|Answer Key for Students
A Glorious Institution: The Church in History
Parts Three and Four Course GS3
Note: Answers are provided only for the "Response" questions (being more fact-based). Reflection questions require personal opinion and are not evaluated. Making It Personal questions are designed for personal application to the heart. Please review these with your pastor or a mature, trusted, biblical Christian.
Part Three: The Reformation and Its Aftermath 1517 - 1648
Lesson 1 The Reformation Begins
1. October 31, 1517.
2. 1456 by Johann Gutenberg.
3. According Catholic dogma, entrance into heaven is based upon merit which can be earned by honoring a system of sacraments as administered by the Church.
4. Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Holy Eucharist, Holy Orders, Matrimony, Unction
5. a. Indulgence: An indulgence is an official document given by the Church granting in the name of Christ the forgiveness of sins. By making a contribution to the Church an indulgence could be purchased.
b. Supererogation: The works of supererogation refers to the good works of Christ and the saints which went beyond the normal requirements to satisfy the demands of a righteous life. These good works, at the discretion of the pope, can be awarded to individuals to ensure salvation.
6. While man is saved by grace through faith alone, the faith which saves him is not alone; it is always accompanied by good works. "Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone" (James 2:17).
7. John Tetzel was an eloquent Dominican Friar who was sent by Pope Leo X into towns and villages to raise money to build St. Peter's basilica by selling indulgences. He was very gifted at raising money. When Tetzel began to sell indulgences in the communities near Wittenburg, Luther was outraged for his people were going to Tetzel to buy these unworthy documents. Angered by the sell of indulgences Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses.
8. He was protesting the sale of indulgences, declaring them to be unscriptural and sinful!
Lesson 2 Upheaval!
1. Frederick the Wise was a devout, religious zealot, the elector of Saxony, and the protector of Martin Luther during his early ordeal with the Catholic Church. Frederick arranged for safe conducts when Luther needed them, and physical protection following Luther's appearance at the Diet of Worms.
2. a. Cajetan: Cajetan was a delegate from Rome with papal authority to order Luther to appear before him in Augsburg. The purpose to was to hear Luther recant his charges against the Church. If Luther did not recant, he was to be arrested.
b. Karl von Miltitz: A special representative who was sent into Germany to arrest Luther. Instead, he successfully persuaded Luther to write a letter of repentance to the pope.
c. Johann Eck: A German, Roman Catholic theologian who defended the sale of indulgences against Luther. Presiding at the Diet of Worms, Eck demanded that Luther recant his writings which Luther refused to do.
d. Canon(s): Official decisions of the Catholic Church regarding matters of faith and practice. The essential basis of the Canon Law are thought to consist of Divine law.
e. Charles V: Charles (b. 1500) was King of Spain and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1519-1558). As the most power ruler of Europe, he sought to stop the Protestant Reformation.
f. Diet of Speyer, 1529: This Diet was held to try and reconcile the warring factions between the Lutherans and the Church of Rome.
g. Schmalkald League: In 1530, a number of Protestant rulers convened in what is called the Schmalkald League whereby the Emperor Charles V tried to get the support of the Mohammedan Turks, who were threatening the very existence of Vienna.
3. a. Greater popular support for Luther.
b. New leaders emerged such as Martin Bucer.
c. The solidification of Luther's own thinking against the Catholic Church.
4. At the Diet of Speyer, the Lutherans "protested" the political decisions that the Catholic princes imposed on their territories, and came to be called "protestants".
Lesson 3 A New Way of Life for Luther and Lutherans
1. a. Transubstantiation: The Catholic belief that the bread and wine become the actual body of Christ.
b. Consubstantiation: The Lutheran concept that the real presence of Christ is in the Lord's Supper. This position was unacceptable to the Catholic Church as well as to the Reformers. Calvin and Zwingli taught that the Lord's Supper was symbolic of the death of Christ and was to be viewed as a memorial.
c. Laity: All believers in the Church who have not taken holy orders.
d. Eucharist: Eucharist (Greek, thanksgiving) is another name for the Lord's Supper.
2. If the Bible did not prohibit something, or if no one was hurt, or if the conscience was not violated, then there was to be Christian liberty.
Lesson 4 The Reformation Reaches Beyond Germany
1. a. A fundamental respect for the Scriptures; b. A religion based upon reason; c. A religion of personal piety; d. A spiritual religion; e. The rise of nationalism.
2. Born on January 1, 1484, Zwingli was used of the Lord to bring the Reformation to Switzerland. He used his oratorical abilities to attack indulgences and other Catholic dogmas until his violent death in battle in 1531.
3. Guillaume Farel (1489-1565) originally worked in Geneva, and was instrumental in persuading John Calvin to say in Geneva and lead the Reformation.
4. Phase I The first stay in Geneva Aug., 1536 - April,1538
Phase II Exiled in Strassburg May, 1538 - Sept, 1541
Phase III Return to rule Sept,1541 - May, 1564
5. With a genius for organization, Calvin gave to the Church a new form of government. With a heart for God and the skills of a scholar, Calvin reminded the world of the great doctrines of sovereign grace while stressing the glory of God. His many books and commentaries continue to be a source of spiritual guidance to millions around the world.
Lesson 5 Blood and Violence in the Body of Christ
1. With the outbreak of the Reformation, the peasants became enamored with the revolutionary spirit. They were tired of being in bondage to the land and feudal lords. They were delighted to learn that wrongs could be righted, that society could be changed, and that they should have more of the goods of this world. What the peasants did not understand is that the Scriptures do not justify the use of violence to achieve goals of social equality.
2. 1. Only professing believers should be baptized; 2. The need for personal piety; 3. No taking of oaths; 4. A communal spirit and the sharing of property; 5. A willingness to suffer rather than retaliate.
3. a. Thomas Munzer: Thomas Munzer (c. 1490-1525) was a leader in the Peasants' War. Able and willing to exploit the passions of the people for his own personal power, Munzer led in the siege of the city of Muhlhausen. He died in battle against imperial troops sent to recapture the city.
b. Conrad Grebal: Conrad Grebal (1498-1526) was an early Anabaptist leader who departed from Zwingli in an effort to bring radical reform to Zurich. He died of the plague in 1526 after suffering imprisonment for his beliefs.
c. Felix Manz: Felix Manz (c. 1498-1527) was another early Anabaptist leader who advocated believer's baptism, communal living, and radical reform. On January 5, 1527, he was publicly executed by drowning.
d Hans Denck: Once called "the pope of the Anabaptist", Hans Denck (1500-1527) was successful in winning converts to the Anabaptist movement until his untimely death.
e. Menno Simon: A former priest, Menno was instrumental in helping to transform the Anabaptist movement from being regarded as radical to a loving, peaceful community.
4. 1. Mennonites; 2. Amish; 3. Hutterites; 4. Mennonite Brethren; 5. Brethren In Christ
Lesson 6 Reformation Faith Is Found in France
1. a. "Babylonian Captivity": The period from 1309-1376 when the papacy was dominated by the kings of France.
b. Great Schism: Between 1378-1417, the world had two popes; one in Rome and one in Avignon, France. A Church council was held in Pisa in 1409, to end the conflict, but things were only made worse when the council deposed the current reigning popes and appointed Alexander V as pope.
c. Albigenses: A religious group named after the town of Albi, France. They embraced Manichaean doctrines and practiced a mystical asceticism.
d. Waldenses: These followers of Peter Waldo (d. 1217) denounced indulgences, purgatory, and masses for the dead. They did not believe that priests should administer the sacraments in an unworthy manner.
e. Jacques Lefevre: A critic of the Church of Rome who openly proclaimed the doctrine of justification by faith. In 1512, Lefevre published A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. Though he never broke with Rome, he preached a free gospel of free grace.
f. Gallic Confession: In forty articles of faith, this French confession of faith, written by John Calvin and his pupil De Chandieu, set forth the Protestant faith.
g. Heidleberg Catechism: A Calvinistic work which had originally been written in 1562, by Zacharias Ursinus, a professor at the Heidleberg.
2. There was a zeal to the radical movements that attracted interest. Many were dissatisfied with the lack of genuine reforms taking place in the Catholic Church. People who longed for meaning to life found a cause in radical religious groups.
Lesson 7 John Knox and the Scottish Reformation
1. Prior to Martin Luther, there were religious minded reformers such as Paul Crawar who was convicted by the Church and burned at the stake in 1433, for promoting the works of John Wycliffe and John Huss. Huss had denounced the doctrine of transubstantiation, purgatory, indulgences, masses for the dead, celibacy, and the authority of the pope. Wycliffe wanted to translate the Bible in the life of the people and give the Scriptures to the common man.
2. a. George Wishart: In January, 1546, because he had stood up for reform, Wishart was found guilty of heresy by the Catholic Church in Scotland. He was strangled, and then his body was burned on March 1. His death galvanized the population to seek reform.
b. Cardinal Beaton: James Beaton was Archbishop of St. Andrews in Scotland who opposed the Reformation efforts. His nephew, David Beaton (1494-1546), succeeded him, and used his position and power to persecute Protestants. His attacks culminated in the martyrdom of George Wishart (1546).
c. Castilians: The Castilians were a group of radical patriots who sought to avenge the death of George Wishart by murdering Cardinal Beaton.
d. Mrs. Elizabeth Bowes: The mother-in-law of John Knox. She was a faithful friend as well and a spiritual confidant.
e. "Black Rubric": Opposed to people kneeling in communion, John Knox wanted a "rubric" or a bold heading to be included in the Book of Common Prayer stating that kneeling at the altar for communion did not mean a belief that the bodily presence of Christ was to be found in the elements.
f. Mary Tudor: Mary Tudor became queen of England following the death of her half brother, King Edward VI. A devout Catholic, Mary persecuted the Protestants thereby earning the named "Bloody Mary."
g. November 14, 1572: On November 9, John Knox preached for the last time. Five days later, on November 14, he died.
3. In 1558, Knox published a pamphlet against all female rulers in general, and the rule of Catholic Mary Tudor in particular. It alienated even Protestant rulers such as Elizabeth I.
4. Mary was determined to bring the Church of England back into the Catholic fold by force. Many people suffered at her hands until the day of her death.
Lesson 8 The Reformation Comes to England
1. Henry VIII (1509-1547); Edward VI (1547-1553); "Bloody Mary" (1553-1558); Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
2. John Wycliffe (1320-1384).
3. On October 6, 1536, prior to being executed, Tyndale prayed, "Lord, open the King of England's eyes."
4. a. Arthur: Was the elder brother of Henry VIII, and crown prince of England. He first was the first to be married to Catherine of Aragon. His untimely death on April 2, 1502, led to the ascension of his brother to the throne.
b. Thomas Wolsey: Thomas Wolsey was a priest who rose in the royal court through the power of his intellect and personality. Made a Cardinal by young Henry VIII, Wolsey was the power behind the throne until his death.
c. Catherine of Aragon: Catherine was the first and most faithful wife of Henry VIII. Her inability to give Henry a son and heir to the throne led to his putting her away.
d. Anne Boleyn: An attendant at the royal court, Anne Boleyn caught the eye of Henry VIII. After Henry divorced Catherine, he married Anne who gave him a daughter, Elizabeth. Henry had her executed.
e. The Act of Supremacy: This Act made the king of England the head of the Church. The authority of the pope was not longer recognized.
Lesson 9 Counter-Reformation and Continuing Conflict
1. A Franciscan monk who brought about many external changes in the Catholic monasteries in Spain, a generation before the Reformation, including attacking simony and indulgences, improving morality and discipline.
2. The changes did not go far enough to stop internal corruption and doctrinal abuses in Catholic theology.
3. a. 1545 - 1563.
b. A confession of faith and a catechism were adopted, and some obvious abuses were corrected.
c. The efforts at reform did not change the supremacy of the pope, and continued a salvation based on works (earning your way to heaven), including the belief that the seven sacraments could bestow merit. And, 'tradition' continued to be honored as equivalent in authority to scripture itself.
4. The was established in the 1200s to sincerely protect the Church from the spread of heresy, and restore the souls of heretics. But it came to use aggressive torture in the 1500s to stop souls from leaving the Catholic Church for Protestantism.
5. a. Teresa de Cepeda (1515-1582), brought religious reform to the Catholic convents. A woman of mystical experiences, Teresa wrote her autobiography and encouraged others to live a life of service.
b. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556), was a powerful and wealthy Spanish soldier who gave his life and wealth to the Catholic Church after being wounded in battle. His zeal and slavish devotion to the pope led him to establish the Society of Jesus or Jesuits.
c. Francis Xavier (1506-1552), has been credited with bringing in over 700,000 people into the Catholic Church. Much of his work was done in India. He was the first to preach the gospel in Japan.
6. 1. The lack of central government and ecclesiastical control.
2. Class envy and class division.
3. Educational differences.
4. The rise of the Anabaptist.
5. An emphasis on the mind rather than the emotions.
6. An abuse of the foundation doctrine of justification by faith.
7. Lack of physical fellowship among the saints.
Lesson 10 The Reformation In England Continues
1. The Puritans wanted the Church of England to allow local assemblies to have a sincere and spiritual minded pastor who was able to preach. There was to be no distinguishing clerical garments; no one should kneel at the Lord's Supper; rings were not to be exchanged at weddings; and the use of the sign of the Cross at baptism must cease.
2. Clerical garments, kneeling at the Lord's Supper, rings, and the sign of the cross were objected to primarily because the symbolism associated with them was rooted in Catholic dogma.
3. The Puritans wanted to stay within the Church of England and change it and organize the Church after that of the Calvinistic church in Geneva. The Separatists wanted to separate from the organized Church of England and be independent of state control and any ecclesiastical hierarchy.
4. The theory of "divine right of kings" is mainly associated with the Stuart monarchs of seventeenth century England. This unique theory, as argued by James I and others, insists that God personally ordains individuals to be kings. Certain individuals are sovereignly created to be rulers. The ruler is not divine, nor is the office of the king divine. What is divine is the selection of who is to rule by virtue of birth. The divine authority lies in the person, not in the office.
5. a. Cavaliers. Trained in arms and horsemanship, these men served King Charles I of England.
b. Roundheads. Because they cropped their hair short in contrast to the flowing locks of the Cavaliers, these members of Parliament opposed King Charles I. They were led by Oliver Cromwell.
c. Long Parliament. Needing funds to fight the Scots, in November, 1640, Charles I recalled Parliament after having ruled the country independently since 1629. Once they had regathered, the members would not be dismissed.
d. "Lord Protector." After Oliver Cromwell had the king executed, there was a movement to make him king. He refused the honor, preferring the title "Lord Protector."
e. The Westminster Confession. The statement of faith originally drafted for the Church of England in 1646, which has been accepted by many other groups as a concise statement of historic orthodox Christianity (and which is Calvinistic in its views.)
f. The Restoration. On May 29, 1660, Charles II, son of Charles I, entered London as the sovereign of England. The Stuart dynasty had been restored following the death of Oliver Cromwell and the political failure of his son Richard.
g. John Bunyan . the Puritan non-conformist pastor of the 1600s in England, who wrote the classic Pilgrim's Progress while imprisoned for his faith.
h. John Milton. A well-educated intellectual, Milton served as the Puritan apologist during the English civil war, and wrote great classics in his twilight years, including Paradise Lost.
i. William and Mary. William III of Orange was governor of the Netherlands (1672-1702), and king of England and Ireland (1689-11702). William married his cousin Mary, the daughter of James II, king of England, so they ruled together in England.
j. Thirty-nine Articles. These statements of faith set forth the fundamental doctrinal beliefs of the Anglican Church. First approved in 1563, they did not receive general acceptance until 1571.
k. Thomas Goodwin. Thomas Goodwin (1600-1679) came to faith when he was nineteen years old. In time he was appointed President of Magdalen College, Oxford. A prolific author, his extensive writings have been published in twelve volumes.
l. John Owen (1616-1683) served as Chaplain to Cromwell's military during the English civil war, was a leading Congregational theologian, and a powerful writer.
Lesson 11 The Rise of New Expressions of Religion
1. The Thirty Years' War refer to a series of wars fought primarily in Germany but involved most of Europe from time to time. Warfare erupted over religious issues as will as national and political concerns. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) brought an end to the various conflicts.
2. a. Sir Walter Mildmay. Founder of Emmanuel College in the city of Cambridge.
b. William Perkins. Perkins (1558-1602) was powerful preacher who was converted from a life of drinking. Multitudes heard him gladly. He has been called "the Calvin of England."
c. Richard Sibbes. Richard Sibbes (1577-1635) was a Cambridge Puritan who was used in a mighty way by God. Crowds gathered to hear him preach. Someone wrote, 'Of this blest man, let this just praise be given, Heaven was in him before he was in heaven.'
3. This conference, held at Hampton Court, England in January, 1604, was called by James I in an effort to insist that the Puritans conform to the doctrines and practices of the Church of England. It was here that he made his famous judgment on ecclesiastical government: "No bishop, no king."
4. Historically, the English Baptist can be said to originate within the English Congregationalist in the early part of the seventeenth century (1609), when John Smyth establish a separatist congregation. The first Baptist confession of faith to set forth immersion was published in London 1644.
5. Traditionally, the Baptists have believed in two ordinances, the Lord's Supper and the baptism of professing believers by immersion. Early Baptists preferred to be baptized in "living waters," or water that flows in a river or a stream. In the Baptist Church government, the congregation rules. It can call a pastor and dismiss him. There are no bishops or superintendents in the Baptist structure. No group has any governmental power over other individual congregations. Initially, Baptists embraced the doctrine of particular or definite redemption as set forth in 1644 in the London Confession and in the 1689 Confession of Faith. The priesthood of all believers, and separation of Church and state are other distinctives.
Lesson 12 The Changes in the Church Continue
1. Election and condemnation are conditioned upon the foreseen faith or unbelief of man, not upon the sovereign choice of Almighty God.
2. The atonement was made for all but only believers enjoy its benefits.
3. Man, unaided by the Holy Spirit, is unable to come to God. However, the will of man is involved.
4. Grace can be resisted.
5. The doctrine of the final perseverance of the converted is still open to discussion.
1. Election is unconditional.
2. The atonement is limited to the elect. A definite redemption was made.
3. Man is depraved as far as any ability to have a part in his salvation or merit the merits of Christ.
4. Grace is irresistible.
5. The saints will persevere in the faith, being kept by the power of God. Their salvation is certain.
3. The Synod of Dort met, from November 13, 1618 to May 9, 1619. The teachings of Arminius were considered and then unanimously rejected and condemned. Reformed doctrine was reaffirmed in the Canons of Dort.
4. George Fox (1624-1691) was the son of a weaver. He himself became a shoemaker. A deeply religious person, Fox came to believe and teach that all men possessed something he called, the "Inner Light." According to Fox, the Bible, which guides conduct, is a closed Book unless the mind is illuminated by the Spirit. The good news is that the Spirit has something to work with because, within each person is something that tells what is right and what is wrong. That something in the soul will draw the heart from the false to the true, from the low to the high, and from the impure to the pure. That Something is "Christ's Light" or divine illumination. Christ's Light gives illumination to the mind and heart. It also gives life and power, peace and joy. Here is the "Seed of God." Fox tended to disregard all existing churches, creeds, and doctrine, while showing little appreciation for formal theological training or professional ministers. He rejected all outward sacraments.
5. The Quakers like to be called "Friends" for Jesus said, "I have called you friends," (John 15:15). The Society of Friends is a better name for the Quakers.
Part Four: The Church in the Modern Age 1648 - 1900s
Lesson 13 The Continued Growth of Mysticism
1. It was exciting to be told that the revelation of the “Inner Light” was superior to the Holy Scriptures; that the Holy Spirit speaks to all to the point that no special training or ministers are needed; denominational worship is wrong.
2. Emanuel Swedenborg was a brilliant man of science but he should not be considered a true Christians for he embraced the occult while denying fundamental doctrines of the faith. His teachings were similar to Gnosticism.
3. This mystical movement of the Catholic Church taught that God will visit with any person whose soul is fully surrendered to Him by an imputation of the divine light. There will be literal, heavenly visitations of the Divine.
4. Pietism emphasized the need for a personal work of regeneration followed by a life of consistent Christian living which manifested the love of God. The weakness of Pietism is found in the fact that formal study of the Scriptures and an objective foundation of faith were not emphasized.
5. Through the ministry of Count Zinzendorf the Moravians were able to establish a religious community on his Berthelsdorf estate. The Moravians would spread the flames of Protestant missionary work.
6 a. Sin is a failure to conform the law.
b. Self-renunciation, reliance upon Christ, and applying Christ’s work to ourselves.
c. Faith is a gift of God, granted to us by God Himself according to His will, enabling us to believe the truth about Christ.
d. We must seek God with all our heart. We will seek Him and find Him when we seek Him with all our heart.
Lesson 14 The Boundaries of Acceptable Beliefs
1. Laelius Socinus and his nephew Faustus Socinus first raised clever questions to challenge Christian dogma before denying the deity of Christ and His atoning work at Calvary.
2. a. Racovian Catechism. A document published in 1605 in Rakow, Poland which set forth the thoughts of Laelius Socinus and his nephew Faustus Socinus.
b. Unitarianism: The followers of Socinianism became known as Unitarians for they denied the doctrine of the Trinity.
c. Theophilus Lindsey: This minister in the Episcopal Church of England argued with the Anglican Church officials that the Thirty-nine Articles not be mandatory for ministry.
d. Modernism: Modernism is the term that has been applied to liberal ministers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries who deny the supernatural, the deity of Christ, and His atoning work as Savior for sinners.
3. Because Wesley struggled with assurance of salvation, Boehler counseled him to preach the gospel until he received faith and then preach the gospel because he had faith.
4. Charles Wesley has been called the “Poet of the Evangelical Revival.” He gave to the Church over 6500 hymns.
5. The evil that men do does not die with them, it lives on to ruin other generations.
6. Edward Irving was a Presbyterian minister who came to believe that the Apostolic gifts were still in operation. Unfortunately he also came to deny the sinlessness of Christ.
7. This doctrine holds that Jesus Christ has two natures perfectly co-existing: Deity and humanity. He was free both from hereditary depravity and from actual sin; yet His temptations were real, because sin appealed to His innocent desire (in the same way it had appealed to Adam). In this He was sinless, maintaining perfect moral integrity.
Lesson 15 “This Is the Gospel”
1. Both were: graduates of Oxford; had belonged to the Holy Club; ministers of the Anglican Church; engaged in open air preaching; suffered physically for Christ while preaching; and loved to win souls. Differences: John Wesley was an Arminian who attacked free grace; George Whitefield was a Puritan Calvinist who upheld the doctrines of sovereign grace.
2. Deism argued for a belief in one God who is detached from the world having established it to run according to natural law.
3. a. The emphasis on emotionalism by mystical movements. b. A division between theology and philosophy. c. Wrong interpretation of the scientific data. d. The belief in a new social philosophy that men change others by social legislation.
4. The Church of England was fragmented between a Low Church party and a High Church party. There was confusion of identity and doctrine.
5. Sandeman (and his father-in-law John Glas) taught that 'to believe' in the Bible means merely to agree intellectually that Christ died for one's personal sin--without any form of trust, commitment to follow Him, or repentance from sin.
6. a. Mr. Darby separated the going forth of the Church to greet the Lord at the Second Advent from the event itself. What this in effect did was to create and advocate a third coming of Christ (cp. Heb. 9:28).
7. The German Pietist August Francke (1663-1727).
8. The Baptist missionary to India William Carey (1761-1834). In addition to inspiring thousands of men and women to go to the mission fields, William Carey translated the Scriptures into twenty-six languages or dialects of India, and helped to found the Baptist Missionary Society at Kettering, England.
Lesson 16 Christianity Comes to the New World
1. a. Demarcation Line: On May 4, 1493 Alexander VI settled a political dispute between Spain and Portugal over territorial disputes by dividing the globe into two spheres of Catholic influence.
b. December 21, 1620: On this date the Pilgrims stepped on the shore of North America to found a permanent settlement.
c. Rev. John Harvard: A wealthy philanthropist who contributed to the establishment of the university that bears his name.
d. Roger Williams: This English minister came to America with distinct views about Congregational government. Roger Williams (c. 1603-1683) advocated the separation of Church and State.
e. George Calvert: Grateful for the gift of land he received in the territory around Chesapeake Bay in the New World from King Charles I of England, George Calvert, also known as Lord Baltimore, founded Maryland.
f. William Penn: A Quaker who founded Pennsylvania. He was gracious to all other religious groups.
g. Adoption Acts (1729): This document was passed in America by the Synod of 1729. It required all Presbyterian ministers in the New World to embrace without reservations the Westminster Confession.
2. When German Baptist first appeared in North America in 1719, other colonist gave them the name “Dunkers” which comes from the German word tunken meaning “to dip.”
3. a. The wide variety of emigration to the colonies after 1690
b. The effect of the proprietary colonies which demanded co-operation of people from all walks of life
c. The great revivals transcended denominational lines
d. The spirit of rugged individualism did not blend well with the concept of establishing an institution.
4. To help young people read the Bible, and to send missionaries to evangelize the Indians.
Lesson 17 Religious Revivals
1. a. Theodore Jacob Frelinghuysen (1691-1748): This former minister in the Netherlands came to America to pastor a Dutch Reformed Church in New Jersey along the Raitan River. He emphasized the need for a personal relationship with the Lord and that some evidence of salvation be manifested prior to taking communion. Many experience spiritual renewal through his preaching.
b. William Tennent: William Tennent was a Presbyterian minister in Neshaminy, Pennsylvania (c. 1727). He established the “Log College” to train men for the ministry.
c. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”: When this sermon was preached by Jonathan Edwards at Enfield, Connecticut, on July 8, 1741, revival came to the congregation.
d. George Whitefield: Ordained an Anglican minister, Whitefield ministered in England and America bringing great revival services where-ever he went. He established an orphanage in Georgia. Thousand were swept into the kingdom of God by the power of his preaching.
e. “Old Lights”: The “Old Lights” were men who opposed the Great Awakening. They were suspicious of the enthusiasm that spiritual renew generated.
f. The Age of Reason: The author of this book was the atheist Thomas Paine. Living in an era that had become not only skeptical, but hostile to the Church, Paine emphasized reason over faith .
g. James McGready (c. 1762-1817): James McGready and five other ministers held a camp meeting in July, 1800 at Gasper River, Kentucky. A mighty revival broke out that amazed the whole country.
h. Third Great Awakening: In 1857, when Jeremiah Lanphier, a 48 year old businessman began to hold noon prayer meetings at North Dutch Church on Fulton Street in New York, a Third Great Awakening began. It would last for two years.
2. The slavery of the Old Testament was basically an 'indebted slavery', or slavery endured to pay one’s debt. The concept of stealing people from another country and enslaving them was condemned. In 1 Timothy 1:10 all those who engage in being “men-stealers” are listed among the unrighteous.
3. Charles Finney did not believe that revivals were necessarily supernatural in origin. As a result, he was willing to use almost any method that came to mind if he thought it would persuade people to receive Christ. Some of his methods included praying for people in public by name, permitting women to pray and give their personal testimonies, having an altar call, and holding a series of services in a community. While some of his methods were questionable, not everything he did was unreasonable or contrary to Scripture.
Lesson 18 Counterfeit Religions to Christian Revivals
1. The word “cult” comes from the Latin word cultus meaning “care, adoration.”
2. William Miller believed that the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14 were to be counted as days/years. He thought that after 2300 years Christ would return. He started counting the “day” from 457 BC and believed they would end within twelve months of March, 1843.
3. Mrs. While denied the sufficiency of the atonement of Christ. She believed that Satan was a co-redeemer, and that the death of Jesus did not really save anyone.
4. According to Mrs. White, in 1844 Jesus entered into the heavenly sanctuary in heaven to begin an investigative judgment to see who would be worthy of salvation.
5. a. Moroni: The angel who told the young Joseph Smith about some golden tablets buried in a stone box in the Hill Cumorah.
b. Joseph Smith: Joseph Smith was born December 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vermont, the fourth of ten children. With a vivid imagination and unlimited boldness he established the Mormon community by claiming to be a prophet of God.
c. The Hill Cumorah: Named by Joseph Smith, the Hill Cumorah concealed the golden tablets that told the story of the ancient civilization of America.
d. Urim and Thummim: These special eyeglasses, found with the golden tablets, allowed Joseph Smith to translate the tablets into English.
e. Reformed Egyptian: This was the “language” Joseph Smith claims that he translated with the aid of the Urim and Thummim.
f. Book of Mormon: First published in 1830, the Book of Mormon alleges to be a tale of the lost tribes of Israel. It is likely that the manuscript which Joseph Smith claimed for his own was really a historical novel written by Solomon Spaulding, a Presbyterian minister who died at Conneaut, Ohio in 1816 before the novel could be published.
g. Doctrine of Covenant & Pearl of Great Price: In this smaller Mormon work are the main teachings of the sect. The doctrine of polygamy is found in this book.
h. Emma Smith: The first wife of Joseph Smith. Emma never recognized any of the other women that Smith claimed as “wives.”
6. a. God is an exalted man. b. All people have lived in a pre-mortal estate before they are born into this world. c Jesus is not the eternal God but the first begotten of the spirit children of God the Father.
7. Following the death of Smith, Brigham Young emerged as the next strong leader. He took the remaining Mormons to Utah where they established a religious community.
8. Mormon theology and history cannot be properly understood apart from polygamy. Polygamy is the means by which bodies are created for the spirits created by the heavenly “Father” (and mother). Polygamy is also the means by which men are created in order to be “gods” of the various universes in existence.
9. Charles Taze Russell (b. February 16, 1852) was one of the founders of the second adventist movement in general, and the Jehovah’s Witnesses in particular. His teachings were basically a denial of the historic doctrines of the Christian faith. He died on October 31, 1916.
10. Joseph Franklin Rutherford (1869-1942) emerged as the new leader of the movement started by Charles Russell. He made popular the slogan, “Millions now living will never die.” In 1931 he renamed the ministry “Jehovah’s Witnesses.”
11. The Witnesses deny the Trinity, the deity of Christ, His physical resurrection from the dead, the literal second coming, and an eternal judgment of the unrighteous in a literal hell. The Witnesses teach that Jesus will return again, not as a human, but as a glorious spirit person.
12. a. GOATS: Jehovah’s Witnesses use this word to refer to everyone who is not part of their Association.
b. SHEEP: The Sheep, also known as the Great Crowd, is the name of those who live in Paradise on Earth during the millennial.
c. LITTLE FLOCK: The Little Flock is also the Anointed Class or the 144,000 elite who will live in heaven with Christ and reign with Him.
d. MICHAEL: This arch-angel became the man Jesus Christ. He is Jehovah’s first creation.
13. a. Mary Eddy: Born on July 16, 1821 in Bow, New Hampshire, Mrs. Eddy left her legacy on the religious world long before she died on December 2, 1910. She founded the sect known Christian Science.
b. George W. Glover: The first husband of Miss Mary Baker. He died six months after the marriage.
c. Daniel M. Patterson: A dentist and the second husband of Mrs. Mary Baker Glover. She was divorced from him in 1873 on the grounds of desertion. In 1877 Mary was wedded, for the third and last time, to Asa G. Eddy.
d. Phineas Quimby: Mrs. Eddy’s spiritual mentor who practiced hypnosis to help people find physical cures from their pain.
e. Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures: This is the text book Mrs. Eddy wrote to set forth her beliefs on healing.
f. Christian Science Monitor: Established in 1908, this daily newspaper was dedicated to being devoid of sensational news and scandal.
14. Based on Matthew 9:2, Mrs. Eddy believed that, “Nothing is real and eternal; nothing is spirit--but God and His ideal; evil has no reality.” Life is an illusion. There is no sickness or sin, sorrow or death. Deny them and they cease to exist.
15. Mrs. Eddy denied that God is personal; the Trinity; the deity of Christ; the Lord’s true humanity; the substitutionary death of Christ for sins; His resurrection; and His second coming.
16. a. God is All in all.
b. God is good. Good is Mind.
c. God, Spirit, being all, nothing is matter.
d. Life, God, omnipotent, good, deny death, evil sin, disease. Disease, sin, evil, death, deny good, omnipotent, God, life.
Lesson 19 A Return to Normalcy
1. The heart can be guarded against false doctrine by faithfully studying the Scriptures, and by living a pure moral life based upon the ethical teachings of the Word of God.
2. A common origin of all false doctrine can be found in moral failure. A desire to escape personal accountability is a strong motive for denying the need of a Savior and any form of future punishment.
3. Dwight Lyman Moody was born February 5, 1837 in East Northfield, Massachusetts. Desiring to be a businessman, Moody was converted to Christ after a faithful Sunday school teacher by the name of Edward Kimball came to the shoe store where he was working and show him how to be saved. D.L. Moody became a great evangelist, a winner of souls, and the founder of several Christian institutions that promoted the work of the gospel.
4. In the providence of the Lord, Moody was able to establish an independent local church, a home for boys, a home for girls, a printing company, and a Bible Institute.
5. a. George Mueller: established orphanages in England in the late 1800s, depending by faith on God alone to supply all needs.
b. Horatius Bonar: a pastor in Scotland in the late 1800s, an excellent writer of books and hymns.
c. Robert McCheyne: a Scottish pastor who died at age 30, but respected today for his total commitment to Christ.
d. A. W. Pink: an Englishman who was educated and pastored in the USA in the early 1900s, and has left a rich heritage of excellent scriptural studies.
e. Martin Lloyd-Jones: an English medical doctor who became a pastor, and is known today through his many excellent sermons from the mid-1900s, now republished as books.
f. William Booth: a British minister who began the Salvation Army to reach lost souls for Christ in the late 1800s. Untiring, Booth saw his movement spread world-wide.
g. Charles Spurgeon: the Baptist pastor in London in the late 1800s, who was widely read and known as the Prince of Preachers.
6. "I take every passage of Scripture and make a bee-line for the Cross."
7. Spurgeon objected to many Baptist pastors who were moving toward liberalism and away from essential evangelical doctrines, including the: infallibility of the Bible, substitutionary atonement of Christ, and certainty of final judgment of the unsaved.
8. A complete surrender to Christ at conversion proceeds to life-long daily commitment in denying self and serving Christ whole-heartedly, experiencing greater victory over sin's power.
Lesson 20 Challenges in the Twentieth Century
1. a. The challenge of immigration. As the immigrants arrived and settled in America they brought with them different religious concepts and social needs to challenge the Church.
b. The challenge of evangelism in the cities. The rapid rise of city population challenged the Church to find ways to evangelize them.
c. The challenge of affluence. Prosperity can draw the heart away from God (1 Tim. 6:10). It can also be an opportunity to do much good with new resources.
d. The challenge of criticism. Some criticism is justified. Horace Bushell reminded the Church not to forget to minister to her own young people.
e. The challenge of social concerns. The need for food, clothing, and education by millions was presented to the Church. The Church had to respond to these legitimate needs.
2. A “Continental Sabbath” allowed for worship on Sunday morning and relaxation on Sunday afternoon. This was in contrast to the traditional American “Puritan Sabbath,” whereby the whole day was given to the Lord in holy activity only.
3. The “Institutional Church” is the denominational Church that opens its doors to community social needs. The Institution Church will provide such things as a library with reading rooms, sewing rooms, gymnasium, and night school.
4. In 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee, the infamous “Scopes Monkey Trial” was held. Though John Scopes was convicted of violating the state law, in the Court of Public Opinion, it was “proven” that the evolutionary theory was superior to the concept of a Divine creation.
5. Harry Fosdick was a liberal minister who charged the Christian community with being pre-scientific. Because many Christians were embarrassed by these charges and could not answer them, there was an openness to concepts that undermined historic Christian faith. J. Gresham Machen was not intimidated with men like Harry Fosdick. Weary with liberal ministers and schools, he helped to established Westminster Theological Seminary in 1929.
6. Fundamentalism communicated to society the idea that things were so bad, America was ripe for judgment. In fact, the world itself was coming to an end. The Second Advent of Christ was imminent. On the other hand, the message was communicated that there was much work to do. America was destined by God to be the moral leader of the world. She must repent and remember her heritage.
7. 1. The Bible is free from error.
2. Christ is deity and was born of a virgin.
3. Christ died a substitutionary death at Calvary to satisfy the wrath of God against sin.
4. Christ arose from the dead on the third day.
5. Christ will come the second time for all who believe.
8. a. The Charismatic Movement: tends to emphasize an emotional experience over sound doctrine, as the measure of success in the Christian life. And some doctrines advocated by the extremes in the movement are simply false, such as the belief hat a 'second baptism of the Spirit' and speaking in tongues are both normal and necessary indications of the filling of the Spirit.
b. Dispensationalism: main elements of Dispensationalism have embraced 1). a hard distinction between the Old and New Testament relations between God and man, 2). pre-millenialism, 3). Arminianism, and 4). Sandemanianism.
1). this can lead to antinomianism
2). this can lead to an abdication of biblical responsibilities to influence society for the good.
3). this can lead to a reliance upon one's own 'free' will, rather than submission to God's will.
4). (see 'd.')
c. Antinomianism: this can lead to a false 'freedom': living in a sinful lifestyle without repentance and obedience to God's holy standards.
d. Sandemanianism: this is the belief that intellectual consent to Christ's substitutionary death will save a soul from hell. It is a direct violation of God's commands to honor Him as Lord; it opposes 'Lordship Salvation'.
e. Other extremes:
1). adding minor doctrines as requirements for unity and fellowship, leading to further fragmentation in Protestant assemblies.
2). insisting upon a 'season of morning and grieving' over sin, before one can turn to Christ. This can be threatening to believers with whom God has granted the grace to simply 'come to Him' and quickly turn from sin.
3). legalism: adding long lists of rules, as external requirements, losing biblical obedience out of a motive of love.
4). emphasis on God's sovereignty in election, to such a degree that one ignores human responsibility, and refuses to evangelize.
f. The New Age Movement: offers 'a happy and meaningful life' by refusing all absolutes and without dealing with sin.
g. Pragmatism for church growth: uses the world's ways to attract people into the church, and can lead to a diminishing of the preaching of sin and repentance, and to worldly lifestyles rather than 'being separate' from the world.
h. Christian psychology: offers solutions to emotional problems via blame and self-love, without emphasizing responsibility for sin, dying to self (Romans 6), and living life for Christ as Lord.
i. Inerrancy: disbelief in inerrancy opens the door for belief in evolution, and many other departures from a literal interpretation of scripture. Any 'belief' can be justified' because the Bible, if not inerrant, becomes unreliable.
j. The sovereignty of God: disbelief in God's sovereignty can lead many professing believers to a dependence on their own human wisdom and effort to live the Christian life, which quickly becomes not a Christ-life, but a self-life filled with anxiety and frustration at circumstances which seem 'out of control'.
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