Engle, Joe, Major General. Interview by author. May 7, 2013.
Major General Engle was a NASA astronaut from 1966 to 1986. He participated in the Challenger disaster investigation and served on the task force with Apollo astronaut General Tom Stafford to help establish U. S. – Russian cooperation for the Shuttle Mir Program. Although he retired in 1986, General Engle still serves as a consultant to NASA and agreed to speak to me on the phone. This interview was extremely helpful because he worked at NASA during the Apollo-Soyuz mission and explained that cooperation had been difficult because of the secrecy that surrounded all of the Soviet activities. He also said that the Shuttle-Mir project was the complete opposite because the Russian Space Agency had been very open with Americans. When General Stafford had worked with the Soviets during the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, the Soviets had driven him around for three hours before taking him to Mission Control so he would not know where it was. During the Shuttle Mir cooperation, they learned that Mission Control was just down the hall from where they had been meeting. I used this information to show the reversal of attitude that occurred between the two missions.
Kranz, Eugene. Interview by author. March 24, 2013.
Eugene Kranz joined NASA in 1960, becoming chief of the Flight Control Operations Branch in 1963. Kranz served as Gemini flight director from 1964-68. He was also the flight director for Apollo and Skylab mission, the most memorable of which include Apollo 11 and 13. In 1974 Kranz was elevated to deputy director of Flight Operations. In 1983 he was promoted to director of Mission Operations until his retirement in 1994. Kranz provided me with some more examples of Soviet-American cooperation, such as the recovery of Apollo 13 when Soviets helped ensure that the Indian Ocean was cleared for their safe landing. He spoke about medical research in space and labeled NASA a “tool” that the government used for diplomacy.
Leonov, Alexey, General. [firstname.lastname@example.org] Email interview by author. May 8, 2013.
Natalya Stenko is Alexey Leonov’s secretary and speaks very good English. General Stafford gave me her information and allowed me to say that he had recommended that I contact her to arrange an interview via email with General Leonov. Through her, I was able to ask General Leonov questions about his experience on the Apollo-Soyuz mission and the impact it had on the Soviet Union. Until this mission, General Leonov had the opinion that all Americans were terrible people, but after he met the American astronauts, his opinion of America began to change. He felt that was true to a degree of the Soviet population, too. He has remained a close friend of General Stafford’s, even helping him adopt two Russian boys who are now American citizens. During the three years that he trained with Americans, the Soviets were very wary of American motives and kept much of their information secret. The mission’s greatest accomplishment was that it showed that America and the Soviet Union could work together even though their political ideologies were very different. He helped me understand the Russian perspective of the Apollo-Soyuz mission.
Mark, Hans, Ph.D. Interview by author. March 18, 2013.
In a telephone interview with Dr. Mark on March 18, 2013 he revealed that in February 1969, he was Director of NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, where he managed the center's research and applications efforts in aeronautics, space science, life science and space technology. In July 1981, he was Deputy Administrator of NASA. He explained that the real objective of the Apollo-Soyuz program was the “handshake in space” conceived by Henry Kissinger. The handshake symbolized the Nixon administration’s foreign policy of détente with the Russians. He felt that even though the mission did not have any far-reaching technical impact, its symbolic impact ultimately persuaded the Reagan administration to move forward with the space station. I used this information to show the importance of the Apollo-Soyuz mission.
Shireman, Kirk. Interview by author. March 11, 2013.
In a telephone interview with Kirk Shireman on March 11, 2013, he revealed that he is currently NASA's deputy station program manager for the International Space Station. He says that October 31, 2000, may become one of the most important dates in history. That day a Russian Soyuz spacecraft blasted into orbit with one American and two Russian cosmonauts on board, and since then at least three people have stayed in orbit around Earth. He explained that The ISS employs thousands of scientists and engineers from the world's major space agencies. The most difficult part in the beginning was overcoming numerous language barriers and deciding on a system of units to use. He believes that the ISS is the platform from which humans will take their next steps into the solar system. I used this information to explain the importance of the International Space Station as a global collaboration for the advancement of mankind.
Stafford, Tom, Lt. Gen. USAF (Ret.). Interview by author. May 7, 2013.
General Stafford was Apollo commander on the Apollo-Soyuz mission. He was the astronaut who shook hands in space with Soviet cosmonaut Alexey Leonov. This interview was my most helpful source because General Stafford was able to explain how the Apollo-Soyuz mission was a turning point in history, beyond the symbolic gesture of the hand shake. He said this mission laid the ground work for all subsequent joint missions because all later missions followed the same format and protocol. He also said that this mission had an impact on the Russian people who were able to see him and the other two astronauts as real people while they were training there. Pravda, the Soviet newspaper, always had cartoons about how bad Americans were, and this mission helped to improve the Russians’ opinions of us. He feels that the recent funding cuts to NASA will not only affect future missions but will also tarnish our world image as a superpower in space. The International Space Station is already providing the world with knowledge and advancements in science, technology, the environment, and other areas, but he thinks it will take decades to know its full impact on mankind and the earth. I used this information to reinforce my thesis that the hand shake in space was a turning point in history because of the détente it established between the two Cold War rivals.
Khrushchev, Sergie. Interview by Saswato R. Das. July 17, 2009. Transcript in “The Moon
Landing Through Soviet Eyes: a Q&A with Sergei Khrushchev, son of former Premier Nikita Khrushchev.” http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=apollo-moon-khrushchev&page=2 (accessed December 14, 2012).
On the 40th Anniversary of Apollo 11, Saswato R. Das interviewed Sergei Khrushchev to get the Russian perspective of the moon landing. His father, Nikita Khrushchev, had been president of the Soviet Union at the time. He described how Russia tried to deemphasize the moon landing and described the disorganization of the Soviet Space Program. This interview provided me with Russian perspective of a major turning point in the U.S. – Soviet space race. When Apollo 11 landed a man on the moon, it became a symbol of the end of the space race and America’s victory. This interview helped me understand how Soviets justified their defeat.
Ponomavera, Valentina. Interview by Slava Gerovitch. Moscow, May 17, 2002. http://web.mit.
edu/slava/space/interview/interview-ponomareva.htm (accessed December 14, 2012).
Gerovitch interviewed Valentina Ponomareva about her experience in the Soviet Space Program. Dr. Ponomavera is the head of the Russian History of Aviation and Cosmonautics Section of the Institute for the History of Natural Science and Technology. In March 1962, she became a member of one of the first women’s groups of cosmonauts that included Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space. Ponomavera never reached space, but her experience gave me insight on how the Soviet Space Program operated and who its members were. This information helped me understand the Russian perspective of the space race.
Chertok, Boris. Rockets and People: Creating a Rocket Industry, Vol. II. Ed. Asif Siddiqi.
Washington, DC: NASA SP-2006-4110, 2006.
Boris Chertok was one of the senior designers of the craft that launched Gagarin into space. Until his information was declassified, his name was never mentioned, but he worked for the Soviet space agency for over sixty years. This book is part of an official NASA history series and begins with the development of the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). It covers the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon, Mars, and Venus probes. He discussed the failures, technical problems, and governmental struggles that occurred in the Soviet Union at the beginning of the space race. He also explained that the Soviet program was part of their military, so all of their information was top secret. That is why his name was never released. Information from this book helped me understand the Soviet perspective of Sputnik’s success, the problems their space agency faced as the space race continued, and the military nature of their programs.
- - - . Rockets and People: Hot Days of the Cold War, Vol. III. Ed. Asif Siddiqi.
Washington, DC: NASA SP-2009-4110, 2009.
In this book, Chertok discussed the Soviet Union’s early bomb tests as a way to even the playing field with America in the area of nuclear weapons. Chertok revealed that early in the Cold War, Soviet scientists were trying to design a shield that would protect Moscow from nuclear attack. He also said that the Soviets blamed Truman for beginning the Cold War. I used this information to discuss the Soviet perspective of early Cold War preparations.
James, Robert Rhodes, ed. Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches 1897-1963 Volume
VII: 1943-1949. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1974.
This book contained all of the speeches made by Winston Churchill. I used the one he
gave at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri on March 5, 1946, which many people refer to as his “Iron Curtain Speech” because in it he says that an “iron curtain lies across Europe.” I used this in my introduction to document who created the phrase Iron Curtain.
Khrushchev, Sergei. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Statesman 1953 – 1964. University Park,
PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007.
In his memoirs, Nikita Khrushchev speaks about his role in the Soviet Union at the end of World War II and during the Caribbean Conflict – the U. S. called it the Cuban Missile Crisis. I was able to use several quotes from Khrushchev to give the Soviet point of view on events that occurred during the Cold War.
Mark, Hans. The Space Station: A Personal Journey. Durham: Duke University Press, 1987.
Dr. Mark was the Deputy Administrator of NASA from July 1981 –September 1984. His book covers the events that occurred during the Carter and Reagan administrations, particularly the development of the space shuttle program and President Reagan’s support of the space station. I used information about both administrations to discuss their impact on the space program after the Apollo-Soyuz mission.
Kennedy, John F. Inaugural Address. Washington, D.C., January 20, 1961. John F. Kennedy
Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/BqXIEM 9F4024nt Fl7SVAjA.aspx?gclid=CLmKs5DXmLUCFYGpPAodym8AJg (accessed December 15, 2012).
This speech is President John Kennedy’s inaugural address to the nation in 1961. I used
information from this speech to show that he reached out to the Soviet Union by saying America and the Soviets could “explore the stars” together.
- - -. “Speech Regarding the Race to the Moon.” Rice University Stadium, Houston, Texas,
September 12, 1962. http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/jfk-space.htm (accessed December 14, 2012).
In his speech given at Rice Stadium in 1962, President John F. Kennedy challenges the United States to place a man on the moon before the decade is out. He defined the race between America and the Soviet Union without mentioning the Soviets by name. President Kennedy described American astronauts as explorers and their competitors as conquerors. This speech helped me understand that tension between the U. S. and the Soviet Union created the Cold War. This speech showed how President Kennedy roused the American people to support his goals in the space race.
- - - . Speech to a Joint Session of Congress, May 25, 1961. www.space.com/11772-president-kennedy-historic-speech-moon-space.html. (accessed December 6, 2012)
In his speech to the Joint Session of Congress, Kennedy states that he wants America to put a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s and asks them to approve the money to achieve that goal. He felt that such an achievement would prove to the world what free people could do and that achievement would help democracy triumph over communism in the world view. I used this to show Kennedy’s commitment to NASA and the space program, which had not been as strong in Eisenhower’s administration. This speech was a major turning point for the American space program.
Act of July 29, 1958 (National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958), Public Law 85-568, 72
STAT 426, (ARC Identifier: 299868); Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 - 1996; General Records of the United States Government, 1778 - 1992; Record Group 11; National Archives and Records Administration--Southwest Region (Fort Worth, TX).
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=729. (accessed December 13, 2012).
This act, which provided for research into the problems of flight within and outside the earth’s atmosphere, founded the National Aeronautics and Space Agency. This helped me understand the beginning goals established for NASA.
Dr. Glennan to President Eisenhower Regarding Budget Matters, October 20, 1958.
(DDE’s Papers as President, Administration Series, Box 15, Dr. Keith Glennan-NASA).
Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.eisenhower. archives.gov/research/onlinedocuments/nasa.html (accessed December 13, 2012).
In this letter, Dr. Glennan states that in order to compete with the Soviets, the government
will have to increase its levels of funding. He also wants to give NASA the management responsibility for the space vehicle development field so they can carry out a rigorous program of research and development on payloads. I was surprised that he said the program would cost over one billion dollars per year to accomplish its goals. This letter helped me understand how expensive the initial space program was and why some groups objected to spending money on space instead of fixing problems that existed in America.
Dr. Glennan to President Eisenhower Regarding Proposal to the Soviet Union, Relating to
Cooperation in Space Research, September 8, 1959. [DDE’s Papers as President, Administration Series, Box 15, Dr. Keith Glennan-NASA].Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/ online_documents/nasa.html (accessed on December 13, 2012).
In this letter, Dr. Glennan proposes to the President that the U.S. have a joint space
project with the Soviets. On one side, he feels that such a project would lessen world tension and present an opportunity for participation by other nations. It might also lay the groundwork for international space exploration. Even though U. S. allies might object, and commitments to a joint program might lead to a distortion of our own planned programs, he feels like a dialogue on the issue should occur. This helped me understand that even in the early years of NASA, the U.S. could see the benefit of cooperating with other nations in the interest of scientific research.
Maurice Stans to President Eisenhower Regarding H. R. 12575, the National Aeronautics
and Space Act, July 26, 1958. (White House Office: Records Officer Reports to Present on Pending Legislation, Box 124, July 29, 1958 HR 12575). Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/online _documents/nasa.html (accessed December 13, 2012).
In this letter, Maurice Stans, Director of the Bureau of the Budget, discusses H.R. 12575,
the bill that created NASA. The national Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is the center for the new agency and the new agency’s administrator is responsible to the President alone. It also explains that the national policy for this agency is to “direct space activities to peaceful purposes.” This letter helped me understand how NASA was organized. I used this information to explain that NASA’s primary purpose was for peaceful space exploration.
Khrushchev to Fidel Castro, October 28, 1962, The National Security Archive, The George
Washington University, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/ 1962102 8caslet.pdf (accessed January 5, 2013).
This letter is a declassified document sent during the Cuban Missile Crisis in which
Khrushchev informed Fidel Castro that President Kennedy had agreed to not invade Cuba with his own force or allow his allies to invade if the Soviets left Cuba. I used this information to show the compromise Kennedy made in order to conclude the crisis peacefully.
Khrushchev to John F. Kennedy, February 21, 1962, as printed in U.S. Congress, Senate,
Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Documents on International Aspects of the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, 1954-1962, 88th Cong., 1st sess., 1963, 232.
After John Glenn’s successful earth orbit, Khrushchev wrote to President Kennedy and
suggested for the first time that Soviets and Americans should pool “their efforts - scientific, technical, and material - to master the universe.” He thought the partnership would be “beneficial for the advance of science and … benefit man and not be used for "cold war" purposes and the arms race.” This letter helped me understand that Khrushchev decided to offer a partnership after John Glenn’s flight, possibly because he saw the American space program going beyond what the Soviets had accomplished. I used parts of his letter to show the first attempt by Soviets to cooperate with America in space.
President Eisenhower to Nikita Khrushchev. April 8, 1958. In Gerhard Peters and John T.
Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ ws/?pid=11342 (accessed January 12, 2013). In this letter President Eisenhower addresses the issue that the Soviet Union has been
unwilling to accept his Atoms for Peace proposal, but explains that they have other ways to promote peace. Then he refers to a proposal made to Khrushchev and Chairman Bulganin at the United Nations in 1955 proposing and Open Skies policy and another proposal made to Chairman Bulganin in a recent letter. Eisenhower wants to establish the international use of outer space for peaceful purposes and says he is waiting for the Soviets to accept. This letter helped me understand that President Eisenhower made numerous attempts to reach out to the Soviet Union to promote peace in space research, but the Soviets were unresponsive. I used this information to show the lack of cooperation between Soviets and America during Eisenhower’s administration.
President Kennedy to Nikita Khrushchev, March 7, 1962. (Papers of John F. Kennedy, Series 9,
President’s Office Files, #JFKPOF-126-015). John F. Kennedy Library and Museum. http://www.jfklibrary.org/ Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKPOF-126-015.aspx (accessed December 30, 2012).
In this letter to Khrushchev, President Kennedy proposed several opportunities for American
and Soviet space agencies to cooperate, such as early operational weather satellite systems and radio tracking stations. He felt that cooperation would advance research in the field of earth science and experimental communications by satellite. I used this information to explain that President Kennedy was reaching out to the Soviets to get them to participate in joint projects in space.
Memorandum of Conference with the President, Dr. Killian, et al, March 5, 1958. (DDE’s
Papers as President, DDE Diary Series, Box 31, Staff Notes March 1958 (2). Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/ research/online_documents/nasa.html (accessed December 13, 2012).
This memorandum covers the organization for the conduct of civil space programs. Dr.
Killian noted that Science Advisory committee recommended to the President that the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) be used as the nucleus for a civilian space agency. From this memorandum, I learned that President Eisenhower felt strongly that the space program for discovery and research should be scientific, not military. Dr. Killian said that the Department of Defense should make missile test facilities available to NASA, but that NASA should call the shots in all space related activities. I used this information to discuss the consolidation of programs and existing government facilities.
Memorandum of Conference with President Eisenhower after Sputnik, October 8, 1957.
National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/global-pages/largerimage.html?i=/education /lessons/sputnik-memo/images/memo-page-1-l.gif&c=/education/lessons/sputnik-memo/ images/memo-page-1.caption.html (accessed December 13, 2012).
This memorandum discussed the issues between the Army and the Navy in the production of an Earth satellite. The Army claimed to be able to erect a satellite in four months while Vanguard would take five. I used this article to discuss the difficulties the United States had early on in the Space Race.
Memorandum for Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Regarding Coordination of Satellite and
Space Vehicle Operation, July 24, 1959. (DDE’s Records as President, Confidential File, Box 44, NASA (7). Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/online_documents/nasa.html (accessed December 13, 2012).
This memorandum proposes a plan calling for the eventual transfer of the space program
to the military, a plan that opposes the original intent in establishing NASA. What helped me the most was the hand written note, signed by President Eisenhower, that states that this proposal is “going in the wrong direction.” I used this information to show that there are conflicting ideas about who should control the space program.
Memorandum for Dr. Kistiakowsky on 1961 Estimates, November 14, 1959. (DDE’s Records as
President, Confidential File, Box 44, NASA (7). Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/online_documents/ nasa.html (accessed December 13, 2012).
This memorandum argues that NASA requires more funding than the BOB
recommendations if they are going to have adequate growth during the second year of a major national effort. Basically, the memo says that if the U. S. is serious in its space race initiative, NASA will need a 70% increase in funding. This helped me understand that funding was a big issue in meeting space objectives. In 1961, the government needed to decide just how committed it was going to be to this program.