Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography

Befus, E. (2004, August). Employee turnover: tips for attacking an enduring,

expensive property management problem. Multi–Housing News, 39, 22.
Elizabeth Befus, senior legislative analyst with the Washington, D.C.-based National Multi Housing Council, discusses the problem of employee turnover among property management professionals. She first explains the extent of the problem and goes on to give methods by which employee retention rates can be lowered. This article does not pertain to our industry exactly; however; it demonstrates the problem and means by which it can be solved within an industry where employee retention is a serious problem. Therefore, we believe it will be useful in our research.

Berta, D. (2002, September 30). Chains tap psychological profiling to trim hr turnover.

Nation’s Restaurant News, 36, 20. Retrieved October 12, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
A foodservice industry writer, Dina Berta, discusses the method of using psychological profiling to match a person’s personality with a suitable job, which has dramatically reduced management turnover. Testing, which large chains have used for years and is becoming more common in smaller businesses, helps companies determine if a person fits the organization well. Computer programs and the Internet have made the tests cheaper and faster, expediting the hiring process. Berta refers to the screening program CheckStart that can load to company computers and requires only 15 to 30 minutes to complete. The computer configures the results and provides interview questions. The article provides personal testimonies of business owners and operators who rely on psychological profiling when hiring managers. These tests are based on necessary traits and competencies that lead to success in a position. They also give the business a professional appearance. This article is an excellent source for our project because it proves the importance of matching employees with suitable positions and discusses a successful way of doing so. By placing employees in positions that suit them well, they are more likely to stay at that job, according to information provided in our other sources.

Brown, J.N., Buccini, L.D., Kremer, J.F., & Rings, S.L. (2004). I/O psychology:

psychology applied to the workplace. In, Introductory Psychology: Psychology as a Social Science (265-281). Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing.
The authors of this chapter describe various psychological techniques used in the modern workplace. First, they explain the human resource aspect pertaining to hiring and retaining employees, which include questionnaires, job analysis, training, and performance appraisals. In addition, they include studies of how motivation is important in retaining employees. Furthermore, these studies are supported by various psychological theories, which can be applied to motivating employees. The final part of the chapter deals with employee satisfaction, where the authors describe ways to maintain job satisfaction. Some important concepts include setting clear, defined goals and job promotion. In addition, different types of leadership styles are introduced, which can have a profound effect on the workplace. All of these concepts are important to our project because they have been proven by psychologists and business managers to reduce employee turnover.

Herman, R. (1997). Reducing costly employee turnover. HR Focus, 74, 15-16.

Retrieved October 12, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
While addressing the importance of employee retention, management consultant and speaker Roger Herman highlights employment trends, employer vulnerability, and approaches that will prevent employee turnover. With the economy growing, Herman states that there will be more jobs available, but quality people to fill them will be scarce. Increasing technology raises training costs because public education does not teach people enough to perform at satisfactory levels. The increasing trend of job-hopping, encouraged by society, forces employers to re-establish workforce stability. Addressing issues that employees care about, rather than offering them money, will encourage them to stay at a job. Managers should thank employees for their efforts. They should also regularly hold meetings to discuss actions to maintain a stable work environment and communicate these efforts to the employees. Managers should openly communicate with employees, asking their opinions and suggestions on policy and marketing decisions. Also, compensating employees based on performance will encourage goal achievement. All of these approaches will be useful in answering our research question. Herman confirms that employee turnover is a problem for businesses other than AACOA, Inc., and provides approaches that correlate with ones suggested by our other sources.

Kaye, B. & Sreb, S. (2003). Quick quits stem the turnover tide. Executive Excellence, 17.

Retrieved October 12, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Re-recruiting employees after hiring them is critical, according to authors Beverly Kaye, president of Career Systems, and Steven Sreb, a senior consultant with Career Systems. Relationships between new hires and managers are important in retaining employees. Kaye and Sreb provide six areas that managers should focus on when conversing with new employees. First, they suggest forming a relationship of trust, making the employee feel valued and cared for. Managers also need to find ways for employees to use their skills and talents to work in areas that interest them. They should create a challenging work environment, giving employees opportunities to learn and grow. Making employees aware of the business’s mission or focus will also benefit the company and employee by making the employees aware of how they can make contributions. The managers should also consider the employees whole lives, including their families, friends, health, and finances. Finally, managers need to help new employees see their progress. By doing these things, the managers benefit the business by improving retention rates and reducing recruiting costs. This information will be very useful in discussing the importance of creating an employee centered work environment. We can also use some of this information to discuss the benefits of matching employees to proper positions.

McCabe, C. (2004). Motivating and retaining employees. Retrieved October 15, 2004,

Charles McCabe, a veteran of a 34-year tax industry executive career, teaches small business management at Virginia University. He discusses what types of practices businesses should use to help facilitate the retention of employees. He outlines several goals managers should strive for when hiring and employing individuals. These areas include: training, work atmosphere, compensation and benefits, and communication. He focuses on employee retention from the managerial standpoint. This article will be helpful because it provides methods that managers can use to retain employees, which coincides with information presented in some of our other sources.

McCuan, J. (2004, April). Guard your exits. INC. Magazine, 44-46. Retrieved October

12, 2004 from Academic Search Elite database.
Jess McCuan discusses providing simple rewards at work and being involved in employees’ home lives in order to create a better work environment stimulating employee happiness. His ideas include sending congratulatory emails to employees who are excelling, also holding informal gatherings to celebrate company accomplishments and employee performances. Barry Goss, technology manager in San Francisco, offers extensive benefit packages and encourages employee promotions within the company, instead of hiring outsiders to fill the position. He refers to this as “internal mobility,” a way to keep employees happy, challenged, and interested. McCuan also comments on a New Jersey consulting firm that keeps their employees happy by making sure that the employees’ home lives are satisfactory. The firm sends flowers to employees’ homes, will sometimes send a cleaning service, or give the employees time off. Using the facts and ideas presented in this article, we will be able to further develop strategies to help AACOA, Inc. find ways to retain and motivate employees.

Phifer, C.B. (1978). How a small manufacturing plant dealt with a high employee

turnover rate. Industrial Management, 20, 25-29. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from Academic Search Elite database.
Carol Phifer, student in the Graduate School of Business, De Paul University, developed a case study on employee turnover in a small manufacturing plant. She personally visits this plant and studies the tactics used by the management to combat extremely high turnover rates. First, she explains the first step the business used to deal with the problem, which was having all the employees take a survey consisting of complaints against the company. The most significant findings were lack of training, lack of feedback from management, and aggressive management. To correct the things employees were concerned about, the management decided to implement a five-step process. This process included training programs, training positions, better methods of measuring quality and quantity of production, organizing a system of feedback, and consistent supervisor conferences. The main goal was to increase employee satisfaction, which in turn would decrease employee turnover. This article is important to the project because the business we are trying to help is faced with the same problem as the business in this article. In addition, both of these businesses are manufacturing plants, which means the solutions discussed in this article will be very helpful.

Ramlall, S. (2004). A Review of employee motivation theories and their

implications for employee retention within organizations. Journal of American

Academy of Business, 5, 52-63. Retrieved October 12, 2004 from Academic Search Elite database.

Doctor Sunil Ramlall, with a Ph.D. in Human Resource Development, discusses motivational theories in organizations. He states that regardless of a business’s size or level of technology, employee retention is a major problem. To solve this problem, Ramlall explains, businesses must retain efficient employees to aid the inexperienced new hires. Moreover, efficient employees can be used to apply and critique various motivational theories. However, the theories must be valid in practice and source. Therefore, Ramlall suggests theories from well-known and respected psychologists. Although some of the theories sound very complicated, they are actually quite simple and apply to the most basic of human needs. For example, according to Maslow’s theory, workers must have their biological needs met before psychological and esteem needs can be assessed. There are a few others, which all deal with different aspects of the workplace. These aspects, including equality, job design, and an employees’ assessment of salary, are all factors that contribute to motivation. This article is important to the project because it describes in depth motivational techniques. In addition, the article contains psychological solutions to employee turnover that have not been used by AACOA, Inc.

Roth, P. G. & Roth, P. L. (1995). Reduce turnover with realistic job previews. CPA

Journal, 65, 68-69. Retrieved October 12, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Journal authors Patricia G. and Philip L. Roth offer realistic job previews as a technique for reducing employee turnover. Realistic job previews (RPJ’s) inform potential employees about perks and drawbacks of a job, providing them with a realistic job description. They might realize the job is not for them, which will reduce turnover. The RPJ can also give potential employees advance warning about job demands, which will help them cope with them in the future. To develop and implement a RPJ, the business needs to gather information from current employees through small interviews. They must then decide what information to include in the RPJ, some descriptive and some judgmental. The presentation form of the RPJ can be a brochure, videotape, or a face-to-face discussion. Upon completion of the RPJ, the business should present it to potential employees prior to the interview and job offer; therefore, there are no feelings of commitment or obligation. This method, in conjunction with source information suggesting implementing better training programs, will help us discuss the importance of properly preparing employees for jobs, which will reduce the likelihood of them leaving the position before the company is able to benefit from them.

Sexter, K. (2002, August) Retaining employees: a modern manager’s accountability.

Expert Magazine. Retrieved October 15, 2004, from
Kristine Sexter, columnist, keynote speaker, and leadership performance coach, discusses the importance of employee retention and states that managers are accountable for it in the modern business world. She gives helpful statistics that give a clearer idea of why individuals leave jobs. She then gives several sample survey questions to use as a reference to help reduce employee turnover. As an article addressed directly to managers in today’s world, it gives important insight, which will be helpful to our research project.

Workers turnover can be controlled (2004, April). USA Today Magazine, 122, 5.

Retrieved October 12, 2004, from Academic Search Elite database.
This USA Today article discusses how companies see turnover rates as staggering figures that cannot be avoided, as they getting out of control. It suggests that companies adapt certain behaviors to avoid high rates of turnover. Dan Dalton of Indiana University suggests that companies should have fairly liberal attendance and sick policies so that employees are not threatened by reprimands. These suggestions are based on the facts that employees can still be productive when coping with problems outside of the work area. Aside from more lenient attendance policies, the article also suggests that companies allow employees to transfer easily from department to department or location to location to create a happier employee who is more likely to stay with the company. This article demonstrates a few methods to preventing employee turnover and will be a vital source in explaining how rewarding and promoting employees positively affects the company.

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