intent of the author. Grabe’s note in loc. gives another and very ingenious exegesis, but the simplest is best.]
1010 i.e., according to Otto, “not on account of the sincere Christians of whom we have been speaking.” According to Trollope, “not on account of (or at the instigation of) the demons before mentioned.”
1111 Or, “as a Christian who has done no wrong.”
1212 Compare the Rescript of Adrian appended to this Apology.
1313 Literally, “persuaded God.”
1414 [Isa. xliv. 9–20; Jer. x. 3.]
1515 pompa" kai umnou". “Grabe, and it should seem correctly, understands pompa" to be solemn prayers. . . . He also remarks, that the umnoi were either psalms of David, or some of those psalms and songs made by the primitive Christians, which are mentioned in Eusebius, H. E., v. 28.”—Trollope.
1616 Literally, “would not use the same hearth or fire.”
1717 See the end of chap. xii.
1818 The reader will notice that Justin quotes from memory, so that there are some slight discrepancies between the words of Jesus as here cited, and the same sayings as recorded in our Gospels.
1919 Matt. v. 28, 29, 32.
2020 Matt. xix. 12.
2121 digamia" poioumenoi, lit. contracting a double marriage. Of double marriages there are three kinds: the first, marriage with a second wife while the first is still alive and recognized as a lawful wife, or bigamy; the second, marriage with a second wife after divorce from the first, and third, marriage with a second wife after the death of the first. It is thought that Justin here refers to the second case.
2222 Matt. ix. 13.
2323 Matt. v. 46, 44; Luke vi. 28.
2424 Luke vi. 30, 34; Matt. vi. 19, xvi. 26, vi. 20.
2525 Luke vi. 36; Matt. v. 45, vi. 25, 26, 33, 21.
2626 Matt. vi. 1.
2727 Luke vi. 29; Matt. vi. 22, 41, 16.
2828 i.e., Christian neighbours.
2929 Matt. v. 34, 27.
3030 Mark xii. 30.
3131 Matt. xix. 6, 17.
3232 Matt. vii. 21, etc.; Luke xiii. 26; Matt. xiii. 42, vii. 15, 16, 19.
3333 forou" kai eisfora". The former is the annual tribute; the latter, any occasional assessment. See Otto’s Note, and Thucyd. iii. 19.
3434 Matt. xxii. 17, 19, 20, 21.
3535 Luke xii. 48.
3636 ermaion, a piece of unlooked-for luck, Hermes being the reputed giver of such gifts: vid. Liddell and Scott’s Lex.; see also the Scholiast, quoted by Stallbaum in Plato’s Phaed., p. 107, on a passage singularly analogous to this.
3737 Boys and girls, or even children prematurely taken from the womb, were slaughtered, and their entrails inspected, in the belief that the souls of the victims (being still conscious, as Justin is arguing) would reveal things hidden and future. Instances are abundantly cited by Otto and Trollope.
3838 This form of spirit-rapping was familiar to the ancients, and Justin again (Dial. c. Tryph., c. 105) uses the invocation of Samuel by the witch of Endor as a proof of the immortality of the soul.
3939 Valesius (on Euseb. H. E., iv. 7) states that the magi had two kinds of familiars: the first, who were sent to inspire men with dreams which might give them intimations of things future; and the second, who were sent to watch over men, and protect them from diseases and misfortunes. The first, he says, they called (as here) oneiropompou", and the second paredrou".
4040 Justin is not the only author in ancient or recent times who has classed daemoniacs and maniacs together; neither does he stand alone among the ancients in the opinion that daemoniacs were possessed by the spirits of departed men. References will be found in Trollope’s note. [See this matter more fully illustrated in Kaye’s Justin Martyr, pp. 105–111.]
4141 See the Odyssey, book xi. line 25, where Ulysses is described as digging a pit or trench with his sword, and pouring libations, in order to collect around him the souls of the dead.
4242 Matt. xix. 26.
4343 Matt. x. 28.
4444 The Sibylline Oracles are now generally regarded as heathen fragments largely interpolated by unscrupulous men during the early ages of the Church. For an interesting account of these somewhat perplexing documents, see Burton’s Lectures on the Ecclesiastical History of the First Three Centuries, Lect. xvii. The prophecies of Hystaspes were also commonly appealed to as genuine by the early Christians. [See (on the Sibyls and Justin M.) Casaubon, Exercitationes, pp. 65 and 80. This work is a most learned and diversified thesaurus, in the form of strictures on Card. Baronius. Geneva, 1663.]
4545 i.e., first-born.
4646 diaforan kai protrophn. The irony here is so obvious as to make the proposed reading (diafqoran kai paratrophn, corruption and depravation) unnecessary. Otto prefers the reading adopted above. Trollope, on the other hand, inclines to the latter reading, mainly on the score of the former expressions being unusual. See his very sensible note in loc.
4747 The Benedictine editor, Maranus, Otto, and Trollope, here note that Justin in this chapter promises to make good three distinct positions: 1st, That Christian doctrines alone are true, and are to be received, not on account of their resemblance to the sentiments of poets and philosophers, but on their own account; 2d, that Jesus Christ is the incarnate Son of God, and our teacher; 3d that before His incarnation, the demons, having some knowledge of what He would accomplish, enabled the heathen poets and priest in some points to anticipate, though in a distorted form, the facts of the incarnation. The first he establishes in chap. xxiv-xxix.; the second in chap. xxx.-liii.; and the third in chap. liv. et sq.
4848 We have here followed the reading and rendering of Trollope. [But see reading of Langus, and Grabe’s note, in the edition already cited, 1. 46.]
4949 en grafai" stefanou". The only conjecture which seems at all probable is that of the Benedictine editor folloed here. [Grabe after Salmasius reads en grafai" stefanou" and quotes Martial, Sutilis aptetur rosa crinibus. Translate, “patch-work garlands.”]
5050 i.e., on account of the assistance gained for him by Thetis, and in return for it.
5151 It is very generally supposed that Justin was mistaken in understanding this to have been a statue erected to Simon Magus. This supposition rests on the fact that in the year 1574, there was dug up in the island of the Tiber a fragment of marble, with the inscription “Semoni Sanco Deo,” etc., being probably the base of a statue erected to the Sabine deity Semo Sancus. This inscription Justin is supposed to have mistaken for the one he gives above. This has always seemed to us very slight evidence on which to reject so precise a statement as Justin here makes; a statement which he would scarcely have hazarded in an apology addressed to Rome, where every person had the means of ascertaining its accuracy. If, as is supposed, he made a mistake, it must have been at once exposed, and other writers would not have so frequently repeated the story as they have done. See Burton’s Bampton Lectures, p. 374. [See Note in Grabe (1. 51), and also mine, at the end.]
5252 See chap. vii.
5353 Which were commonly charged against the Christians.
5454 Thirlby remarks that the serpent was the symbol specially of eternity, of power, and of wisdom, and that there was scarcely any divine attribute to which the heathen did not find some likeness in this animal. See also Hardwick’s Christ and other Masters, vol. ii. 146 (2d ed.).
5555 [Note how he retaliates upon the calumny (cap. xxvi.) of the “upsetting of the lamp.”]
5656 Literally, “For He foreknows some about to be saved by repentance, and some not yet perhaps born.”
5757 Those things which concern the salvation of man; soi Trollope and the other interpreters, except Otto, who reads toutwn masculine, and understands it of the men first spoken of. [See Plato (De Legibus, opp. ix. p. 98, Bipont., 1786), and the valuable edition of Book X. by Professor Tayler Lewis (p. 52. etc.). New York, 1845.]